Estimation of the dairy cow’s breeding values using the linear models (BLUP)

UDC 636.082/57.087

S. Kramarenko,
O. Potryvaieva

In recent years, in order to estimate farm animals breeding value, more and more attention is paid to the method of BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction). The essence of this method is using of statistical adjustment for the impact of identifiable factors.
The main purpose of this study is a comparative analysis of various algorithms of linear models to obtain reliable estimates of breeding values (EBV) of animals.
As the material for the study were used zootechnical data for 113 cows of Russian Red Steppe Breed, which were keeping in State Enterprise “Plemreproductor “Stepove” (Mykolayiv region) during the 2001-2014 years. As a dependent variable were used data of the milk yield for 305 days of the first lactation.
As randomized factors was used bull-producer’s genotype. As fixed factors – year of birth, month of calving and season of calving. Finally, as the covariance were used weight in different stages of postnatal growth, exterior measurements and the age of the first effective insemination.
It was established, that the model, which includes the effect of bulls’ genotype, as well as year of cows’ birth, unfortunately, gives unsatisfactory results. Although, when considered separately, both these factors seems to has highly likely impact. So, the assessment proved to be very sensitive to the imbalance in the using of different bulls at different times.
Using exterior indicators makes only an insignificant effect in the adjustment of estimates of breeding value. The most significant effect on the estimates of breeding value of bulls had the weight of cows at the age of first lactation and the age of the first effective insemination – in this case the EBV accuracy increases by almost in a half (from 18.3% to 32.6%).

Key words: estimated breeding value (EBV), Linear models (BLUP), dairy cow.

Estimation of the dairy cow’s breeding values using the linear models (BLUP).

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

Aquatic organisms under global warming

UDC 57.045:574.5

V. Yurchenko, Сandidate of Аgrarian Sciences, Associate Professor
M. Dodashyants
Kharkiv State Zooveterinary Academy, Kharkiv

Temperature is the most important climatic factor that often limits the existence and geographic distribution of organisms. More than a century, there is an increase in the average temperature on the surface of the ocean. As a result, organisms have to adapt to new conditions. The first consequence of changes in environmental conditions is a displacement terms of seasonal phenomenons. The sharp warming water has a negative effect on the reproductive performance of fish, causes a heat stress, stimulates the contamination of fish parasites and infectious diseases. Because of global warming, many species of fish significantly reduced in size. The water temperature determines the sex of some species. To the end of the century the ratio of males and females of some fishs may change from the usual 50% to 75 – 98%. Thus, these species may disappear.
Increasing the ocean temperature causes migration of marine organisms. Changing ocean dynamics particularly adversely affects the those species that are not able to migrate, and leads to their death. Global warming and rising acidity of the waters of the oceans has caused the destruction of 20% of all coral reefs in the world.
An important aspect of the impact of global warming is reducing the amount of aquatic plants. This causes the reduction populations consuments – the next level trophic chain. The result is changing species composition of ecosystems and nature their functioning. Quite a lot of indirect climate effects that affect aquatic organisms, including changes chemical composition of the ocean (concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc.). For example, reducing the content of oxygen in the sea water leads to a decrease in fertility and growth of marine organisms. In some cases, negative trends in marine fishery related to global warming, can be overcome through mariculture or aquamelioration.

Key words: climate change, global warming, temperature, environmental conditions, aquatic ecosystems, aquatic organisms, fishs, number of populations, seasonal phenomenons, reproductive function, migration, corals, marine fishery.

