Issue 4 (81), 2014

To the issue of academic standards compliance as the key to high quality textbooks

4(81), 2014
UNC 371.671:006

V. Khanstantinov

Ukraine’s accession to the European educational system has brought new ideas and technologies into the practice of educational process in high school. Particular emphasis is placed on the role of independent work in mastering knowledge. It dwells upon the student handbook, the quality of which significantly affects the developmental and educational nature of learning in general.

The objectives of this article are to draw the attention of colleagues – teachers to the role of textbooks in the classroom, share observations with the typical shortcomings in their thoughts and how to minimize these effects.

The current system of higher education is a complicated and multi-institutional set of ordered relations between teachers and students to provide fundamental scientific theoretical and practical training of the younger generation in view of the current needs of our society. One generally accepted in lace academic standards is the requirement to prepare students qualified teaching staff textbooks on modern theoretical, methodological and methodical level, content and at the same time affordable for everyday use that can be of interest to young people. Textbooks must help students to work creatively and to dive into the deeper layers of concrete science for further time.

Authors must pay their attention to take care of logic and content line-text textbook or textbooks, to make sure of modern scientific level of them. They also must pay their attention to design of the books, especially in terms of language, emphasis on communication with related disciplines and to the future practice.

Conditions that conducive to the release of low-quality educational products are, first, formal relationship by reviewers, editors, scientific and methodological councils and committees, who usually are involved in the case. And, secondly, the virtual absence of external monitoring of the quality of education, because according to the report of the European Commission on the state of implementation of the Bologna process in 2012, Ukraine found itself at the last among member countries place on the level of international participation in monitoring the quality of education.

When writing educational books there is no detail. Here, every detail, every name, every date and requires are important. Inaccuracies in textbooks detrimental to the quality of general and professional training after the publication of a textbook or other learning book begins to live his life.

The public need for quality teaching book is not situational, and will be relevant as long as educational system as an important social institution will exist. Historically formed in high school academic culture, one element of which is the academic standards – a set of rules which ensures compliance with the public demanded high quality training. On the one hand academic freedom allows people to create a comfortable environment for teaching creativity and intellectual personal fulfillment for university students, but on the other hand, it provides a high level of training.

Applying of our educational system to the latest European technologies concerning its organization and functioning, does not mean weakening of attention to compliance certain academic standards, including and especially regarding process of preparing textbooks,which were verified by time. (more…)

Finding effective ways to adapt animals in their introduction under global warming

4(81), 2014
UNC 636.083.312:551.588.7

M. Tishchenko

Global warming, which began in the 70s of the last century, in the near future undoubtedly will affect all sectors of the economy and especially in the livestock industry. Bbecause the relevance of this issue over the years, probably will increase [1].

Experts of UN said that the main reason for the current state of climate is the greenhouse effect, which causes warming, due to high carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) [1].

To study the reaction of various animals to effect global warming is topical and necessary in the selection and breeding of domestic animals and the introduction of animals that are genetically able to counter hot climate (tapir, warthog, antelope Cana, zebra etc.). These animals (if compared them with existing, endemic forms) are characterized as morphological and morpho-physiological and anatomical characteristics and properties that regulate temperature in high temperatures to allow for their adaptation to the environment [2, 3].

For a more comfortable welfare for their development and performance author have created a ventilation system for livestock [4].

This system is extremely effective control of microclimate in livestock buildings with minimal power consumption.

This system will improve all metabolic process, ontogenesis and increase adaptation process under negative factors of high temperature. This system ensure following results: predict reduction of air moisture on 30-50 %; heating of air inside fill optimal temperature for animals; absent of draft; reduction consumption of electricity fill 20-30; increasing of living levels and animal productivity on the average 18-20 %.

global warming, temperature, introduction, adaptation animals. (more…)

Using an enzyme-treated mustard powder in the production of smoked sausage

4(81), 2014
UNC 637.523

Strikha L.

