S. Lutkovska. Strategic management of environmental risks as a direction of ensuring sustainable ecological and economic development

UDC 338.24:504:330.835

 

S. Lutkovska

 

The article deals with the problems of reducing risks and mitigating the consequences of natural and anthropogenic emergencies in Ukraine, which are of paramount importance and belong to the priority area of guaranteeing national security.Analysis of risk management in Ukraine as a fundamental system of regulation of population and territory security should help to overcome the negative trend of natural and anthropogenic emergencies. Therefore, it is necessary to create a risk management system to ensure the sustainable development of society, that is, human and environmental safety in the context of improving the quality of life of each individual.It has been researched that in the process of transformation of risks in the environment their characteristics may change. From the standpoint of the existence of continuous economic and environmental risk, which integrates a set of local risks, it is possible to identify potential sources and recipients of environmental risk and to offset the uncertainty.In order to determine the environmental risk factors for the regions of Ukraine, calculations were made according to certain indicators within three blocks: for the first one – by the number of available population in the area of potential impact of pollution; the second – by area of territory; the third is the probability of material losses from the region’s gross regional product. Risk assessment was performed in two stages: the first is the analysis and grouping of input information by relevant blocks; the second is the calculation of their coefficients by the selected blocks in the regional section.It has been established that the strategic environmental assessment plays a leading role in the implementation of strategic environmental risk management. As a tool, strategic environmental assessment addresses environmental and sustainable development issues, as they arise, in decision-making, not as a symptom or as a negative end, as is the case in our country. In the long term, strategic environmental assessment should become an organic and integral part of the short and long-term strategic planning for the development of the territory and the strategic management of environmental risks.

Keywords: environmental safety, risk management, environmental risk, population safety, environmental risk assessment, strategic environmental assessment.

References:

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A. Diuk. Social responsibility in the production system of agricultural enterprises: Methodical aspects of evaluation

UDC 338.43:631.15

 

A. Diuk

 

The urgency of the problem. Agriculture as a special industry, specific in organizational and economic structure and social significance, imitates the specifics of theoretical and methodological justifications of the principles of social responsibility, as well as criteria of social performance. Scientific substantiations of perspective development of agricultural enterprises methodically concern not only economic, but also social direction of activity. The in-house economic assessment of the composition of socially oriented expenditures is of exceptional importance in the formation of social responsibility, to which attention should be paid immediately. The priority of the given knowledge meets the criterion of exclusive social significance of agrarian management for the development of rural areas, therefore the methodical assessment of the process needs to be improved, first of all from the standpoint of taking into account modern transformational dynamics.
The purpose of the article is to deepen the theoretical provisions of the essence of social responsibility and propose methodological principles for assessing its formation in the production system of agricultural enterprises.
Results of the research.The article proposes improvement of theoretical principles of understanding of the essence of social responsibility of agricultural enterprises on the basis of determination of methodological provisions of evaluation of its representation in the production system. The levels of social responsibility in the functioning of enterprises have been determined. The subsystems of formation of social responsibility of agricultural enterprises are characterized. The proposal of components of formation of social responsibility is made – the mechanisms (subsystems) of its implementation are put into practice with the disclosure of methodological aspects of evaluation. The expediency of applying the category of expenditures to determine the economic basis of the formation of social responsibility in agricultural enterprises was methodically proved.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, social responsibility, production system, methodological aspects, estimation, costs.