Aquatic organisms under global warming.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

Effect of feed supplement «Bio Plus 2B» for high quality pork

UDC 634.4.087.7

P. Shebanin, graduate student
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

Nowadays there is a total ban on use of antibiotics and hormonal growth promoters. In this context, the importance of research aimed at studying the influence of enzymes, pre- and probiotics, etc., on the productivity of pigs, is a priority, especially for acquiring European integration..
In this regard, the purpose of our research is the study of the effect of feed supplement «Bio Plus 2B» on the physico-chemical and chemical characteristics of pigs’ meat, as well as conducting the tasting and the organoleptic evaluation of meat-fat products.
Analysis of the results of studies of the active acidity of muscle tissue of experimental animals has shown that violations of the process of maturation of carcasses were not detected.
When pre-slaughter weight 100-120 kg statistically significant differences in the content of both moisture and dry matter of the longest muscle of the back, between animals of test groups were not found. Meat obtained from pigs, which in addition to the basic diet consumed probiotic product on fat was inferior to the meat of animals which received the basic diet of 0,41 and 0,36% (P>0,95) in the feed to live weight of 100 and 120 kg respectively.
Cooked meat of pigs of experimental groups has an excellent appearance, strong smell, very delicious, with a delicate texture. Overall assessment of the quality of the broth is also quite high. It should also be noted that any foreign odors or flavors after use of probiotic in the experimental group were not registered.
The meat quality of pigs of experimental groups complies with the requirements and rules, depending on the availability in the diet of probiotic, has specific properties. Thus, the use of living spore cultures in the form of a preparation «Bio Plus 2B» influenced the improvement of physical-chemical and chemical properties of muscle tissue that improve taste and nutritional quality of meat.

Key words: pigs, probiotic, physicochemical properties of pork, a tasting of pork.

Effect of feed supplement «Bio Plus 2B» for high quality pork.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

Influence of abiotic factors on the cows health and productivity and on calves resistance

UDC 636.2.053:619

N. Chorniy,
Yu. Schepetil’nikov,
А. Bondar,
E. Panasenko

This paper analyzes zoo hygienic, technological and alimentary factors which decreases milk productivity of cows and resistance of the calves born by them. Among numerous factors determining highly-productive cows’ and calves’ health, the crucial ones are temperature and humidity, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and aliphatic amines concentration in a barn. The secret to success is in high yields, low food converse, which is genetics, particular breed, strict abidance by microclimate, special food ration for each production and group, and management. One of the key factors of calves’ health provision is the time of the first colostrums ingestion. Preclinical and hidden mastitis, obstetric and gynecological diseases damage the dairy industry greatly. To prevent acetonemia, propylene glycol glycerin and propionate should be used. A high-productive cow must be always be provided with necessary quantities of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals and to use them sparingly for physiological and productive needs. Obtaining of sanitary qualitative milk and disease prevention depends on the service staff, i. e. milking machine operators. Inadequate feeding, space, violation of sanitary conditions (insufficient air exchange, high concentration of harmful gases and microorganisms, sudden changes of temperature and humidity), lack of space and relocation causes stresses in the organisms of cows and calves, and becomes the major reason of metabolic diseases and resistance decreases. Ketosis, i. e. metabolic disease, is manifested most often in the first weeks after calving assisting by glucose deficiency in food ration.
Cows’ and calves’ non-contagious etymology diseases were analyzed. The reasons for cows’ mastitis, limb diseases, rickets were due to the influence of environmental factors (hypoxia, weakness, insolation, cut feeding) which were demonstrated. The analysis of the literature and our own research data allows us to conclude that non-contagious etymology diseases which account 80-85% cases of sick animals are widely registered at cattle farms.

Key words: cows, calves, milk production, hygiene, sanitation, factors ketoses, diarrhea, disease of hooves, atony proventriculus.

Influence of abiotic factors on the cows health and productivity and on calves resistance.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

Use of prebiotics on the basis of mannan-oligosaccharides in feeding of chickens-broilers

