Absorption of nutrient elements by weeds according to the technologies of growing alfalfa for seed purposes

UDC 633.31:632.51:631.811

L. Antipova

The aim of our research was to study the peculiarities of alfalfa seed varieties formation with the purpose, first of oll removal of batteries weeds from the soil in varying degrees agrophytocenoses weed-infested.
The processes of plant growth and development in agrophytocenoses alfalfa seeds studied at the Mykolayiw Institute of APV for three years. The main control in the experiment were Synska crop varieties (without application of herbicides and hand weeding grass).
The results of research. I is established that the spring sowing lucerne herbage under the open land very clogged. At the control sites (no herbicides) the number of weeds during their mass occurrence ranged between 418-437 individuals/m2 (high degree of contamination) and crude and air-dry weight – 162,0-168,0 and 28,8-29,3 g/m2, depending on the variety. In areas with the introduction of herbicide (with ground – Eptam 6E normally 4,5 l/ha after germination – Bazahran, 48% – 2 l/ha) during the mass appearance of weed noted weak degree of contamination (8-9 pcs./m2). Crude and air-dry weight of these were depending on the variety 18-19 and 2,2-2,7 g/m2, respectively.
During crooked ripening seeds in areas with the settings of herbicide the weed number decreased to 94,3 (sort Synska) 88,9 (sort Darkie), 91,2% (sort Torch) compared to untreated crops. Chemical weeding alfalfa helped to reduce air-dry biomass of weeds, which was 5,6; 5,8; 5,9% of the value accumulated in controls (454,0; 468,0; 452,0 g/m2), respectively, for the aforementioned grades. Weeds absorb from the soil of the high degree of contamination 37,1-38,4 kg/ha nitrogen 6,3-6,6 kg/ha – phosphorus 86,3-89,4 kg/ha of potassium depending on their sorts. This related to an average of 4,2 GJ/ha of non-renewable energy. Due sowing and post settings of herbicides the absorption from the soil decreases and is only 0,2 GJ/ha, ie 21 times less than in control.
Thus, the controlling unwanted vegetation in crops of alfalfa seed designation in time allows more efficient use of fertilizer and does not degrade the indexes of the natural fertility of the soil.

Key words: alfalfa seed, weeds, nutrients, exchange energy, productivity of crop sowing.

Absorption of nutrient elements by weeds according to the technologies of growing alfalfa for seed purposes.

Issue №1 (93), 2017

Foliage is an important indicator of quality for alfalfa sorts

UDC 633.311:631.524.7

L.  Antipova

Formulation of the problem. For increasing the gross yield of forage per unit of the sertain area it is important to accelerate the introduction for the industry of high-yielding varieties of alfalfa. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of high-yielding varieties of alfalfa, in particular, the number of leaves to increase plant productivity in the arid zone. This study is relevant.
The results of research. It was found that the most valuable part of the fodder alfalfa at the beginning of budding are leaves. Leaves contain 2 times more fat, 1,5 times – the protein, ash, calcium and nitrogen; 1,2 times more – phosphorus than in the stems and cellular tissue – 2,3 times less.
There are more than 23,1% fodder units of dry substances in 1 kg of leaves and 45,8% more is digestible protein than in stems. This indicates that leaves of alfalfa have essential significance in the structure of fodder.
During the second year of life alfalfa has reached the stage budding content of leaves ranged from 43,9 (Hope grade) to 47,3% (Svitoch grade) with 44,3% of control values (Sinskaya grade – standard).
Average for all varieties of alfalfa availability presence foliage during the second year has reached the level of 45,6 ± 0,9%. In the third year leaf content in the aboveground biomass has decreased to 41,4 ± 1,5%.
Average for the second and third years of life, foliage ranged from 42,2% in grade Poltavchanka to 44,6% (from grades Vinnichanka and Darkie) – 45,0% grade Eve, when the reference value is 43,6%.
Solutions. Varieties of Eve is 45,0%, Vinnichanka and Smooglianka (by 44,6%), Svitoch (43,7%) give the highest foliage, on average, for the second and third years of the life of alfalfa in non-irrigated conditions of South Steppe. When in the control group there is Sinskaya grade (standard) at the level of the average data for all grades (43,6%).

Key words: alfalfa, grade, foliage, feed units, digestible protein, fodded specific unit.