References:

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I. Honcharenko, V. Pereta, N. Kuchmanich. The potential of the strategic development of the united territorial communities of the region

UDC 339.92:332

 

I. Honcharenko

V. Pereta

N. Kuchmanich

The article discusses the economic opportunities that can be used to develop and achieve the strategic goals of regional communities in the region.
The value of the developing of  recommendations for the provision of the region’s integrated territorial communities capacity development  will increase in the face of new global challenges.  One of the key areas of the implementation of new policy is a decentralization of power and an increasing of the level of financial independence and institutional capacity of the territorial communities of our country.
The strategic management function is one of the most common functions of the territorial communities.  Its sense is in the creation of the conditions for their self-preservation and self-development on the basis of rational use of the natural, industrial, scientific, labor, demographic, social and cultural potentials of the territory and increase of business activity.
Through the realization of this function, an achievement of the goals of territorial development is ensured, specifically – direct life support and improving of the quality of life of the population, an enhancing of the role of the territory in the social division of labor on the basis of the formation of rational economic specialization.
The term  “potential” in the context of territorial development is used as an economic opportunity that can be used to develop and achieve the strategic goals of the territorial communities. Strategies of the United Territorial Communities are a guide to action, a mean of coordinating efforts and ensuring continuity of decisions.
The prospective development of the territories also implies the elimination of the complex influence of the potential of such phenomena as unemployment, liquidation of enterprises, and factors that hinder the creation of new working places. No single line of economic problem is solved simply. Often, community leaders tend to focus on one particular aspect of a problem without fully understanding of its interaction with other components. The effectiveness of the development and implementation of strategy largely depends on the formulation of the main strategic goals, priority of the tactical tasks, the availability of material, manpower and financial resources, which are necessary for an achievement of the   the set of strategic guidelines, the effectiveness of the mechanisms of strategy implementation in the form of financial and non-financial institutions, as well as national, targeted and regional development programs and specific projects for strategic goals achievement; an adequate monitoring and control system for the implementation of the strategy.
The components of the strategic development potential for the territorial communities of Mykolaiv region are:
– natural and climatic conditions (flat terrain, temperate climate, large areas of agricultural land, large size of the area of ​​individual fields, etc.);
– resource opportunities (minerals, mobile labor, etc.);
– geographical position (presence of transport corridors, favorable radius of delivery of gricultural products, transit position, etc.);
– high demand for major export-oriented crops (opportunities for the agrarian sector of the economy).
Under the conditions of the  instability of socio-economic situation, shortage of financial and economic resources, the communities of the region seek to exploit the potential of international structures, but mostly formulate development strategies that provide orientation to the use of local resources and reserves in order to ensure the survival the territorial system.
The communities of Mykolaiv region are inclined to implement strategic approaches that give special weight or to the development of the area, or to the development of human resources, or to local civic initiatives. However, a strategy for insuring the sustainability of the local community must include different elements of these approaches, depending on the needs and conditions of the particular locality. Each of these core components is part of a system of methods which are developed by the local community for creation of the sustainable economic development strategy. Now in the global practice of strategic management, the most effective tool for implementing the strategy is a system of balanced indicators. A balanced scorecard allows you to link strategic goals and key metrics that measure the extent to which they are being achieved. To identify and track causation between major financial and non-financial indicators.
The balanced scorecard can be the main tool for strategic management of the socio-economic development of territorial communities. It will allow: to monitor the achievement of the established indicators; to harmonize the budget process with plans and results of the community development; to evaluate the real effectiveness of the economic policy.
Different approaches to local economic development could be combined according to the specificities of every situation. It is necessary to formulate strategies that meet the socio-economic conditions of the community.

Keywords: potential, strategy, integrated territorial community, strategic potential, strategic planning.

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T. Lunkina, А. Burkovska, А. Burkovska. Features of forming socio-responsible behavior in the consumer of organic production of the agricultural sector in Ukraine

UDC 338.43:005.35

 

T. Lunkina

А. Burkovska

А. Burkovska

 