UDC 636.5.033:636.084

А. Chernikova,
N. Ponomarenko

Questions about protection and normalization of the digestive system`s conditions are of current importance for poultry producers. Last time we started to use prebiotics for stimulation growing and prevention of gastrointestinal diseases in birds. Prebiotics are substances that contribute to the reproduction of intestinal beneficial microflora, which inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria, improve nutrient absorption and stimulate protective reactions. Prebiotic Aktigen was obtained from the cell walls of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It is an active concentrate mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS). Actigen works effectively by the process MOS and blocks intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Actigen is a modulator of the immune system. Such action of preparation leads to normalize of mucin production that promotes healthy surface of fibers. It is necessary for better absorption of nutrients. All these leads to improve integrity of the gastrointestinal tract and effectively support of immune system. More over Actigen improves gut`s microflora.
Based on previously research of feed grain quality in the Ukrainian market, we recommended to increase the dose of Actigen from the 1-st till 21-st day of feeding. Based on the researches were found that adding of Actigen to the broiler chickens`s diet in quantity 800 g per ton from 1-st till 21-st day and 400 g of Actigen from 22-nd day till end of growing period, has positive impact on the performance. We observed increasing of live weight level on 38 g, daily average rate – 0. 9 g, safety – 1. 3% by reducing the cost of feed for 1 kg body weight increasing – 0. 03 kg. European index of efficiency of broiler chickens growing (EPEF) with Actigen using is 13 units higher. It is confirm Actigen using. The economic efficiency of Actigen using is 3 to 5 cents per head. That is why reasonable to use Actigen.

Key words: prebiotics, broiler-chickens, growing, productivity.

Use of prebiotics on the basis of mannan-oligosaccharides in feeding of chickens-broilers.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

State and potential of development of the organic pig breeding in Ukraine

UDC 631.1.016:636.4

І. Chernishov,
M. Levchenko,
І. Mazurkevich

Research of the organic pig production potential in Southern Ukraine compared to the example of a typical farm had been done. The possibility of introducing pig production to environmentally friendly products, there is the urgency for the need to implement and further calculate production parameters. Organic agriculture is a comprehensive production management system that promotes and enhances the health of agricultural ecosystems, including biodiversity, biological cycles and biological activity of the soil, which can be achieved by using as agronomic, biological and mechanical methods as opposed to the use of synthetic materials to perform specific functions within the system. Based on these assumptions the research conducted on current issues, as they provide an analysis of organic farming in Southern Ukraine. The unilateral development of organic production in our country caused by incomplete legislative and regulatory framework that clearly outlined the state policy in the field of organic production, created the conditions for the legal recognition and protection of organic products, the formation of a national certification system, rules, standards, and clear, effective state support and incentives for organic production. Due to organic farming will be able to increase the soil fertility and generally keep them, increase the environmental safety of rural areas by reducing the number fertilizers and chemicals that are used in intensive agriculture. Also, this sector will lead to an increase in biodiversity of the environment, which in turn will contribute to the increased environmental condition. And improving environmental conditions will improve the general state of health and their immune resistance. And this is a strategic priority of the Ministry of Health that Ukraine should be interested in improving the health of the population of Ukraine. The data are of great scientific and practical importance can be used in planning new and reforming existing pig enterprises.

State and potential of development of the organic pig breeding of Ukraine.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

Bioactive addition of SPIRULINA PLATENSIS and its use is in growing of quail

UDC 574.5.085.16:636.6.087

А. Homenko

Experimentally proved that the use of milk whey consisting of nutrient medium during the cultivation of blue-green microalgae Spirulina platensis has a stimulating effect on the increase of biomass. Most dry biomass obtained by introducing 3.0% by volume of milk whey nutrient medium. Biomass obtained from the nutrient medium by adding this dose milk whey exceeded productivity of control 89.28% (p ≤ 0,001). With increasing concentrations of milk whey to 4.0% by volume of the amount of dry matter biomass Spirulina platensis was higher at 59.1% (p ≤ 0,001), compared with the control, but relative terms in the third experimental medium number decreased by 15.9%. The optimal technological parameters of biotechnology for the use of Spirulina platensis dairy whey consisting of nutrient medium are: pH of the nutrient medium within 9,0-10,0; temperature – 29,0±1,0°C; round the clock illumination – 2900 lux ± 40,0.Studies indicate that feeding quail between 1 to 22 days feed on content of 2.0% and from 23 to 50 days of growing – with a content 3.0% of biomass Spirulina platensis results to weight increase of poultry in 3,23%. The increase of average weight and absolute increments of poultry by use of biomass 3.0% supplement of Spirulina platensis, respectively, 5.47 and 4.20% compared with the control. In the study of the impact of biomass Spirulina platensis on indicators of performance observed meat likely increase body mass ante quail III experimental group, the feeding of the feed additive content of 3.0% by weight of Spirulina platensis fodder by 1.6 % (p ≤ 0,01) relative to control.

