An analysis of safety indicators of milk in the agricultural enterprise

UDC 637. 12:006. 833

L. Patryeva,
I. Maximovа

L. Patryeva, I. Maximovа..

Milk and dairy products are one of the main of foods that are rich in protein, essential amino acids, trace elements, vitamins and other nutrients. The problem of quality milk and dairy products, despite strong demand, is one of the major and painful problems of the industry, which should be given special attention. It relates mainly to non-compliant technological disciplines in the production, under the control of products for safety, in case of compulsory work for state certification (poor labeling, production in violation of recipes, not of the produce for physico-chemical parameters ).
Based on the position that today’s milk in the country is defined as a social product (after the bakery), you must provide a quantified population domestic market of dairy products, and guarantee the proper quality and safety
Today, Ukraine has an issue with cow’s milk as a raw material. This is because the predominant share of dairy products in the current market comes from farms that use only hand milking. Hence, the potential and the real possibility of bacterial contamination of milk. In addition, the added problems on the stages of transportation of products, which requires proper packaging, specially equipped vehicles and more. Based on the previous position, the quality of milk as raw material must meet safety standards.
The aim of research was to establish whether samples of raw cow’s milk obtained in an agricultural enterprise present the number of chemical-toxicological indicators of the safety of these products.
This study showed the actual concentrations of pesticides and heavy metals in raw milk. Thus, the fate of massive DDT and HCH actual concentration of the latter was below the MCL, or less than 0. 05. In the investigated samples of milk bazudynu, karbofosom, metaphos, trichlorfon were found. Regarding heavy metals, among the submitted samples of milk exceeded MPC by mass fate of lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper and zinc were found.
Further studies should explore the safety and quality of dairy products in agricultural enterprises depending on the factors of organizational and technological nature.

Key words: Ukraine, international cooperation, production, safety, quality.

Analysis of safety indicators of milk in the agricultural enterprise.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

The productivity of Different Breed Bulls in High-Tech Beef Production.

UDC 636. 2. 033:612

I. Lastovska,
M. Lutsenko

I. Lastovska,M. Lutsenko. 

It was found, that the highest indicators of live weight gain in the new high tech conditions were received from Volin Meat bulls, which were at the level of 1005 gr per 24 hours. This indicator for Combine Sentimental bulls, were less for 2% and made 984 gr per 24 hours, and for the Black Pockmarked Cattle bulls the average daily weight gains were 961 gr per 24 hours.
The results show that the content of leukocytes in blood was at a level of 8. 51…8. 90х109g/l, intensity of hemoglobin is 116. 4…118. 0 g/l, that shows about the normal physiological condition of experimental animal.
The content of general protein in the blood serum, albumens and globulins show the high resistance of experimental animals’ bodies. The content of ketone bodies in blood on the level of 56. 5…62. 72 мг/л. show the approximate balance of protein, carbohydrates and fat exchange
We discuss animal productivity when they live according to their live weight and fatness. However these indicators do not give show us everything about the meat productivity and meat quality. The most exact and objective data we can receive is only obtained after animal slaughtering.
During the research we established, that the average live weight of control group animal after hunger retention was less, then Experimental I for 9. 3 kg, or 1. 88%(P>0. 95), and for 21. 1 kg or 4. 26% (P>0. 999) compared to the animals of group II. There is also less interior fat in animal carcass of young cattle control group compared to the animals of Experimental group I for 9. 67%(P>0. 95), and Experimental group II for 15. 32% (P>0. 999).
We defined as well, that the most slaughter output was observed on the bulls of Experimental group II volin meat breed, which was at the level of 61. 6% and was more than the similar indicator of Experimental group I for 1. 5%, and of control group for 5. 3%.

Key words: technology, beef, bulls, morphological parameters of blood, live weight, average daily weight gain, meet productivity, slaughter weight, slaughter output.

Productivity of Different Breed Bulls in the Conditions of Innovation Technology of Beef Production.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

The morphological and biochemical evaluation rabbits depending on the age of slaughter.

UDC 636. 92

A. Pogorelova, A. Kotsiybenko. 

Providing the population with food products of high quality in modern society is one of the most important tasks. The main road to solving this problem lies in the intensive development of livestock including rabbits.
The paper is an analysis of product yield rabbits slaughtered at different ages. The data on lipid and amino acid composition of meat rabbits showed a significant difference with biochemical and morphological structure of rabbits, depending on the age of slaughter. The most valuable for the amino acid composition of meat and ‘zhyrokyslotnym povnovikovyh’ rabbits and calves slaughtered in the 120-day age. In adult rabbit meat increases fat by 3. 1 times and 13. 7% decreases the amount of water compared to the 90-day youngsters.
Accordingly, it should be noted that the age of rabbits significantly change the amount of meat and internal fat. Value is the share of physiological systems is almost unchanged over the life of the animal. The most complete chemical composition of a rabbit and the fat in rabbits, are in those that have reached their full physiological development. With physiological maturity, the carcass of rabbits composition changes in the direction of increasing the number of fatty acids.
Growing rabbits in units “Rabbitaks-8” allows you to receive high-quality, environmentally friendly rabbit products. In the future we plan to investigate the effect of sex and castration on the biochemical composition of different ages in rabbit slaughter.