The production of organic products in the agrarian sector is decisive in solving the problems of social and economic development of the rural population and the corresponding rural areas. Organic production is intended to reorient agricultural production from intensive technologies to environmental safety, and then to organic production. The transition of agriculture to organic production is possible only as a subject of compliance with the principles of social responsibility, which are aimed at the rational use of natural resources. In Ukraine the process of creating social responsibility is somewhat different than in other countries. For example, in developed countries of the world, social responsibility is understood not only as paying taxes and contributing to charities, but also as providing the population with the food products that are safe. As for the formation of socially responsible behavior in the consumer of organic produce in Ukraine, it depends, first of all, on the level of income of the population and the level of trust for organic producers.
The article investigates features of socially responsible behavior of the consumer of organic products. The authors reveal that the domestic consumer of agrarian products inclines towards the need for local social responsibility among its producers. The main factor influencing the formation of consumer demand for organic products is the content of external and internal markets. On the basis of questionnaires, the directions of local social responsibility of agrarian business in Ukraine were established, among them: “Responsibility to employees”, “Responsibility to consumers”, “Responsibility to partners (investors)”, “Responsibility to state authorities” and “Responsibility to competitors.” A SWOT analysis was conducted on the social and responsible behavior of the Ukrainian consumer of organic products, and strengths and weaknesses, threats and opportunities for the development of organic produce in the agrarian sector were identified. The authors prove that the formation of socially responsible behavior of consumers in Ukraine today is influenced not by the main aspects of the qualitative and safety of consumption of organic agricultural products, but by the price policy of food products.
It is proved that the formation of socially responsible behavior of consumers of organic products of the agricultural sector of the economy depends on the development of the organic market in the country. The necessity of introducing organic agriculture is due to the following factors: reproduction of soil fertility and preservation of the environment; development of rural areas and improvement of living standards of rural population; improving the efficiency and profitability of agricultural production; providing the consumer market with healthy qualitative products; strengthening the export potential of the state; improving the image of Ukraine as a producer and exporter of high qualitative healthy organic produce; ensuring food security in Ukraine; improving the general well-being of the citizens of the state, etc. It has been found out that with the increase of the standard of living of the population (increase of wages, subsistence minimum) and stabilization of economic and financial development of Ukraine (reduction of inflation, stabilization of national currency), it is possible to speak about full development of society and formation of socially responsible consumer behavior on the basis of organic agricultural products.
Based on the integrated solution of the above-mentioned problems, organic production in Ukraine will become popular and will be able to enter a new stage in the development of organic agriculture in Ukraine, while forming a socially responsible consumer of organic products.

Keywords: social responsibility, local social responsibility, organic production, organic production, consumer, agrarian sector, socially responsible behavior.

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V. Shebanin, O. Novikov, M. Karpenko. The applicability of implementation of the irrigation in modern conditions

UDC 631.674:005.52

 

V. Shebanin

O. Novikov

M.Karpenko

 

The article substantiates the feasibility of introducing lands irrigation for winter wheat cultivation in agricultural enterprises of Southern Ukraine under the current conditions. As a result of the calculations of capital investments, their payback period and tax revenuesto the budget, it is proved that the organization of modern lands irrigation is a profitable and cost-effective way of mechanized irrigation, and it allows to use more rationally water and land resources in agriculture.
Thus, all the researchers have the same opinion that the yield under the use of irrigated technologies is increased by 2-3 times, even in those regions where natural moisture provides a sufficient level of crop yields, with capital investments from 1400 to 3000 dollars per 1 ha, but the choice of sprinkler or drip irrigation should be based on economic feasibility. The issue of economic efficiency of using modern sprinklers is not fully disclosed by Ukrainian scientists, so it needs further study.
Sprinklers of American production Lindsay Zimmatic were introduced for the first time in 2016 by MNAU in the Southern Ukraine. According to research and practical experience, the applied irrigation system increased irrigation efficiency, promoted productivity growth (winter wheat yield increased in 2019 by 47.58 centners / ha and according to forecasts in 2020 – by 51.52 centners / ha), reduced energy consumption and labor costs. The introduction of sprinkler irrigation has allowed to develop scientifically-grounded technologies of growing modern domestic and foreign varieties and hybrids of grain and technical crops.
Based on the obtained data during 2018-2019 years and the forecast for 2020, it was calculated the economic efficiency of sprinkler irrigation. For three years of  irrigation introduction the additional profit in the amount of 5336,0 thousand UAH from the area of 124 hectares with capital investments about 4610,0 thousand UAH will be received, return on investment in sprinkler irrigation will take 3 years.
During 2018-2020 years due to the introduction of the irrigation system by the university, it will achieve an additional increase in budget revenues by 782.86 thousand UAH and obtain budget efficiency on the level 19.05%.