Key words: microalgae, fodder additive, biomass Spirulina platensis, culture, quail, body weight, feed.

Bioactive addition of SPIRULINA PLATENSIS and its use is in growing of quail.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

Veterinary sanitation testing of blackwall products for the presence of chlamydia in cattle 

UDC 619:616.98:579.882.11

I. Fomchenko


As a result of research, on the indexes of activity of enzyme of peroxidaza and presence in meat of primary disintegration of proteins, the meat of healthy animals and cows did not differentiate with the problems of the liver. Coinciding with this, substantial distinctions were marked in the indexes of reaction to the environment (рН), so an index of рН meat from animals with the problems of the liver was 6,5+0,19, that it is peculiar for meat of sick animals. The concentration of hydrogen ions was constantly higher in the process of ripening as compared to control on 0,2 units, that specified on lowering of maintenance of glycogen in muscular fabric of sick cows. The decline in activity of peroxidaza was marked at the same time. A formol reaction and reaction with a blue vitriol gave doubtful results. This data is not concerning the quality of the beef, got from animals patient with a clamidiosis. In meat of animals of patients by a clamidiosis maintenance of toxic elements and radionukliotids less PDK.
The analysis of data showed, iron in meat of healthy animals on 10% higher, than for animals at that a clamidiosis is set. The table of contents of Niacinum in meat of patients of animals makes 4,96 mgs/of 100 g, that below than his maintenance in meat healthy on 0,16 mgs/100 g. Fats behave to the major organic components of meat . They stipulate a food and power value, giving the meat a peculiar taste and aroma. For animals that a clamidiosis is set temperature of hardening below 2,6° With and iodic number below on 1,0. It is related to operating of causative agent of clamidiosis on the organism of animals.
Thus, meat and internal organs are found inanimals at that a clamidiosis is set by serum and behaves as a microscopic method to the semi-condemned, and in connection with protracted. The long (1. 5-9 mon. ) persistence сhlamydia in parenchymatous organs: in order to prevent human infection prevention and spread the pathogen chlamydia slaughtering sick animals should produce sanitary blowing massacre or slaughter shop at the end of a shift in a personal рro prevention and subsequent disinfection of premises, equipment, inventory and сhase tools.

Key words: Veterinary-sanitary examination, chlamydia, cattle.

Veterinary-sanitary examinationof products of backwall of cattle is at the disease of chlamydia.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

The effect of cutting process on the physico-chemical characteristics of cooked sausages

UDC 637.523

L. Strikha,
O. Krivchuk

It was determined the indicators of the moisture content in cooked sausage products during the production process, were 56.1% in consecutive cuttering, compared with parallel and accelerated. It is proved that the poor moisture content was characterized by boiled sausage, made in cuter on the accelerated method. The advantage, in comparison with products made in a serial fashion was 2.3% (P>0,95).
During the research it was determined the effect of cuttering length (short, medium, long) on the physico-chemical characteristics of sausage. The study indicator of the quality sausages made in 3 control experiments, with a total cooter 210 kg of raw material. In the study of the effect of time querubyna on quality indicators found that the water content in sausage products amounted to 53.1-56.6 per cent in various ways. Poor moisture content was characterized by cooked sausages produced with an average length of cuttering. Likely the advantage of the sausage compared to sausage made with short and long phase cuttering is 3.5% (P>0,95).
In the experiment, we defined the following indicators: the percentage of moisture, protein, fat, salt and sodium nitrite. The moisture content in sausage products while manufacturing stood at 56.6% at an average temperature of grinding. Poor moisture content was characterized by cooked sausages produced in high temperature of the grinding water.
The advantage, compared with the products made when the average temperature is 1.5%, but the difference is not statistically significant (P<0,95). The amount of water within a specified range dependent on type of raw material, the content of adipose tissue. Reducing the amount of added water caused the deterioration of juiciness, appearance hard rubber consistency, reduction of output. If excessive water or sausages had Rossitto, “sand” texture, because it weakened the coupling strength between the particles of ground meat, set the release of moisture in the form of nodules of broth under the shell. The studies showed that the moisture content in cooked sausages in the manufacture was of 57.5% at dadawan a large amount of water. Low moisture content was characterized by the cooked sausage, adding small amounts of water (ice). The advantage, in terms of the moisture content in sausage products in the first method in comparison with the products manufactured by the third method was 2.9% (P>0,95).
To improve qualitative and quantitative indicators in the production of cooked sausages it is advisable to make the stuffing the average values of indicators of the duration ( 8-10 minutes) and temperature ( 12-14°C) cuttering.