Foliage is an important indicator of quality for alfalfa sorts

Issue 3(91), 2016

Herbs in the south of Ukraine: problems and ways to overcome them

UDC 633.21(477.7)

L. Antipova

Formulation of the problem. Annual and perennial grasses are playing an important role in strengthening the fodder, that’s why researches which aimed to determining the condition and finding the ways to increase the productivity of phytocenoses of the arid zone are relevant.
The aim of our research was to determine the volumes of fodder grass production in the Mykolaiv region and the level  of cattle feed security from them, as well as finding ways to form a stable yield and determine species with varieties of perennial grasses which are most adapted to the arid conditions of the south of Ukraine.
The results of research. Analysis of crop production shows that significant violations of the fundamental laws of agriculture, in particular  the law of crop rotation, which adversely affects the conduct of forage production and animal husbandry. Thus, the area of ​​forage crops for the period from 1990 to 2014 decreased by 31.3 percents. Almost the area under perennial grasses was reduced.  In 2013 they accounted for only 1.26% of the total cultivated area, but the science-based is 8-10%. If in 1995 crops were harvested with annual and perennial grasses over 407,1 tones fodder unit., 52.3 tons of digestible protein, in 2014 year, these figures were decreased 7 to 10 times. During the period from 1995 to 2014 years was decreased provision of farm animals with hay and especially green fodder from perennial grasses.
Per one head of cattle in 2014 year was accounted for only 41 kg of fodder units herbal green fodder, wherever in 1995 year it consists 659 kg and in 2000 year it was 331 kg. In the seeded phytocenoses the yield of hay on average for the 2010-2013 years was fluctuated between 3,10 ± 0,15 tones per hectare and in cultural hayfields, this figure was less than half (1,59 ± 0,17 tones per hectare). Consequently we collected less feed in the feed units and digestible protein and metabolizable energy.
The mineral and organic fertilizers paid enough under the grass, and in some areas they do not contribute at all due to the high cost.
It was found that the most productive and adapted to the growing conditions plant  in the south of Ukraine without irrigation among perennial grasses is brome, ryegrass tall and wheatgrass middle, among the perennial legumes the highest yield of air-dry matter (4.59 tones per hectare) was provided by herbage white clover. Yields exceeded alfalfa crops by 0.58 tones per hectare. Less of air-dried substance was formed by lotus horned (1.91 tones per hectare) and by clover meadow (1.92 tones per hectare).
Conclusions. Weather conditions of southern steppe of Ukraine are most favorable to grow brome, ryegrass tall, wheatgrass middle, alfalfa, clover white, sainfoin. Lotus corniculatus does not provide the formation of high level productivity and clover can not stand the heat, frost and moisture deficit in the South of Ukraine. The productivity of herbs is increases under the irrigation and use of mineral fertilizers.

Key words: perennial and annual grasses, the structure of sown areas, gross yield, yield, forage, digestible protein, livestock.

Herbs in the South of Ukraine: problems and ways of improvement.

Separate aspects forming of productivity of long-term cereal herbs in the south of Ukraine

1(82), 2015
УДК 633.21:631.599(477.7)

The results of three years of research on the growth and development of perennial grasses in the arid conditions of southern steppe on the example of the Mykolaiv region are put forward in order to determine the most productive of them to strengthen the food base.

Experiments were carried out at Mykolayiv State Agrarian University.  Seeds Bromus inermis Leuss (variety Mars), Agropyrum pectiniforme L. (variety Petrovsky), Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. (variety Horse), Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. (variety Drongo) was used for sowing. All the which cultures were studied had a fairly long period of germination (19-22 days). Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. and Agropyrum pectiniforme L. mowing reached maturity (earing phase) faster than Bromus inermis Leuss. and Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. Field germination of seeds ranged from 50,0% (Bromus inermis Leuss) – 46,2% (Agropyrum intermedium Vassey.). The highest number of shoots was formed by perennial grasses in the second year of vegetation. The survival of plants Bromus inermis Leuss. (69,7%) was higher compared with Agropyrum pectiniforme L. by 0.9 percentage points and by 7,7 percentage points – with an average couch grass. Productivity of green mass study of perennial grasses in the first year of vegetation was low (5,71 t / ha Bromus inermis Leuss. – 3,78 t / ha Agropyrum pectiniforme L). This is due to their biological characteristics. Herbs of second year of life were the most productive. High yields of Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. with age (from 3.64 t / ha in the second year of life to 3.31 t / ha or 10.0% – in the third). Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. was more adapted to the arid conditions of the southern region. Its yields has not diminished in the third year of life, but even increased slightly. Thus, according to the data obtained the plants Bromus inermis Leuss., Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. and Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. average are characterized by the highest productivity, which provide a more rational use of water plants and sediments, respectively formation of higher yields in the studied area. Agropyrum pectiniforme L. comb is more appropriate to use as a lawn grass for the grassing of slopes and to create pastures as the most drought-resistant plant.

