Comprehensive evaluation of production development of perennial grasses

1(82), 2015
UNC 338.43:633.2

І. Cherven, N. Tsurkan

Introduction. Cost-effective production of agrarian products requires the obligatory improvement of cropping acreage structure to improve soil fertility. The livestock base must be taken into account at the same time and the needs of the livestock in the forage, including herbs. The aim of our study is a comprehensive assessment of the perennial grasses’ production development in the South of Ukraine and determining the amount of acreage of these crops which are necessary to ensure the needs of cattle in forage. The results of the research. The state of production development of perennial grasses on farms of the South of Ukraine is analyzed in retrospect. It is found out that the scientifically based standards of the structure of crop rotations are violated. It is established that in the conditions of uncontrolled business farmers are oriented towards the production of more profitable and marketable crop production, ignoring scientific standards and the world’s experience in agricultural production. At the same time the proportion of the areas of forage crops, including perennial grasses for hay and green fodder in the structure of total sown area in the South of Ukraine (1-2% at the rate of 8-10% in the rotation) remains unreasonably low. This also affects the deterioration of soil fertility. From year to year due to the lack of acreage of perennial leguminous grasses, such as alfalfa and sainfoin, the loss of organic nitrogen, is increaser while could have been accumulated in the soil, thereby reducing the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers by growing the following crops in rotation after perennial grasses. The total reduction in the sown area to fodder crops is characterized by the simultaneous increase in the proportion of areas of perennial grasses, mainly legumes, in their structure. Insufficient quantity of areas for herbs reduces the production of forage production of these high protein crops, which slows down the development of livestock in the Southern Steppe and negatively affects the economic performance of the industry. In this regard, the simulation model of the number of cattle in this area up to 2020, is developed and also the calculation of the required areas under perennial grasses (for example, alfalfa) is carried out, on the basis of their normative consumption in terms of metabolic energy. All predicted indicators were obtained by following the trends that have occurred in these industries in recent years. It is set that keeping the same acreage of the total cultivated area, the proportion of the predicted area under perennial grasses in 2020 will meet scientifically-based standards (9,3%). Conclusion. The revival and development of the production of perennial grasses will allow sloving the complicated problem of how to improve the fertility of soils of the South of Ukraine, and enhance forage base for livestock. (more…)

The additional indicators of perennial grasses’ cultivation effectiveness assessment

UNC 338.43:633.2.003.131

N.V. Tsurkan

In the article the necessity of the economic addition indicators is shown. It is necessary to create new terms ofmoney equivalents, which influences the efficiency of perennial grasses’ cultivation for the soil fertility and nitrogen accumulation in the soil.

Introduction. In modern conditions the issues environmental safety require in-depth analysis of economic, environmental and social aspects. The complexity of this assessment is to facilitate the production process to achieve the best results.

The aim of the study is to prove the necessity the to introduce the number of indicators of economic efficiency of cultivation of perennial grasses of cash equivalents of increase in soil fertility and accumulation of biological nitrogen in the soil.

The results of the research. The state of development of production of perennial grasses on farms in the South of Ukraine are analyzed. Installed violation and even the absence of science-based crop rotations. It is established that in the conditions of uncontrolled of production violation of these standards is observed. Business of farmers is oriented towards the production of more profitable technical crops comparing to perennial grasses. At the same time, the share of areas of perennial grasses for hay and green fodder still remains very low (1-2% at the rate of 8-10% in the rotation) in the structure of total sown area in the South of Ukraine. This also affects the deterioration of soil fertility. Every year due to the lack acreage under perennial leguminous grasses, such as alfalfa and sainfoin the  loss of organic nitrogen, is increase, which could be accumulated in the soil, thereby reducing the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers when growing following for perennial grasses in the rotation of crops.

The characteristic of perennial legumes to fix nitrogen in the soil can make it to be considered as a specific form of its product and to transform its natural accumulation in cash due to certain criteria.

It is advisable to add cash of equivalents increase of soil fertility economic indicators of determining of  production efficiency of perennial leguminous grasses. The aim of these indicators is to assess accumulated humus and synthesized nitrogen in the soil after the use of perennial grasses. When calculating these indicators the significant factors are the price of manure, as the actual material prerequisite for the formation of humus, the price of nitrogen fertilizers and also crop productivity, which accumulates nitrogen and humus. In addition, the author proposes to apply correction factors, which vary depending on the climatic zone in which perennial fodder legumes herbs are grown.

Conclusion. When improving the methodology for determining the efficiency of agricultural production, particularly perennial grasses, it is necessary to consider the complexity of assessment according to environmental and economic aspects. Expanding the range of products of perennial grasses satisfies this requirement by biological nitrogen that allows the manufacturer to determine the cash equivalent of its accumulation in the soil, as well as economic benefits from savings on nitrogen fertilization under the following herbs for culture can comply with these reguirements. (more…)

Формування та функціонування ринку продукції багаторічних трав на півдні України

Номер, рік
2(78), 2014

УДК
338.439.5:633.2(477/7)

Автор
Н. В. Цуркан, аспірант
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

Анотація
У статті розглянуто питання формування та функціонування ринку продукції багаторічних трав. Встановлено, що баланс ринку продукції цих культур протягом 2009-2012 рр. був від’ємним, що вказує на диспропорції ринкової кон’юнктури.

Ключові слова
багаторічні трави, ринок, продукція, попит, пропозиція, ціна, собівартість, рентабельність
(more…)

Актуальні проблеми виробництва продукції багаторічних трав на півдні України

Номер, рік
1(77), 2014

УДК
338.439:633.3(477.7)

Автор
Н.В. Цуркан, аспірант
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

Анотація
Досліджено питання розвитку виробництва сіна і зеленої маси багаторічних трав на півдні України. Розраховано окремі показники енергетичної ефективності виробництва сіна багаторічних трав. Встановлено переваги безпокривної сівби люцерни порівняно з сівбою її під покрив ячменю ярого.

Ключові слова
багаторічні трави, сіно, зелена маса, зібрана площа, валовий збір, урожайність, коефіцієнт енергетичної ефективності
(more…)

Виробництво сіна багаторічних трав у різних категоріях господарств півдня України

Номер, рік
2(72), 2013

УДК
338.439.5:633.2-035.26:631.11(477.7)

Автор
Н.В. Цуркан, здобувач
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

Анотація
У статті розглянуто питання виробництва сіна багаторічних трав на півдні України у різних категоріях господарств. Визначено площі їх посівів, валовий збір, урожайність. Дослідженнями встановлено зменшення площ під цими високорентабельними культурами у всіх сільськогосподарських підприємствах і збільшення в господарствах населення, що позначається на рівні валового збору. Наведено шляхи підвищення виробництва сіна для поліпшення кормової бази тваринництва.

Ключові слова
багаторічні трави, сіно, сільськогосподарські товаровиробники, тваринництво, економічна ефективність
(more…)