Korkhova M. Productivity of winter wheat spelt in the South Steps of Ukraine

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Babachenko L., Moskalenko V., Marchenko A. Recent trends for using digital-marketing tools in business

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Mardar M., Lozovska G., Pambuk S., Hozhelova K. Main trends of dairy market development and marketing methods of it’s promotion

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Shebanina E., Shapovalova I., Tverdovska A. The role of crop production regulation in improving the competitiveness of the agricultural sector

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Issue 3 (103), 2019

Cover sheet
Content

ECONOMICAL SCIENCES

Shebanina O., Kormyshkin Yu. The modern paradigm of innovative development of agricultural entrepreneurship
4
Vyshnevska O. Financial security of global safety of social systems11
Sirenko N., Mikulyak K. Investment component of the agricultural sector development and its financial support in the market environment20
Poltorak A. Budgetary security of Ukraine: dynamics of level in the conditions of globalization changes28
Natorina A. O. Transitive business model of digital business: the nature and mechanism of reconfiguration36

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

Osokina N., Herasymchuk О., Kostetska К. Biologically active substances in cans of black currant berries under complex processing44
Tsentilo L. Crop rotation productivity depending on fertilizer and soil cultivation52
Ivanova I., Serdyuk M., Herasko T., Belous E., Kryvonos I. The sweet cherry yield depending on the climatic conditions of the years of cultivations61
Strelchuk L. Contemporary Agro-ecological and Forestry Technical Characteristics of the Field Forest Protection in the Plain-Steppe Territory of Kherson Region71
Vasylyshyna O. Optimization of storage fruit foods with preparing processing by hytosan solution80
Mylostyvyi R. Estimation of the heat stress probability in cows in an uninsulated cowshed during summer heat88
Hryshyna L., Krasnoshchok O. Meat quality of purebred, crossbred and hybrid young pigs of varying growth rates98

TECHNICAL SCIENCES

Sheichenko V. , Dudnikov I., Shevchuk V., Kuzmich A. The analytical assessment of the needle harrow interaction with the soil107

Sheichenko V. , Dudnikov I., Shevchuk V., Kuzmich A. The analytical assessment of the needle harrow interaction with the soil

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Hryshyna L., Krasnoshchok O. Meat quality of purebred, crossbred and hybrid young pigs of varying growth rates

UDC 636.4.082

 

L. Hryshyna

O. Krasnoshchok

 

The conjuncture of the market forces pig-breeding companies to find the ways to reduce production costs and improve product quality. For successful competition, the high conservation of piglets, the intensive growth of fattening young and the high yield of meat in carcasses are important.

Depending on the intensity of the pig growth of one breed, there is a significant difference in terms of productivity, therefore, the purpose of our research was to determine the effect of the genotype and the intensity of animal growth in the initial period of ontogenesis on the meat qualities of the experimental young pigs.

The research was carried out on pure-breed pigs of Large White breed, crossbred animals – (LW x L) and (LW x (D x H), as well as hybrid young (LW x L) x (D x H) under conditions of the breeding reproducer of the private company «Plemservice» in the Globynsky District of the Poltava region. For the studies animals were divided into classes of growth intensity in the age range of 0-2 months in each animal group by determining the mean values and normalized deviation, while the modal class was attributed to individuals that were within ± 0,5δ, respectively, to the grade of the plus and minus-variant animals with high and low values of the index of decline in the intensity of growth.

It was proved that the highest rate of slaughtered output was observed in pigs of the combination of LW x L and hybrid young (LW x L) x (D x H), and they significantly exceeded their peers in the control group, respectively, by 2.6-3.2% (p≤ 0.01). In the division of animals into classes for the intensity of growth within each group, the highest value of the slaughtered release in pigs of the class plus is determined by all experimental groups.

Correlation analysis establishes a direct relationship between the slaughter щгезге and the output of meat in the carcass (r = 0,57˗0,86), which proves the possibility of predicting the meatiness of the carcass after the slaughter.