 

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The water mode of alfalfa fields seeds for cultivated

4(81), 2014

UNC 631.53.01:632.123:633.31

Antipova L.

Statement of the problem. Alfalfa is one of the most valuable crops to supply high-quality livestock forage. In the arid conditions of the country one of the important tasks is to determine the elements of resource-saving technologies, aimed at efficient usage of moisture by plants, in particular the cultivation of this crop for seeds.

The aim of our work was to study the water regime of the soil under crops of alfalfa of different mowing for seeds production (first, after-grass, and intermediate) in the southern Steppe and to determine of more resource efficient.

For intermediate mowing of grass the option of cutting plants for green fodder for 3-4 days prior to the beginning of budding and get ting the seeds after the next growing of alfalfa is chosen.

The results of the research. The largest consumtion of moisture during the growing season from soil to biomass formation was for the first mowing of grass for seeds: from the arable layer was spent 366, and from the meter layer – 1078 m3/ha. The given index for intermediate sowing was 81 and 78, and the second – 117 and 334 m3/ha less. Dry matter, including the seeds of alfalfa of the first mowing, is formed by 51.6% due to precipitation and 48.4% of soil moisture. Another pattern in the formation of above-ground biomass was observed during the intermediate and second sowing: the expenditure of water from the soil were significantly greater in percentage terms – 59,8% and 58.6% of, respectively, whereas rainfall in the total consumption was only 40,2 and 41.4%.

The total water consumption of plants in agrophitocenosis for the first mowing within 2225 m3/ha), for intermediate mowing – 1673 and after-grass mowing – 1269 m3/ha. Decline of this mowings indicator with is connected the less formation of  biomass in the intermediate and after-grass sowing comparing with the first mowing.

Transpiration ratio was 800 for the first one, 740 – for intermediate and 858 for the second mowing for seeds. For the formation of 1 kg of seeds was spent 1441±308 m3 of moisture by controlled plants. On the intermediate sowing the  coefficient of water consumption decreased by 1.6 times (up to 914±214 m3/d) compared with the first mowing. During intermediate and second sowing significantly more seeds of alfalfa were formed 1 m3 in precipitation and soil moisture (116 and 130 g/m3, respectively) comparing with the first mowing – 73 g/m3. In intermediate mowing of aboveground biomass accumulated less in comparison with the first mowing, so seeds per unit of moisture had formed more in all years of the study. The main expenditure of water on the formation of seeds in the intermediate (293 g/m3) and after-grass (316 g/m3) occur due to soil moisture. Much less seeds formed in these mowings due to precipitation (195 and 230 g/m3), whereas in the first  mowings of the ratio of expenditures of soil water and rainfall is almost the same – 153 and 147 g/m3, respectively.

The conclusions. Analysis of the obtained data on water mode in the soil when growing alfalfa on unirrigated lands gives the basis to indicate whether the use of intermediate mowings for yield of seed crops in the southern Ukraine. At intermediate mowing a more economical use of moisture by alfalfa of seed purpose compared with the first and second mowings. (more…)

Роль абіотичних факторів у формуванні врожаю насіння люцерни за різних укосів

Номер, рік
1(77), 2014

УДК
631.53.01:633.31:58.0561

Автор
Л.К. Антипова, доктор сільськогосподарських наук, доцент
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

Анотація
У статті наведено результати досліджень впливу термічного фактора і забезпечення рослин вологою на формування врожаю насіння люцерни різних укосів. Запропоновано найбільш ефективний проміжний укіс, за якого урожайність насіння збільшується на 19,5% порівняно із загальноприйнятим першим укосом.

Ключові слова
люцерна, насіння, укоси, середньодобові температури, сумарне водоспоживання, урожайність
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Шкідливі об’єкти у посівах пшениці озимої

Номер, том, рік
4(74), 1, 2013

УДК
633.1:632

Автор
Л.К. Антипова, доктор сільськогосподарських наук, доцент
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

Анотація
У статті наведено стан виробництва зерна пшениці озимої на півдні України на прикладі Миколаївської області. Висвітлено літературні дані щодо характеристики шкідливих організмів в агрофітоценозах. Запропоновано заходи щодо зменшення чисельності їх у посівах культури.

Ключові слова
пшениця озима на зерно, площа, урожайність, вал, шкідники, хвороби, бур’яни
(more…)