The results of qualitative research, physic and chemical and organoleptic characteristics of smoked sausages made in various ways: traditional and intensive, in which in the minced meat sausages were added 2% enzymatically treated mustard powder. It was established that the mass of sausages after heat treatment was highest in the second method of manufacture and it was 122,9kg. The benefit in weight of ready product was 1,6kh if to compare with sausages that were made by the first method. Using the of intensive technologies is characterized by the highest yield of finished products 67,2% and lower mass loss. It was established that active acidity of sausage mince was 5,53 pH units in the first method and 5,46 pH units in the second methos of production with adding of a mustard powder. The lowest rate was in the moisture content of sausages in the first method and amounted to 29,2%. The difference compared with sausages, made the second method was 0,6% (P>0,95).The protein content in sausages meet regulatory and fluctuated within 20,7-20,8%. Sausages that were made by various technologies were characterized by normative values of sodium nitrite content and fat content.

According to the organoleptic characteristics the best sausages were those that have been made by the second method. The total score of organoleptic evaluation was 7,8±0,06 points. The difference was 0,8 points (P>0,95) if to compare with sausages made the first method.

Determined that the best look had sausages made by the second method. On the cut these sausages didn’t have porosity, mince evenly mixed, bacon bits evenly distributed and the color was red without spots. The highest score in terms of color on cut had the sausages in the second method 7,3±0,06 points. The advantage over the products made by first method was 0,8 points (P>0,95). Adding of mustard powder while making sausages positively affects on the color, smell and taste of sausages.

According to these indications the best sausages were in the second method of manufacture. Average score for the smell and taste of them respectively was 8,2±0,7 and 7,2±0,13 points. The highest score in terms of texture and juiciness got sausages in the second mode. Thus, it is proved that the highest yield of finished products and lower mass loss characterized sausages that were made by the intensive method. They had the best quality, physic and chemical and organoleptic properties.

It was found that the adding to the mince of smoked sausages of1-2% enzyme treated mustard powder (odorless and tasteless mustard), improved aroma and flavor of sausages, slowed down the beginning of the process rancidity and improved the strength of sausages.

In further researches will be determined the influence of intensive technology on the quality of smoked sausages during storage.

Keywords: smoked sausage, enzymatically-treated mustard powder, nutritional supplements, protein content, fat content, moisture content, the output of finished goods, loss during heat treatment. (more…)

Economic efficiency of fingerlings’ cultivation with increased mass

4(81), 2014
UNC 639.312.07(477

G. Danilchuk.

The effect of process parameters on the efficiency of growing fingerlings carp and herbivorous fish in polyculture was studied. The influence of technological parameters on the performance of the experimental fishery ponds was investigated to determine the economic efficiency of growing fish seed in polyculture with resource-saving technology. The optimum parameters of resource-saving technology for growing fish seed with increased mass were defined.

The article focuses on providing resource for growing fish by maximizing the use of the biological potential of reservoirs, wider adoption of polyculture fish in their grazing, reducing the use of feed.

Purpose of the research was to determine the cost-effectiveness of alternative technology options for growing fingerlings increased mass. To achieve this goal were the following objectives: to study the effect of process parameters on the performance of the experimental fishery ponds and to determine the economic efficiency of production of stocking material.

Studies carried out on the basis of production ponds LLC “Nikolaev Fish farming enterprise.” Definition of economic efficiency of growing fingerlings conducted separately for each experiment, and the rate options were compared with each other. Minimum realizable value fingerlings were taken for all experiments, the average market price of fingerlings standard weight of 13 UAH. / kg, increased weight, depending on the magnitude exceeding the standard weight and   15 UAH. / kg.

In the first experiment the economic efficiency of growing stocking material using different ratios of the components of polyculture was examined; in the second – during grazing and stocking different densities, in the third – during grazing and different ratio of components polyculture.

It was determined that the most efficient one is the cultivation of fingerlings in polyculture with carp specific share of 40% and 60% of herbivorous fish, but there is some reduction in fish productivity, offset by a decrease in the cost of food on the growth of fish and allows you to get the biggest profit for the lowest cost of fingerlings.

