Diuk A. Economic assessment of social liability formation in agricultural enterprise

UDC338.43:631.15

 

Diuk A.

 

The urgency of the problem. The development of agricultural entrepreneurship in Ukraine is characterized by a significant for science and practice set of problems that are relevant in the socio-economic environment. Today’s situation with the development of rural areas, the level of welfare of peasants, the attitude of the state to the management and support of the village is the basis for a number of changes in doing business. An important issue that needs a long-term and priority solution is the formation of social responsibility of agricultural enterprises, which in scientific and methodological terms also requires improving the principles of economic evaluation.
The purpose of the article is to determine the specifics of the formation of social responsibility in agricultural entrepreneurship, the production system of enterprises, by economic assessment of the dynamics of socially oriented costs, employment and productivity.
Results of the research. The article assesses the formation of social responsibility in agricultural enterprise. The theoretical vision of the signs of social responsibility of agricultural enterprises in carrying out their production activity is formed. The definition of social responsibility as a criterion of social production efficiency is proposed. The directions and criteria of the methodological foundations of the assessment of social responsibility of enterprises in relation to which aspects of the level of socially directed production costs are determined. The dynamics of socially directed expenditures, the dynamics of employment and the sectoral structure of production in the context of their use as indicators of levels of social responsibility are analyzed. The economic features of the character of social responsibility of agricultural enterprises at the present stage of their development are established.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, social responsibility, management, production system, costs, social efficiency.

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Dovhal H., Bezuhla L. Regional innovative development model of ecotourism infrastructure

UDC 338.48:379.8:332.711

 

Dovhal H.

Bezuhla L.

 

The article analyzes and summarizes the legal framework for regulating the development of tourism and regional programs on the example of Dnipropetrovsk region. A set of barriers has been identified that hinder the effective formation and development of ecotourism infrastructure in the region. To eliminate the above barriers, it is necessary to create a regional innovative model of ecotourism infrastructure development, the components of which include: personnel, logistics, information, finance, marketing, transport, innovation.
The implementation of this model should include: partnerships between participants; coordination of regional authorities’ efforts with local self-government bodies; scientific and organizational support of long-term ecotourism development programs; development and implementation of the marketing concept; implementation of innovative programs and infrastructure projects for the development of ecotourism activities; creation of a modern information support system; development of a financial support mechanism, which will consist in the use of various financing instruments (public-private partnership, soft loans, crowdfunding, venture capital, grants, international technical assistance, international funds, etc.).
It is established that for the development of rural green tourism in the region it is advisable to make changes and additions to a number of legislative documents, namely: the Laws of Ukraine «On Tourism» and «On Personal Farming» should include organizational, informational, marketing and financial support for the development of ecotourism infrastructure that would meet European standards; the strategy of regional development of Dnipropetrovsk region for 2021-2027 should be supplemented with measures to implement the strategic goal «Development of tourist infrastructure (including rural green)»; to develop a regional program for the development of rural green tourism, taking into account the specifics of the Dnipropetrovsk region.
Implementation of the regional innovative model of ecotourism infrastructure development will increase the income of the rural population and the amount of revenues to local budgets; reduce unemployment by creating additional jobs; to intensify the development of small business in the villages of the region; strengthen public-private partnerships based on attracting private investment.

Keywords: ecotourism, tourism sector, tourism services, ecotourism infrastructure, regional innovation model.

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Patyka N. Assessment of the Ukraine’s agriculture competitiveness by regions

UDC339.56.055:636

 

Patyka N.

 

The purpose of the article is to assess a competitiveness level of the Ukraine’s agriculture in the regional aspect, to determine its competitive advantages and weaknesses, evaluate and outline enhancing directions.
Research methods. The methodological basis of the research is a systematic approach to the study of phenomena and processes and the dialectical method of cognition, which made it possible to comprehensively study the processes associated with the competitiveness of Ukrainian agriculture in the regional aspect. In order to calculate an integrated competitiveness index were used such economic and statistical methods as comparative analysis, average and relative variables, statistical groupings, trend analysis, graphic method, index, coefficient analysis, etc. The abstract-logical method and the method of generalization techniques were used to develop measures for the Ukraine’s agriculture competitiveness enhancing.
Research results. The integrated competitiveness index of the Ukraine’s agriculture by region for the period between 2015 and 2017 was calculated. It was determined that the industry’s positive dynamics was determined by the growth of gross value added, volumes of capital investments, labor productivity. Downward factors for the Ukraine’s agriculture were the increase in agricultural production costs, unprofitability in the industry and a low rate of participation in foreign economic activity. The peculiarities of the competitiveness of the Ukraine’s agriculture through the identification of economic, institutional, social and international competitiveness problems were identified. The directions of enhancing competitiveness at the state, regional and industrial levels of management were determined.
Elements of scientific novelty. In the article methodological approaches to assessing the competitiveness of Ukraine’s agriculture in the regional aspect have been substantiated. In particular, an algorithm and the instrument for assessing competitiveness have been developed.
Practical significance. Identification of systemic problems in development of the Ukraine’s agriculture by region and measures of enhancing its competitiveness will allow to develop key priorities for formation of effective policy for enhancing the Ukraine’s agriculture competitiveness.