Key words: boiled sausages, process parameters, cuttering, physical and chemical indicators cuttering temperature, duration of treatment, methods kuteruvannya, protein content, fat content, moisture content.

The effect of cutting process on the physico-chemical characteristics of cooked sausages.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016

TheUse of organic Cobalt for the production of high quality milk

UDC 636.

O. Smetanina, doctoral student
І. Ibatulin, Doctor of Agrarian Sciences
В. Bomko, Doctor of Agrarian Sciences
Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University and National University of Life and Environmental Sciences

This article shows the results of the efficiency elimination of Cobalt deficit in feeds that have been used in experimental feeding of highly productive cows of Holstein breed through various doses of mixed lygand cobalt complex to obtain clean milk. Deficiency of Copper and Zinc covered by sulfuric acid salts of these trace elements, as well as balancing rations for Selenium by sodium selenite rate of 0.3 mg selenium per kilogram SR.
In the feeding of experimental cows we used small component forage mixture composed feed-concentrates from mixed lygand complex of cobalt, sulfate salts of copper, cobalt and sodium selenite. Feeding experimental groups differed from the control group that cows of the 2nd experimental group eliminated the deficit by 90%, cows of the 3rd experimental group – 80%, cows of the 4th experimental group by 70% and cows of the 5th experimental group – 60%.
Based on data obtained during the scientific and economic experiment, it was found that the elimination of the deficit of cobalt in the forage mixture of 80% by mixed lygand complex of cobalt in the diets of dairy cows of Holstein breed in the dry period and the lactation period, provided the experimental cows in this element and encouraged by the highest productivity compared to the control and experimental groups, which eliminated the deficit in zinc 100%, 90%, 70% and 60%. The highest yield of natural milk during milking, milk production and the launch and for the entire 305 days of lactation had cows from the 2nd, the 3rd, the 4th and the 5th research group that dominated cows analogue of controls for the gross yield natural milk respectively, at 194; 481; 179 and 60 kg, or to 1.26; 6.43; 2.39 and 0.80%.
It was found that the highest milk productivity tested cows had on the 55th and 60th day after calving.
In the milk of the tested cows except the 3d tested group it was found increasing of fat content on 0,01 – 0,03 % in the 1st control group – 3,67%, the 2d – 3,70%,the 3d – 3,69 %, the 4th – 3,73% and the 5th – 3,72 %.
Gross milk yield per cow per lactation natural milk made: in the 1st control group -7477 kg, 2-kg experimental – 7574 or by 1.26% more than in control, 3rd – 7958 kg, or 6.43% more than in control, in the 4th – 7656 kg, or 2.39% more than in control and in the 5th – 7537 kg or 0.8% more than in the control.
Based on data obtained during the scientific and economic experiment it was proved that the best realized genetic potential of highly productive cows of Holstein breed German breeding area in the steppes of Ukraine cobalt eliminated the deficit by 80% through the use of mixed lygand complex of this element.

Key words: highly productive cows, premix, minerals, trace sulfate salts of copper, zinc, sodium selenite, mixed lygand complex of cobalt, lactation, milk yield, milk fat, forage mixture, deficit.

Using of organic Cobalt for the production of high quality milk.

Issue 2(90), Part 2, 2016