Key words: rabbit, bird, biochemical composition, morphological structure, composition zhyrokyslotnyy.

Morphological and biochemical evaluation rabbits depending on the age of slaughter.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

Rabbit meat as the main organic production reserve.

UDC 636. 92:637. 5

V. Kotelevych


The organic production which includes rabbit meat that has a highly nutritional, ecologically pure diet facilitates the supply to the population with ecologically pure products. Nowadays the development of the specialized organic rabbit meat has particular economic advantages for the Ukrainian industry as compared to other branches of animal breeding. The carcasses of rabbits that were grown in farms are prosperous in infectious and parasitic diseases, pathological changes are absent;
Meat rabbits 4-month old specialized meat breeds are popular, almost equal organoleptically-tasting performance. The taste, aroma, juiciness, color (on 5-point scale) overall GPA in the spring-summer and autumn-winter periods was respectively: California ripening – 4. 7 – 4. 8 and 4. 6 – 4. 7 ; Belgian giant (flāneur) – 4. 8 – 5. 0 and 4. 7 – 4. 8 points. The rabbit meat comparative analysis of California and Flandria breeds shows that the live weight, output the slaughter of muscular tissues, carcasses muscularity depends on the breed and season. With the increase of muscle mass during intensive method of growing rabbits to 4 months of age increases bone mass . The productivity of rabbits in spring and summer period is higher compared to the autumn and winter months. Indicators show slaughter withdrawal of Belgian giant (spring – summer) is as close to the reference data precocious breeds of rabbits -nutritional category for which the slaughter withdrawal specialized meat breeds in 4-months of age can reach 50 to 56% The 4-month rabbits raised in spring and summer period gained the highest live and slaughter weight: Flander – 3375 ± 27. 0 g and Kalifornia – 2956. 5 ± 6. 74 g breeds correspondingly.

Key words: rabbit meat, organic production, ecologically pure and safe, live and slaughter weight.

Rabbit meat as the main organic production reserve.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

The use of herbal adaptogen to enhance the protective properties of the organism of animals

UDC 619: 615. 322

V. Kondakova,
D. Gotovs’kiy,
I. Fomchenko


Modern technologies of cultivation of animals and birds are composed of several integral technological elements (artificial microclimate, frequent change of feed, move, and regroup, weighing, vaccination, introduction of drugs, surgical operations), which can act on the body as stress factors.
Prolonged exposure to stress factors often leads to reduced productivity, the keeping of animals and the emergence of various pathologies. In veterinary practice to prevent stress  several drugs are used that belong to various pharmacological groups, is mostly antipsychotics and tranquilizers, and organic adaptogens of vegetable origin, vitamins. However, it is believed that, of all pharmacological groups listed the best stress-protective effects have adaptogens of plant origin. To improve the adaptive properties of young farm animals proposed application of biostimulator «tincture of Echinacea purpurea», which is having a positive impact on the resistance, the safety and productivity of calves, piglets, broilers and turkeys.
In particular it is established that the use of the biostimulator calves contributed to the increase in the content of albumin, immunoglobulins, calcium, red blood cells and hemoglobin in the blood, compared to animals of the control group, which the biostimulator was not applied. Also noted adaptogen positive effect on live weight of calves, which are superior to their peers.
A similar trend was noted when using the biostimulator pigs. It was established the increasing level of total protein, albumin and immunoglobulins in the blood of experimental piglets compared to control group. Also established a positive influence of biostimulant on the phagocytic activity of neutrophils and productivity of piglets.
When using biostimulator for factory chickens increased the average daily weight gain, feed conversion, reduction of sanitary marriage and mortality compared to the control chickens, which during the cultivation period did not receive an adaptogen.
When using an adaptogen to turkeys has been a positive influence of biostimulant on the indices of protein, carbohydrate, fat and mineral metabolism. The use of the tincture of Echinacea purpurea also has a positive impact on the productivity and safety of turkeys.