Keywords: irrigation, economic efficiency, winter wheat, Southern Ukraine, university.

References:

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  15. Romashhenko M.I. ta in. Rekomendaciyi z operatyvnogo kontrolyu ta upravlinnya rezhymom zroshennya silskogospodarskyx kultur iz zastosuvannyam tenziometrychnogo metodu (naukovo-metodychne).

 

Issue 4 (104), 2019

Титульний лист
Зміст

ECONOMICAL SCIENCES

O. Shebanina, I. Shapovalova, A. Tverdovska. The role of crop production regulation in improving the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of Ukraine4
M. Mardar, G. Lozovska, S. Pambuk, K. Hozhelova. The main trends in the development of dairy market and marketing methods of its promotion12
L. Babachenko, V. Moskalenko, A. Marchenko. Recent trends for using digitalmarketing tools in business20

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

M. M. Korkhova. Productivity of winter wheat spelt in the South Steps of Ukraine30
I. Ivanova, M. Serdiuk, V. Malkina, A. Shkinder-Barmina, I. Kryvonos. Cherry yield depending on the climatic conditions of the cultivation years38
M. Kulyk, N. Syplyva, I. Rozhko, Y. Bozhok. Agrobiological specifics of switchgrass seed productivity formation51
Yu. Duda, M. Prus. Proteinogram and indicators of immunity during рassalurosis of rabbits with different level of invasion intensity61
Yu. Gritsienko, M. Gill, M. Kosenko. Polymorphism of the genetic-biochemical systems of modern Ukrainian breeds of milk livestock productivity71
О. Mykhalko, M. Povod. Annual dynamics of dependence of sows productivity on design features of farrowing equipment in an industrial complex during the year80

TECHNICAL SCIENCES

G. M. Kaletnyk. Prospects for increasing energy autonomy of the agriculture in accordance with the energy strategy of Ukraine90
M. Linnik, V. Volsky, R. Kotsiubynsky. Systematic approach to the substantiation of the technological scheme and structure of a combined machine for cultivating corn stubble99
V. Dvoryk, K. Borak, S. Dobranskiy, D. Gerasumchyk. Effect of preliminary corrosion on the steel fretting intensity106
E. Aliev, V. Dudin, A. Gavrilchenko, V. Ivlev. Modeling of the separation process of bulk material according to its physical and mechanical properties114
I. Baczurovskaya. The Technology of applying mass open online courses in educational training of masters of agricultural engineering122

Baczurovskaya I. Technology of application of mass open online courses in preparation of masters of agricultural engineering

UDC 378.147

 

I. Baczurovskaya

 

The article presents the analysis of technological features of the use of mass open online courses in educational and scientific training of masters of agricultural engineering. The principles of educational and scientific training of masters of agricultural engineering in the system of mass open online education are given. The features of the use of mass open online courses in educational and scientific training of masters of agricultural engineering are determined. Optimal use of mass open distance courses in educational and scientific training of masters requires as many active participants as possible. The roles of the teacher and the undergraduate in these courses are almost erased. The teacher should rather act as a supervisor or facilitator. Working in a mass open distance course requires motivation and self-control by undergraduates. There is an abundance of educational and scientific information in 44mass open online courses. In the educational and scientific training of masters, mass open online courses should be used within the curriculum, and their use during university studies increases the likelihood of its completion. Deadline mass open online courses must be completed no later than the relevant semester. They provide an opportunity for educational and scientific testing of the theoretical knowledge obtained. For each report or article prepared on the basis of the results of the mass open online courses, the undergraduate may take a review from the university professors who are researching the relevant scientific field. Discussing one’s own research at conferences and seminars shapes the future master’s personal views, corrects erroneous assumptions, and directs additional research.