Reducing stocking density had a positive impact on the quality of fish seed and fingerlings yielded higher than the standard weight is of paramount importance for the cultivation of marketable fish in a reservoir and ensure high commercial return. With increasing product quality, the sales prices and profitability of fish farming households are increased. Optimum stocking density was 100 thousand copies / ha.

Most cost-effective for growing fingerlings increased mass was reached at a density of 50 thousand copies stocking / ha with a specific share of carp at least 50% of pasture aquaculture.

fingerlings, growing, polyculture structure, parameters, fertilizing fish, the average individual weight, yield, cost, cost-effectiveness, cost-effectiveness. (more…)

Experience of formation of industrial pig breeding in the conditions of agricultural private enterprise «теhmет-ug» of nikolaev area

4(81), 2014
UNC 330.341.1:63

Topiha V., doctor of agrarian sciences, professor
Galimov S., candidate of agrarian sciences, associate professor
Starodubets A., candidate of agrarian sciences
Nikolaev National Agrarian University.

In the article the example of creation of agricultural private enterprise «Теhmet-Ug» from the conduct of the industrial pig breeding is resulted. It set to work in 2003. The reconstruction of existent cowsheds on the hogcotes of the different setting such, as a hogcote with heating of machine-tools on 224 places (3 apartments) was conducted, time of lactations makes 28-30 days, and after a separation – piglings remain in a nest 15 days whereupon piglings pass to the next workshop; next workshop contains 1800 places with box-maintenance on plastic crack floors, where animals are contained during 60 days and have average daily additional weights at the level of a 550-650 gramme; pigs on fattening are contained in the reconditioned machine-tools, by the general capacity of 3000 contains, in which they are to achievement of living mass 95-105 kg, average daily additional weights are made within the limits of a 820 gramme.

In an economy the exceptionally artificial is utilized inseminations sows. Male hogs are trained, for collection of sperm on a phantom, since a 5 monthly age. The index of training of male Hogs makes over 90%. The impregnated ability of sows is 85-90%.

Completing of herd began sows and male hogs of red with a white belt breed from the leading economies of south of Ukraine. From 2005 for 2013 has status of pedigree factory on breeding of these pigs. 110 repair piggy-wiggies of large white breed of the Hungarian selection were left in 2009-2010. Indexes of the productivity, which answer modern requirements, are given.

The agricultural private enterprise «Теhmet-Ug» is the base of leadthrough of scientific and educational activity of teachers and students of Nikolaev NAU. Students annually pass educational-production practices and engaged in writing of diploma and final works. It was executed and protected a 2 candidate dissertation to the specialists of enterprise. (more…)

Indices formation of spring barley grain quality under the influence of seeding rate and foliar fertilizing.

4(81), 2014
UNC 633.16:631.53.04:631.811

Chernobay Sergiy, postgraduate student
Kharkiv National Agrarian University named after V. V. Dokuchayev

The results of the researches 2012-2014 concerning the study of the influence of seeding rate and crops foliar fertilizing with micronutrients and biological preparations on the indices formation of spring barley grain quality variety Monomakh in the conditions of the Eastern Forest Steppes region of Ukraine are presented in the article.

Grain quality indices varied depending upon the weather conditions during the growing season and growing technology of studied elements. Mass of 1000 seeds, natural grain weight, size, protein and starch content were studied as quality indices.

The mass of 1000 seeds gradually decreased with the increase of seeding rate – from 43.1 g at a rate of 4.0 million / ha to 40.3 g at a rate of 5.5 million / ha. The difference between the marginal seeding rates was 7%. On the variants with foliar fertilizing application this index was on average 2.9% higher as compared with the control.

Seeding rate increase from 4.0 to 5.5 million / ha was accompanied by a decrease in grain size by 6.8%. When applying crops foliar fertilizing size increase ranged from 2.4 to 3.7% depending upon the processing variant.

