# Calculation of the cross section of the arc with the minimum weight of the construction

UDC 624.014

V. Shebanin, V. Bogza, S. Bogdanov, I. Hilko

The paper shows the main approaches to the calculation method of cross-sections of the structural element of the arch that meets the condition of reliability and the corresponding the minimum weight of the arch structure. The calculation is performed in the design of optimal arch designs, which is designing the structure so that all cross sections of the structural element of the arch of reliability was given, and the weight of the arch structure was the minimum possible.
The use of light arches with a given reliability saves metal and reducing the cost of the design and determines the prospects of applying such structures in buildings and agricultural buildings.

Key words: Cross-section of the arch, the cross-sectional area of the arch, the length of the cross section of the arch, a structural element of the arch, the margin of safety, reliability and durability of the steel structure, the stability of the metal framework, independent of the random variable.

Calculation of the cross section of the arc with the minimum weight of the construction

# The technology of cultivation and evaluation of boars according to their own fertility іn the SGPP “TEKHMET-UG” in Mykolaiv region

UDC 636.082:338.43

S.Galimov , candidate of agricultural sciences, associate professor,
Mykolayiv national Agricultural University

The article analyzes the technology of cultivation of breeding boars in the conditions of private agricultural enterprise “Techmet-Ug”, based in Mykolayiv region. To raise repair boars, a separate room is set up, meeting all the requirements on the technology of housing, feeding and further training on the Scarecrow. The analysis of breeding boars and their fertility examined the following parameters: rate of growth (days), average daily gain (g), feed costs per 1 kg of gain (feed.ed.), in vivo backfat thickness (mm) and body length (cm).
Analyzed on their own performance, were about 137 breeding boars, including 39 heads of Landrace, 74 head pietrain, 16 heads of large white breed and 8 designated crossbred boars.
It was found that for high performance on precocity (early maturaion)found in crossbred boars, they reached a live weight of 100 kg 21.3 days earlier than boars of the large white breed (P<0.01), and 4.5 to 7.5 days earlier than the analogous breeds Pietrain and Landrace, here the difference is statistically insignificant. Analysis of the results of the control of growing boars showed that with the exception of the length of the body, all signs of productivity are characterized by high variability and have a large range: it happens that the greatest value of a characteristic of 2.0 to 2.5 times higher than the minimum values (average daily gain, feed costs, backfat thickness). From the crossbred boars at 7 months of age, best sperm production was distinguished by precocious during the period from 7 to 12 months late-maturing hog. Consistently for all estimates, regardless of the amount of ejaculate, only in the Landrace breed is the best, sperm production was characterized by boars with high growth rate. The study established that the rate of sperm production showed differences depending on the breed and age of boar. High growth rate is not always matched with the best indicators of the quality and quantity of sperm obtained, and vice versa.

Key words: pigs, boars-producers, artificial insemination, control growth, sperm production ejaculate.

The technology of cultivation and evaluation of boars according to their own fertility іn the SGPP “TEKHMET-UG” in Mykolaiv region

# Dependence of reproduction quality of pig population on the season of the year

UDC 636.4.082

A. Starodubets,
A. Bondar

The results of researches of influence of the season on the reproduction quality of pig population are given. The differences of sows reproductive internals indexes in different seasons during five years are determined, the best months of the year according to the indexes of impregnation and polycarpousness of sows are revealed. It is marked that insemination in May and farrows in August and September allows to get the maximal indexes of the productivity.

Key words: season of the year, sow, reproduction, general number of piglings, polycarpousness.

Dependence of reproduction quality of pig population on the season of the year

# Using efficient technological solutions for feeding pigs in farming conditions

UDC 636.4.084

Yu. Dekhtiar,
Y. Barkar,
I. Galushko

One of the ways to provide the population with pork production is the development of farms occupied with the pig breeding.
Therefore, the aim of our research was to find and implement efficient technological solutions for feeding pigs in farming conditions.
There are several ways to organize a full-fledged feeding of pigs in farming conditions. The first stage is the use of ready-made purchased complete mixed fodders, provided with all necessary nutrients. The advantage of using ready-made mixed fodders is that the farm does not need manufacturing equipment for preliminary preparation of mixed fodders before feeding and for mixing components, it is not necessary to purchase feed additives, to control the quality of mixing components, to spend time searching for components of mixed fodders and to control their quality, and it is also not necessary to carry out difficult calculations to optimize the nutritional value of mixed fodders. The essential disadvantage of using purchased ready-mixed fodders is their high prices, which determine the level of profitability of the pig industry in the range of 17-29%.
The second option is the use in the feeding of pigs of mixed fodders of own production in the manufacturing of which cereal crops – wheat, corn, barley and protein-vitamin-mineral additives – are used. At this stage it is necessary to use equipment for preliminary preparation of mixes fodders and mixture, and to provide quality control of these operations. In addition, it is necessary to control the quality of purchased cereal crops. Using this technology, it is possible to obtain profitability of pork production in the range of 21-35%.
The third technological solution for feeding pigs is its own production of mixed fodders in the manufacturing of which premixes, grain cereals are used, and for balancing the protein oil cakes and sunflower meal are used. A technological feature of this solution is the control of preliminary preparation of mixed fodders, mixture, and the quality checking of oil cakes and sunflower meal for the presence of protein and cellulose. In addition, it is necessary to control the soybean cake and meal for the activity of the urease enzyme.
The use of this technology allows obtaining profitability of pork production in the range of 39-51%.
The obtained results give us an opportunity to assert that the most economically profitable is the technology of feeding pigs with mixed fodders of own production in the manufacturing of which purchased premixes, cereal crops and protein components are used, on condition that the quality of feed stock, as well as the technological processes and operations in the production of mixed fodders are controlled.