Keywords: masters of agricultural engineering, mass open online courses.

References:

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Aliev E., Dudin V., Gavrilchenko A., Ivlev V. Modeling of the separation process for bulk material according to its physical and mechanical properties

UDC 004.94

 

E. Aliev

V. Dudin

A. Gavrilchenko

V. Ivlev

 

Purpose. Conduct numerical modeling of the process of bulk material separation under the action of air flow, vibrating sieve and solid vibrating surface in order to develop appropriate physical and mathematical models and to develop the proposed research methods.
Methods. The bulk material separation process was investigated in three stages of modeling in the STAR-CCM + software package by finite element method based on k-ɛ split-flow turbulence model, Van der Waals real-gas model, discrete element model and multiphase interaction model. The first step was to simulate the process of  bulk material moving under the action of airflow. Separation of bulk material on a small-sized cyclone-type aerodynamic separator was investigated. Also, for the implementation of the first stage of numerical modeling, a computational diagram of the process of the falling particles moving under the action of air flow was compiled. The second stage was aimed at modeling the process of moving the bulk material under the action of a vibrating sieve. The task of the third stage of modeling was to determine the particle distribution function of the bulk material by fractions under the action of a vibrating surface.
Results. The numerical simulation of the bulk material separation process on a cyclone-type small-scale aerodynamic separator resulted in the mass distribution of components by volume mass at the outputs of heavy and light components on the effective particle diameter and air velocity. As a result of numerical simulation of the mechanical and technological process of the bulk material moving under the action of air flow, the dependences of the distribution of each fraction of particles of the bulk material along the length of the region (fill factor, distribution coefficient) on the effective particle diameter, air flow rate and flow of bulk material were obtained. As a result of numerical simulation of the process of the bulk material moving under the action of the vibrating sieve, the dependence of the change of the total concentration and productivity on the bulk material flow, the angle of the sieve, the frequency of oscillations of the sieve and the amplitude of oscillations of the sieve are obtained. As a result of numerical simulation of the process of the bulk material moving under the action of the vibrating surface, the dependences of the change of the filling factor, the distribution coefficient and the productivity on the bulk material flow, the angles of inclination of the vibrating surface, the oscillation frequency, the amplitude of oscillations and the airflow velocity are obtained.
Scientific novelty. The general coefficients of  technological process quality in  separation of bulk material (coefficients of filling and distribution and total concentration of seeds) are offered.  The article obtains the mathematical models of the technological process of precision separation of the bulk material by its aerodynamic properties, geometric dimensions, bulk mass, which describe the change of the proposed quality coefficients depending on the regime parameters.
Practical importance. The obtained dependencies can be used in the designing of automated control systems of the constructive and mode parameters of bulk materials separators.

Keywords: bulk material, separation, modeling, aerodynamic properties, geometric dimensions, bulk weight.

References:

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Dvoryk V., Borak K., Dobranskiy S., Gerasumchyk D. Effect of preliminary corrosion on the steel fretting intensity

UDC 620.178.16: 620.193

 

V. Dvoryk

K. Borak

S. Dobranskiy

D. Gerasumchyk

 