It was established that carcasses of crossbred pigs differed in a small thickness of subcutaneous fat, compared with carcasses of purebred pigs of Large White breed. The smallest thickness of fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae was characterized by carcasses of hybrid young pigs, in which this index was 33.5% (p≤ 0.001) lower than that of analogues of Large White breed.

It was proved that the use of meat genotype breeders contributed to an increase in the yield of meat in carcasses of crossbred pigs by 1.9 ˗ 4.2% (p≤ 0.001) and a decrease in fat ˗ by 2.8-6.6% (p≤0 , 01).

Getting heterosis offspring, which is distinguished by increased productivity, is due to the efficiency of combining different genotypes. It was established that the highest positive values were obtained when crossing the Large White breeds with high growth rates with Landrace (1.75%) and terminal boars (0.35%), as well as the combination of crossbred mothers with terminal breeders (D x H) – 2.25%.

Consequently, the best meat qualities were characterized by hybrid pigs, which proves the effectiveness of this combination to increase the meatiness of commercial hybrids. This is confirmed by the high level of combination and heterosis effect. Within the limits of each group of animals the pig-grade plus-variant was high-yielding.

Key words: pig, genotype, growth intensity, meat quality, slaughter output, meat content in the carcass.

 

 

Vasylyshyna O. Optimization of storage fruit foods with preparing processing by hytosan solution

UDC 66.011: 634.23: 664.8.032

 

O. Vasylyshyna

 

The main task of the modern commodity producer is to preserve and bring to the consumer quality products with the least losses. However, the term consumption of perishable fruits of cherry is limited by the period of achievement. And since the quality of products and the weight loss during storage depend on the taste and quality of products, we aim to optimize these parameters and establish their interconnection. For this purpose, cherry varieties of Shpanka and Lotovka were sprayed with 0,5 or 1% solution of chitosan and dried naturally during the day before harvesting. They were loaded into boxes of 5 kg capacity and stored at a temperature of 5 ± 0.5 ° C and a relative humidity of not less than 95 ± 1%. After storage, the commodity quality of products was determined according to GSTU 01.1-37-167: 2004 and the account of natural mass losses by weighing. Determination of the content of dry soluble substances was carried out on a refractometer RPL-3M, the content of ascorbic acid − iodometric method. Positive effect of preliminary processing of cherry fruit with 1% solution of chitosan was revealed. After 21 days of storage, the yield of fruit products of the cherry variety of Shpanka was 85,5% and Lotovka – 84,4%; weight loss decreased by 20% and accounted for 4,6% and 3,8% respectively. At the same time, the losses of dry soluble substances are the lowest – 2,9 and 3,9%, losses of ascorbic acid content – 22,7% and 16,9%. On the basis of the correlation-regression analysis, a mathematical model for determining the commodity evaluation of cherry fruit was obtained based on storage (х1) duration and mass loss (х2 ) − у = 75,2 + 0,55 х1 − 0,83 х2.

Key words: cherry, commodity quality, mass loss, chitosan.

Strelchuk L. Contemporary Agro-ecological and Forestry Technical Characteristics of the Field Forest Protection in the Plain-Steppe Territory of Kherson Region

UDC 630+630*6:(1-13)+(477)

 

Strelchuk L.

 