Spring barley full-scale grain weight when changing the seeding rate from 4.0 to 5.5 million / ha, this index increased by 4.7%. Application of crops foliar fertilizing with complex micronutrients contributed the growth of grain on average at 2.7%.

The tendency to decrease protein content in spring barley grain was observed with the increase of seeding rate. Thus, grain with the lowest protein content – 14.6% was obtained at the seeding rate of 5.5 million / ha. Starch content in the grain, on the contrary, increased, while the difference in the indices between the marginal seeding rates was 4.9%.

The researches showed that crops foliar fertilizing with micronutrients and biological preparations in the phase of leaf-tube formation had a positive effect on spring barley grain quality indices. Thus, on average over the years of researches, the lowest protein content in grain was obtained in the control – 14.9%, while the starch content in this variant was the highest – 57.7%.

Thus, in the conducted researches 2012-2014 it was marked a significant impact of the studied technology elements on the indices formation of spring barley grain quality. A significant factor on the variability of quality indices was seeding rate. Spring barley crops foliar fertilizing in the phase of leaf-tube formation with complex fertilizers Crystalon special and Reakom provided the formation of the highest grain quality indices.

spring barley, seeding rate, foliar fertilizing, protein content, starch content, grain. (more…)

The yield formation with the different varieties of winter wheat when they are grown after soybean in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine.

4(81), 2014
UNC 633.11[324]:633.34(477.63)1

N. Palchuk

The work was performed during 2010 to 2013 at the Dnipro Experimental Farm of the Institute of the Steppe Zone Agriculture in a three-factor field experiment which was carried out using the successive plot method in a systematic way. The elementary plot area was 60 m2, the declared area 40 m2. Repetition in the experiment – three times.

The aim of our work was to give scientific credence to the elements of technology of growing of winter wheat varieties with different levels of intensity when placing them after soybean.

The results of the experiment show a strong tendency towards formation of slightly higher yield indices of winter wheat of different varieties in a version where the basic background fertilizer N45 P45 K45 was introduced during the pre-sowing cultivation with subsequent nourishment of the crops with nitrogen N30 on the slightly thawed frozen soil and application of a similar doze in the spring tillering phase. Thus Zira and Rozkishna varieties over the three years of the experiment in average formed the highest yield indices in this version, namely 4.11 and 4.29 tons per 1 ha respectively, while Zamozhnist had the lowest yield index having produced 3.75 tons per 1 ha. The lowest average yield of all the varieties under experiment was obtained in a version with pre-sowing introduction of complete mineral fertilizer N45 P45 K45 (background) without subsequent nourishment of the crops. The crop yield of the varieties in these plots was as follows: Zira – 2.92 t/ha, Zamozhnist – 2.77 t/ha and Rozkishna – 3.22 t/ha.

Comparison of yields of varieties of winter wheat with different levels of intensity shows that semi-intensive Zira and universal Rozkishna, which depending on the level of their mineral nutrition provided the crop yield within 2.92 to 4.11 and 3.22 to 4.29 tons per 1 ha respectively, are the best adaptive to growing conditions and the most productive varieties.

Thus, based on the results of the carried out experiments, it has been found that the yield capacity of modern varieties of winter wheat is largely dependent not only on weather conditions during their growing season but also to a large extent on their predecessor and determination of an optimal level of mineral nutrition of the main crop which makes it possible to satisfy the needs of plants at all stages of organogenesis during their growing season.

Key words: winter wheat, varieties, predecessor, mineral nutrition, yield.

N. Palchuk. The yield formation with the different varieties of winter wheat when they are grown after soybean in the Northern Steppe of Ukraine.