Corrosion destroys and qualitatively changes the surface of machine parts, leading to a decrease in the wear resistance and durability of machines. That is why the search for modern methods and techniques, allowing to minimize atmospheric corrosion of the working attachments and parts of soil-cultivating machines, is an undeniably urgent task.
In the result of the preliminary atmospheric corrosion, the fretting intensity of steels significantly increases, e.g. for steels without a protective anticorrosion coating it increases by a factor of 2.88 … 4.15, after applying a protective anticorrosion coating it increases by a factor of 1.59 … 2.73. It is necessary to particularly single out the sample after abrasive fretting, where the fretting intensity has increased by a factor of 4 … 5.26. As a result of studies, it was found that the fretting intensity is directly dependent on the intensity of the corrosion processes. In turn, the corrosion rate depends on the storage method, soil and climatic zone of the storage, the presence of anti-corrosion coating and the material which was subject to atmospheric corrosion.
Corrosion processes occur most intensively when stored in the Polissia soil and climatic zone, and least intensively upon storage in the Steppe zone. The wear intensity increases most while storing in the open site with a soil floor and grass floor, the least when stored in the closed heated premise with a concrete floor and in the closed unheated premise with a concrete floor.
The height at which samples were stored also significantly affects the magnitude of the fretting intensity growth. Thus, the fretting intensity increases the most while storing on the surface, and the least while storing at a height of 500 mm from the storage surface.
A significant change in the fretting intensity after atmospheric corrosion is observed only until the corrosion products are removed from the steel surface, during further wear the fretting intensity decreases and equals to the fretting intensity before the storage started.
To increase the wear resistance of the working attachments of soil-cultivating and sowing machines (taking into account the economic feasibility) during the off-season period, machines should be stored on special supports (with the height not less than 500 mm) in closed unheated premises and under outdoor shed with a concrete floor with a protective anticorrosive coating applied to the working attachments. Shell Ensis Oil N has proved to be the best among protective coatings, but given its market value, it is not economically feasible and can be replaced with cheaper materials.

Keywords: fretting intensity, storage, atmospheric corrosion, steel.

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Linnik M., Volsky V., Kotsiubynsky R. System approach to the substantiation of the technological scheme and structure of a combined machine for cultivating corn stubble

UDC 631.313

 

M. Linnik

V. Volsky

R. Kotsiubynsky

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and reducing energy costs in the technological operations of grinding and planting plant residues based on the rational technological scheme of a combined machine for processing corn stubble. It is noted that climate change is an urgent issue of the maximum accumulation of precipitation during the year and the rational use of moisture in the warm period. This can be achieved by the wide spread introduction of basic tillage systems that every year do not overturn the arable layer (flat, chisel, surface, zero, dashed) and make it possible to partially preserve and accumulate much on the soil surface, reduce the speed of the surface air layer and contribute to better conservation moisture accumulated during the autumn-winter period. It is noted that the disclosure of the essence of the technological process of grinding and making cornstubble is associated with the specification of the parameters of the conditions of the initial state of the soil with plant residues (corn stubble) by determining the technological structure of the machine, the relationships and interactions of the working bodies; the establishment of technological modes of operation of the machine; a study of the influence of all these factors on the result of her work. The technological process is schematically presented on the basis of the “input-output”. The role of input variables is played by external factors of circumstances (working conditions) and control (regulations of technological modes), some of which change over time. The technological structure of the combined machine for processing corn stubble is reflected in many separate working bodies, combined in a module with a specific sequence of their layout. The simulation of a combined machine for processing corn stubble, performing a technological process, grinding and earning is presented as a function. The task of the analysis – predicting the output of qualitatively energy indicators for certain working conditions and certain parameters of a combined machine for processing corn stubble, solves the problems of using specific machines in real conditions. It is noted that the task of synthesizing a combined machine for processing corn stubble in full is theoretically difficult to solve due to the uncertainty of the relationships between different types of working bodies, modes and conditions of their operation. Factors of the technological process of grinding and earning plant materials and their mutual influence are characterized by the established mathematical dependence, which allows the use of modeling to analyze the structure of a combined machine for processing corn stubble at the design stage. Based on a systematic approach, the technological scheme and structure of a combined machine for processing corn stubble are substantiated.

Keywords: combined machine, technological scheme of the machine, structure of the machine, technological process, tillage, grinding and incorporation of plant residues.

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