The objective of this work is the study of agro-ecological and agro-economic aspects of the forest protection of the field plain steppe area in the Kherson region.
As a result of this research, it is found that the potential level of wind erosion throughout all areas in the Kherson region is approximately equally high. These territories differ in initially limited availability of field protective windbreaks, the total area of which ranges from 0,7 to 1,6%, whereas, 4,0-5,7% is recommended; that is 3-5 times less than scientifically recommended for forest protection of the southern –steppe soils , and 7-8 times lower than forestation level recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization executive groups as a way of fighting desertification. The best functional preservation of protective windbreaks occurs in the Dnieper and coastal regions; and the worst one – in the eastern areas of the region.
In 2015-2018 years, a route survey of field protective windbreaks was conducted in the territory of the Kherson region. The total length of the survey routes makes 507 km which include 52,4 km of forest plantations with features of field protective windbreaks. During the study, the basic characteristics of the composition, functional structure and actual condition of field protective forest areas were determined.
It was found that the current condition of field forests in the territory of Kherson region is not satisfactory; up to 58 % of the forest areas are degraded that makes their function as wind protective field shelter absolutely impossible.
The study of the condition of the field protective plantations revealed that there is an urgent need for their intensive restoration. Evident local and ecological features of the areas of different districts require development of appropriate local complexes which combine precisely those measures and facilities that are optimal for fighting soil degradation. Examples of such complexes are the plantations based on short-term stubble-perennial plots, medium-term shrub-herbaceous bands and long-term forest-strip formations in a mosaic or frontal combination. Windbreaks in this system of small-scale locally-optimal field protection can play the role of the main ecological-spatial framework, according to which the formation of winter-spring air-barriers agreed in the system of regional field protection will occur every autumn.
During the field study, bunk 6-row windbreaks of fast-growing tree species (hybrid forms of poplar, white saxaul, elm, ash) were found which in combination with fast-growing shrub vegetation (lilac, pollen, upland cherry) can within 5 years form a sheltering “frame” of windbreaks, thus providing some wind-erosion and wind-protective stability.
Thus, to restore the protective windbreaks and increase their total area, it is necessary to determine locally the species composition and constructive features of field forestations which will be optimal for perspective plans of small-scale agro-ecological protection of the plain-field areas of irrigated lands of Southern Ukraine.

Keywords: agro-ecological grounds of optimum areas of field protective forest belts, field plain steppe massif of irrigated agriculture, wind-erosion danger, steppe forestation, field protective forest belts.

 

 

Ivanova I., Serdyuk M., Herasko T., Belous E., Kryvonos I. The sweet cherry yield depending on the climatic conditions of the years of cultivations

UDC [58.055:634.23](477.7)

 

I. Ivanova

M. Serdyuk

T. Herasko

E. Belous

I. Kryvonos

 

In the conditions of the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine, the receiving high yields of garden crops depends not only on the complex of agro-technical and management measures. Natural and climatic factors have a significant, and sometimes decisive, impact on productivity. Cherry culture is a business card of stone bones in the southern region of Ukraine. Given the above, the definition of the ecological suitability or discomfort of individual weather factors for cherry yields in the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine remains an important issue for the research by scientists.
The purpose of the research was to substantiate the effect of meteorological factors on the cherry yield in the conditions of the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine and to create a mathematical model of the crop yield based on the identified stress factors.
The article describes the priority meteorological factors for increasing the sweet cherry yield in the conditions of the Southern Steppe zone of Ukraine. Using the methods of mathematical statistics, an agricultural assessment of the effect of weather conditions on the cherry yield during the period 2008-2018 was obtained. During the correlation analysis it was found that the yield is affected by a complex of hydrothermal conditions (factors). The 202 factors were selected for the study, which may affect cherry yield changes. The average correlation relationships are set for 78 of 202 factors in the range of r – 0.33… 0.66.
The nine stress factors as components of a common set of weather conditions in the region, which affect the sweet cherry yield are revealed by the results of correlation analysis.
The results of the correlation analysis revealed nine stress factors as components of a holistic complex of weather conditions in the region that affect the sweet cherry yield. These include: the absolute minimum air temperature in April and May, the sum of active temperatures in the spring period, the total number of days with precipitation in December and during flowering; the sum of precipitation during flowering period, hydrothermal coefficientin flowering period, the average minimum temperature during flowering period, the average maximum temperature in March.
The methods of variation statistics were used in the study during the analysis and processing of experimental data, as well as in predicting the final conclusions. Using the linear dependence function: Y = a0 + a1X1 + a2X2 + … + AnXn allowed us to formulate a multifactor model:
Y= 5,998424+1,068352Х1+0,810361Х2
The development of the latter one made it possible to predict the sweet cherry yield depending on the influence of environmental stressors.

Keywords: yield, sweet cherry, weather factors, multifactorial model, temperature, precipitation, humidity.