The use of herbal adaptogen to enhance the protective properties of the organism of animals.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

Immune status of diabetic rats treated with replacement cell therapy

UDC 612. 017. 1:616. 379-008. 64:611. 013:599. 323. 4

V. Kovpak, Doctor of veterinary sciences, senior lecturer
Y. Kharkevich, Doctor of veterinary sciences, senior lecturer
National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine

Just as in humans, the pancreas of diabetic animals in unable to produce enough insulin due to damaged beta-islets. It was found that the total content of leukocytes in peripheral blood of diabetic animals and people correlates with the severity of impaired organs and systems of the body. Due to agrowing number of evidence that leukocytes play an important roles in the development of diabetic complications, greater attention in being given to the study of the subject.
The aim of this work in to investigate the level of glucose, total and differential leukocyte content in the peripheral blood of rats, some of their functional indexes,the content of circulating immune complexes and immunoglobulins against the background of thesimulatedalloxandiabetesbyintraperitonealadministrationofmesenchymalstemcells ofallogeneicorigin.
Materials and methods of research.We used 12 rats in the experiment. Rats were divided into 4 groups consisting of 3 rats each: I – control group, II – experimental group without therapeutic intervention (blood sampling for analysis was performed on the 20th day of the experiment), III – experimental group without therapeutic intervention (blood sampling for analysis was performed on the 34th day of the experiment), ІV – experimental group, where MSCs in an amount of 2 million were injected to animals on the 20th day after the formation of diabetes (blood sampling for analysis was performed on the 34th day of the experiment).
Alloxan diabetes was formed by a single subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate in a dose of 150 mg/kg in the form of 5% solution on citrate buffer (pH 4.5) after a previous 24-hour starvation diet with free access to water.
MSCs wereobtainedfrombonemarrowoflongbonesofratsaged 7-10 days. Cellculture wasperformedbythestandardmethodinthe СО2incubator.
Experimentalfindings. The administration of alloxan to experimental animals causes the development of diabetes, accompanied by increased levels of glucose in the blood. The immunological blood parameters and functional parameters of phagocytes in diabetic animals indicate the presence of certain pathological processes caused by insulin deficiency in their body. Mesenchymal stem cells administered against the background of diabetes reduce the level of glucose in the blood of animals-recipients and help restore blood parameters toward the original indicators.

Key words: diabetes, mesenchymalstemcells, glucose, leukocytes, immunoglobulins.

Immune status of diabetic rats treated with replacement cell therapy.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

Cytogenetic analysis of myocardial progenitor cells of rats at early passages

УДК 576. 316:611. 018. 63:636. 96

O. Kovpak

Introduction. Despite significant advances in modern medicine treatment of myocardial infarction neither conservative nor operative methods do not give the desired result. A promising method of treatment of heart pathologies is the using of cellular technology.
Progenitor stem cells are poorly expressed complexes of major histocompatibility antigens which reduce likelihood after transplantation complications. In order to use myocardial progenitor cells for clinical purposes the significant quantity of cells is needed, that can be achieved only by long-standing in vitro cultivation. Literature data analysis doesn’t give an unambiguous answer regarding genetic stability of myocardial progenitor cells during their in vitro cultivation, which necessitated further research.
Goal of the work. Performing of cytogenetic analysis of myocardial progenitor cells of rats at early passages.
Materials and methods.Myocardial progenitor cells of rats of the first to the sixth passages were used in this research. The cytogenetic analysis was performed on 30 metaphase plates of rat’sstem cells from every passage. Slides were obtained through modification of standard cytogenetic method. In the course of the research we considered: quantitative abnormalities of chromosomes – aneuploidy, polyploidy. The same preparations were used to calculate the quantity of binuclear cells, cells with micronuclei, mitotic index, apoptotic cells (frequency was calculated for 500 cells (%)).
Results of research and discussion. Presented the results of cytogenetic analysis of myocardial progenitor cells of rats during in vitro culture. We found alterations in genetic apparatus of cells, that occurred in the form of aneuploidy, polyploidy as well as micronuclei, the amount of which varied depending on the passage. However, the variability of karyotype of the mentioned cells didn’t exceed self-existing level of mutations, specific to this animal species.

Key words: cytogenetic analysis, micronucleus test, progenitor cells, myocardium.