Key words: mixed feed, technology, own production, protein-mineral-vitamin supplement, premix, profitability.

Using efficient technological solutions for feeding pigs in farming conditions

# Evaluation of flow-shop system of milk production

UDC 623.2.034.083

T. V. Pidpala,
U. S. Matashnuk

The result of the analysis by the technological cards and sequence movement is established that cows are distributed into the technological groups by physiologically technological periods and placed in appropriate shops: the cows which had the calf, milking and artificial insemination, production of milk, persistent to moister cows.
It is established that cows of the experimental group have advantages by the level of milk productivity. For the same duration of lactation period it was received from them for 907 kg (P>0,999) more milk in the first lactation period than from animals of the controlled group. At the same time, the firstborn of the experimental group is dominated by the amount of milk fat and milk protein. The difference compared to peers in the controlled group was 32.6 kg (P>0,999) and 27.4 kg (P>0,999). Cows of the experimental group are characterized by the more stable lactation curve compared to the animals of the research group.
It was found that the cows which gave birth at first in the experimental group showed up the highest daily milk production in the third month of lactation (42.8 kg) and after moving these cows to a milk production department, its amount began to decrease quickly. We see a different tendency in the animals of the experimental group. The extended period of their staying in the shop of the first milking and insemination helps to maximize the productivity of dairy cattle of the Holstein breed. They showed up the highest daily milk production in the fourth month of lactation (43.5 kg) and their milk amount gradually decreases, which led to a high level of milk production.
The results of the study proved that distributing of cows by physiological status into technology groups and keeping them in their relevant departments according to the flow-shop system allows unifying the operating conditions of dairy cattle according to their biological needs. It was established that the duration of staying cows in the shop of the first milking and insemination up to 180-200 lactation days helps to maintain a high level of milk productivity in animals and to increase total production.

Key words: technology, flow-shop system, cows, production, lactation, lactation curve.

Evaluation of flow-shop system of milk production

# Economic efficiency of pedigree pig breeding South of Ukraine

UDC 636.082:338.43

O. Vyshnevska,
V. Melnyk,
O. Kravchenko

In this research work the theoretical and practical problems of increasing of the economic efficiency of pig breeding and its impact on pork production on the farms of the Southern region of Ukraine are researched. The results of breeding farms activity, the dynamics of their production and economic indicators are analized the patterns of formation of pig breeding economic efficiency and factors that influence its level are studied. Proposals of the main directions of pig production, the need to further improve ment of selection and breeding work, its organization and improvement of the economic efficiency of pork production on the farms of all types of propertyare substantiated.

Key words: pork production, breeding, breeding economy, efficiency, cost price, price, profit, profitability, breeding sows, breeding boar.

Economic efficiency of pedigree pig breeding South of Ukraine

# Efficiency of growth-regulating chemicals and biological drugs against Alternaria Solani and Phytophthora infestans of potato

UDC 632.9:633.49

S. Fedorchuk

The article is devoted to studying the efficiency of growth-regulating chemicals and biological fungi-cidal agents against early blight and late blight of potato. It was established that usage of growth-regulating chemicals decreases evolution of pathogenic agents on breeds with different tolerance to early blight by 8,3 – 47,0%, to late blight by 3,0 – 55,7%; using agrochemicals – by 6,5 – 23,0% for early blight and 1,5 – 25,3% for late blight; biological preparations – by 7,7 – 35,1% for early blight and 3,5 – 33,5% for late blight. On the basis of the completed study it was revealed that the most effi-cient agrochemicals were Akrobat MTs, Antrakol 70 WP; while among biological preparations it was Fitosporyn-M, and among growth-regulating chemicals it was Gumisol.

Key words: early blight, late blight, evolution, potato, breed, growth-regulating chemicals, fungicidal agents, biological preparations.