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Highproductive plantmicrobial systems in legume agrocenoses of Crimea

4(81), 2014
UNC 633.31/37:631.461

S. Didovych
R. Kulinich

At present in Ukraine main priorities in agricultural production are its ecologization, rational use natural resource, resource-conservation and economic practicability. In this connection, biotechnologies of growing of legumes have been designed. These technologies are based on the strategies of joint using biopreparations with strains of heterotrophic microorganism of different action (symbiotic nitrogen fixing, phosphate mobilizing and growth-promoting activity, antagonistic activity to phytopathogens, entomocide activity to phytophagans). Such biotechnologies allow raising plant productivity, to protect the plants from pathogen infection, to control the quantity of phytophagans, and to get qualitative and ecologically safe products of plant–grower.However, alternative ways of the creation of the efficient plant–microbial systems have a requirement in a further search and all–round studies in questions of the mechanism interactions micro– and macropartners, conditions their efficient function.The object of research – particularly the interaction of multifunctional biological agents of microbiological preparations with legume plants in agrocenoses. In order to study the efficacy of biologics multifunctional action in agro-technologies of cultivation of legumes in the Crimea were carried out field research. Using modern varieties Ukrainian selection legumes. Before sowing the seeds of leguminous plants treated with microbial agents on the basis of highly nitrogen-fixing strains of microorganisms Rizobofit (control) and preparations of multifunctional action: Fosfoenterin – based on microorganisms that mobilize hard-phosphates, thereby increasing the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer and soil phosphate; Biopolitsid – based on microorganisms, inhibit the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms; Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMG), the formulation of which is represented as a substrate-Koreneva mixture; used to increase seed production by providing plants with moisture, soil phosphorus compounds and reduce the destruction of the roots of pathogenic fungi; Tsianorizobialn Consortium (CRK) – on the basis of soil nitrogen-fixing algae Nostoc, associated with it microorganisms which are characterized by different dominant functions (fosfatmobilizatsiya, roststimulyatsiya) in the rhizosphere of plants. The possibility of creating high-performance plant-microbe systems agrocenoses legumes by applying pre-seed bakteryzationpolyfunctional biological products, thus improving plant productivity chickpeas 7,7-16,3 % on average, peas – 10% while increasing crude protein in seeds 1,0-2,8 %. (more…)

An infl uence of growing technology’s elements on seed production of narrow-lupine

4(81), 2014

UNC 635.1:637.35

Ratoshnyuk V.

Influence of seeding rules and conditions of mineral nutrition on yield and seed productivity of lupine narrow is described. It was established that maximum plant productivity of lupine narrow variety with the name Olympus was formed on variants of the experimen twhere 1,8 million units had been seeded with the usage of fertilizers N30Р60К90c combined with two foliar feeding Novalon Foliarom in the budding phase and the beginning of seed filling.

Research results of 2011-2013 show a significant impact of the studied rules and terms of mineral fertilizers on the level of productivity narrow grain lupine seed yield per unit of area. The theoretical generalization and new way to resolve urgent problem, were manifested in clarifying the basic patterns of grain yield and output lupine seeds narrow, effective management productive process and product quality indicators. The problem can be solved by the development of cultivation technology of this crop to increase grain production, given the ecological and geographical location of different soil-climatic zones of Ukraine.

In this article the author investigates the impact of seeding rules and conditions of mineral nutrition on yield and seed productivity lupine narrow. It was established that the maximum plant productivity lupine variety of narrow Olympus was formed on variants of the experiment, which were seeded 1.8 million similar seeds and fertilizers used in normal N30R60K90 combined with two leaf-feeding Novalon Foliarom in the budding phase and the beginning of seed filling. This seeding rate can be recommended to farmers who specialize in growing lupine narrow to forage or to portion of green mass for green fodder in order to prepare different types of feed for fattening cattle.

The highest return on seed production (173-205%) is provided by the seeding of  0.9 million seeds per hectare using such fertilizers as N30R60K90 combined with two foliar Novalon Foliarom. The use of seeding rate on the background of full-mineral nutrition can be recommended for planting elite-seed farms in order to accelerate the production of seeds.

lupine angustifolia, seeding rate, mineral nutrition, yield, seed productivity.

Ratoshnyuk V. An infl uence of growing technology’s elements on seed production of narrow-lupine


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