Cytogenetic analysis of myocardial progenitor cells of rats at early passages.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

Danish features of food safety

UDC 631. 1. 02

E. Klausen,PhD, veterinary inspector
Veterinary department of Denmark

One of the most effective models is the Danish system of food safety based on risk-oriented approach with centralized control.
The Danish Veterinary and Food administration  (DVFA) – brought together almost all functions in the area of food safety, including control of products of animal origin.
The government agencies responsible for food safety in of Denmark include the following structures: Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries, Office of Audit, Head Office The Danish Veterinary and Food administration, meat inspection, Western regional administration, the Eastern Regional management, the Secretariat of the complaints about the veterinary and food.
The control activities DVFA decentralized and in two regional centers and ten of their regional divisions – regional management of animal and food products (RVFCA), which is important for the organization of a national policy from top to bottom.
Official controls and inspections of food and animal of Denmark in based on the principle of responsibility of companies and primary producers for compliance with established rules and regulations. Companies and manufacturers should be called self-control program of systematic action plans aimed at compliance with the rules of the food and livestock.
The program is self-control should be based on the principles of the system of HACCP. Applications self-individual companies must be approved and registered by the authorities.
On the registry of food business operators, there is a detailed list of companies that produce animal products for export and for domestic consumption.
The Danish Veterinary and Food administration ensures that all food vendors followed the law to the health and rights of consumers are protected, and producers, informing about products, customers not likely to mislead.
During each visit, inspected a number of control zones. The enterprise as a whole is estimated as areas belonging to the highest risk for a particular company.
Priority steps to ensure public health and economic prosperity of Ukraine are:
1. Reform the existing system of state control of food safety by creating a single supervisory authority and rationalization of laboratory services.
2. The harmonization of national legislation on food safety with EU standards and the use of horizontal approach when adopting relevant legislation. Integrated component of the system must be the introduction to food processing enterprises of self, based on the principles HACCR.
3. Development of a national program of training of inspectors for food safety.

Key words: Denmark, system safety, food production, control.

Danish features of food safety.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

Medicinal properties of honey from different regions of Ukraine

UDC 638. 162. 1(477)

A. Kitaeva,
K. Khamid,
Z. Semenova

Useful features of honey are due to biological nature of honey and its complex chemical composition. Honey has antibacterial, medicinal and dietary properties. Has anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action. The composition of sugars, mineral substances, trace elements, vitamins, enzymes, biologically active substances give the therapeutic effect of honey. Honey used as a tonic and restorative power tool. In some studies, honey has been used in the treatment of tumors, wounds, burns, acute respiratory diseases, diseases of the cardiovascular system, kidneys, liver, biliary tract, gastrointestinal tract. At the moment not fully understood why honey has such a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. Therefore, further investigation of the therapeutic properties of honey is relevant.
For the study used multi honey from different regions of Ukraine, collected from acacia, Linden, buckwheat, burkun, sunflower, garden plants and Raznotravie. Regardless of the age of the child, honey was used as a warm drink of chamomile, rosehip, fruit and vegetable juice, black or green tea. In the treatment of influenza, cough, acute respiratory diseases used as drinking warm milk with honey (5:1).
A positive influence of the therapeutic properties of honey in the diet of children with the full diet at the age from 3 to 16 years of age on metabolism is established. The immunity of children of all age groups has increased, the bowel movements has normalized, the excitability of the nervous system has reduced, the appetite has improved, the hemoglobin has increased. That is why honey is an effective remedy for constipation, it acts as a tonic and vitamin remedy.

Key words: honey, children, age group, diet, treatment

Medicinal properties of honey from different regions of Ukraine.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016

An objective assessment of genotype rams on the quality of offspring

UDC 636. 32/38. 082. 12

V. Kyrychenko,
Y. Barkar,
A. Kyrychenko

A correct assessment and selection of the most valuable rams is of primary importance in the system of breeding sheep with different productivity directions, because breeders provide almost 80% of the genetic improvement of the herd. Currently, the most studied method, which is successfully used in animal production practices, is the use of polymorphic systems for genetic examination of origin. It is proved that the errors in the pedigrees are very common.Errors in the pedigree documentation entails significant losses in production, especially in the breeding work. The breeding entries accuracy determines the effectiveness of selection work, including the purity of lines, the objectivity of the inheritance calculation, variability and correlation of economic-useful signs, the detection of genetic parameters. Without regard to these conditions, it is impossible to evaluate the quality of sheep breeding objectively and to make an effective selection and breeding of animals. For a more accurate assessment of studs breeding qualities an objective assessment of the stud rams genotypes was carried out based on the data obtained by genetic expertise of their descendants’ origin. The difference between our research and previous studies is that the genetic expertise of the young animals’ origin was carried out taking into account the results of animals typing not only based on polymorphic proteins but also according to blood groups. The assessment was conducted by the method of “Daughters of the same age.” For comparison of productive traits were used indicators such as: live weight at birth and weaning, the average number of lambs produced per ewe using verifiable ram (multiple pregnancy).It was found that the immunogenetic control when checking the studs on the quality of the descendants of origin, confirmed by genetic expertise, enables to establish objectively the rank of the stud, to identify the improvers that have a positive effect on the herd gene pool and to exclude from the selection the impairs timely, and also it becomes possible to trace the studs potential to breed true.

An objective assessment of genotype rams on the quality of offspring.

Issue 2(89), Part 1, 2016