Efficiency of growth-regulating chemicals and biological drugs against Alternaria Solani and Phytophthora infestans of potato

# The absorption and utilization of solar energy by soybean crops under different growing conditions

UDC 551.521.37:633.34:631.5:631.67

V. Netis,
L. Onufran

The absorption and utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by soybean sowing greatly depends on the variety, nutrition background and sowing rate that gives the possibility to adjust their sizes. Absorption of PAR is closely dependent on the density of sowing and of a leaf area – r = 0,86-0,94. The maximum absorption of PAR by soybean crops is 82-83% and is reached at a leaf area 44-50 thousand m2/ha, and increasing it does not increase the absorption coefficient. A significant part of PAR is reflected from the plantings (11,0-14,8%), takes place to the soil (4,2-24,8%) and is not used by plants. The best conditions for the absorption of solar energy by the crops soybean varieties Aratta and Sofia were at the seeding rate of 600 thousand/ha and of seed inoculation.
2,50-3,72% from PAR that comes on sowing was used on forming of soybean yield. More effectively solar energy was used by sowings of the varieties Sofia – 2,91-3,72%, an the varieties Aratta – 2,50-2,92%. Inoculation and mineral fertilizers in the dose of N30P40 increased the absorption of solar energy of both varieties. The higher dose of nitrogen fertilizer is not effective. Soybean most efficiently uses solar energy on sowing with the seeding rate of 600 thousand seeds per 1 ha and at the nutrition background N30P40 + inoculation of seed. Between the size of the coefficient of use of PAR and soybean yields there is a close positive relationship – r = 0,965. To obtain high soybean yields it is important to establish such plantings which would absorb and use solar energy maximum.

Key words: soybean, solar energy, variety, sowing rates, nutrition background.

The absorption and utilization of solar energy by soybean crops under different growing conditions

# The absorption and utilization of solar energy by soybean crops under different growing conditions

UDC 551.521.37:633.34:631.5:631.67

V. Netis,
L. Onufran

The absorption and utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) by soybean sowing greatly depends on the variety, nutrition background and sowing rate that gives the possibility to adjust their sizes. Absorption of PAR is closely dependent on the density of sowing and of a leaf area – r = 0,86-0,94. The maximum absorption of PAR by soybean crops is 82-83% and is reached at a leaf area 44-50 thousand m2/ha, and increasing it does not increase the absorption coefficient. A significant part of PAR is reflected from the plantings (11,0-14,8%), takes place to the soil (4,2-24,8%) and is not used by plants. The best conditions for the absorption of solar energy by the crops soybean varieties Aratta and Sofia were at the seeding rate of 600 thousand/ha and of seed inoculation.
2,50-3,72% from PAR that comes on sowing was used on forming of soybean yield. More effectively solar energy was used by sowings of the varieties Sofia – 2,91-3,72%, an the varieties Aratta – 2,50-2,92%. Inoculation and mineral fertilizers in the dose of N30P40 increased the absorption of solar energy of both varieties. The higher dose of nitrogen fertilizer is not effective. Soybean most efficiently uses solar energy on sowing with the seeding rate of 600 thousand seeds per 1 ha and at the nutrition background N30P40 + inoculation of seed. Between the size of the coefficient of use of PAR and soybean yields there is a close positive relationship – r = 0,965. To obtain high soybean yields it is important to establish such plantings which would absorb and use solar energy maximum.

Key words: basil, seeds, sowing terms, biomass, leaf area, pigment complex, net photosynthetic productivity.

The absorption and utilization of solar energy by soybean crops under different growing conditions

# Influence of sowing terms on photosynthetic activity of basil in the conditions of the greenhouses

UDC 57.018.5:634.11:631.811.98:664.8.03

Priss О. P. – Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor
Burdina I. А. – PhD student
Tavria state agrotechnological university

With the expansion of the range and appearance in the production of new species and varieties of valuable and rare greens, especially aromatic, establishment of their optimal parameters of basic agricultural practices of cultivation now has special practical importance. Growing greens in greenhouse conditions solves the problem of seasonal consumption and range, so the improved growing technology of green vegetable crops in greenhouses conditions is so important.
The influence of different seed sowing terms of five basil varieties on plant productivity, their accumulation of solids, leaf surface area and its pigment complex under conditions of greenhouses with industrial heating are studied in the article.
It was determined that netphotosynthetic productivity(NPP) of basil was influenced more by the factor of the variety: 93.5%. According to photosynthetic activity, the varieties Siaivo and Rutan were distinguished, the NPP of those was higher than of Bad`oryi control variety by 1.5 to 2.0 times, according to the studied varieties.

Key words: basil, seeds, sowing terms, biomass, leaf area, pigment complex, net photosynthetic productivity.

Influence of sowing terms on photosynthetic activity of basil in the conditions of the greenhouses