Keywords: competitiveness, competitiveness indicators, integrated competitiveness index, agriculture, regions of Ukraine, state policy.

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  17. Mohylnyi, O. M. (2015). Konkurentospromozhnist ahrarnoho sektoru Ukrainy: hlobalni ta rehionalni vyklyky. Natsionalna ekonomika Ukrainy u suchasnykh hlobalnykh protsesakh : monohrafiia / [Competitiveness of the Ukrainian Agrarian Sector: Global and Regional Challenges. National economy of Ukraine in modern global processes: monograph] / Fedorenko V. , LahutinH. V., Mohylnyi O. M. et al.]. Kyiv : TOV «DKS tsentr», P. 237–264 [In Ukrainian].

Slyusarenko A., Klyuchnik A. Foreign economic security of enterprises in the agricultural sector in the system of national security of the state: theoretical aspect

UDC 351; 338.432

 

Slyusarenko A.

Klyuchnik A.

 

The agricultural sector is one of the key economic system of Ukraine, on the basis of specific weight in the gross domestic product and employment. In recent years, the power sector in the context of the national economy is constantly increasing, which determines the agricultural centrism and strategic orientation of the domestic economy. Agriculture among all kinds of economic activities is export-oriented, because the majority of production is abroad.
Unquestioningly foreign economic activity in the context of the agricultural sector is preceded by significant economic siscam for the national economy, but at the same time, there are certain disadvantages. First, the disadvantages of an active export policy is to encourage people to participate in world business processes for technological imperfection and a low degree of competitiveness of domestic producers of agricultural products. To a greater extent the protection of the interests of farmers assigned to them. That is, under-researched and generated a mechanism to protect domestic producers at the international level.
A lot of scope to acquire the processes of globalization and internationalization of the Ukrainian economy, which requires rethinking of the quality of impact of these processes on the economy in general and the agricultural sector and enterprises representing it, in particular. The world market is characterized by a low degree of integration of domestic producers of agricultural products. Domestic farmers are unable to compete internationally due to the inability to resist the capitalization of the large agricultural corporations that are multinational.
In the end, at the macro level is a clear and detailed understanding of national security. The questions of economic safety of the enterprises as a component of national security are well studied. However, little consideration to issues of foreign economic security, which become relevant because of liberalization of the domestic economy and combining it with global processes. Unexplored remain the issues of ensuring of foreign economic security of agrarian sector and agricultural enterprises as those that produce and export significant volumes of products and services. The agricultural sector and the enterprise sector have the highest rates of foreign-trade activity, which confirms their functionality in the world market. However, in contrast to the increase in external order factors that affect the functionality of enterprises, the mechanism of interest protection remains unchanged, which requires the development of modern approaches to assess the state of foreign economic security of agricultural enterprises and the formation of appropriate levels for its management.

Keywords: national security, economic security, foreign economic security, economic development, competitiveness.

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Issue 1 (105), 2020

 

Cover sheet
Content

ECONOMICAL SCIENCES

V. Shebanin, O. Novikov, M. Karpenko. The applicability of implementation of the irrigation in modern conditions4
T. Lunkina, А. Burkovska, А. Burkovska. Features of forming socio-responsible behavior in the consumer of organic production of the agricultural sector in Ukraine11
I. Honcharenko, V. Pereta, N. Kuchmanich. The potential of the strategic development of the united territorial communities of the region19
A. Diuk. Social responsibility in the production system of agricultural enterprises: Methodical aspects of evaluation27
S. Lutkovska. Strategic management of environmental risks as a direction of ensuring sustainable ecological and economic development37

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

L. Antipova. Hay yield of alfalfa varieties depending on weather conditions and the application of the growth-regulating drug Emistim C43
V. Gamayunova, V. Kudrina. Formation of aboveground mass and sunflower yield under the influence of certain elements of cultivation technology50
Y. Kravchenko. Implementation of scientific approaches in a soil conservation agriculture and an agrarian policy for north-eastern Chinese chernozems fertility reproduction58
L. Strika, T. Pidpala., O. Petrova, N. Shevchuk. Optimization of the parameters of the technological process of production of cooked sausages71
T. Synenko, N. Frolova. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins of milk79
L. Lanzhenko, N. Dets, O. Kruchek, Ye. Izbash. Selection of fat and vegetable components for the production of combined ice cream87

TECHNICAL SCIENCES

V. Pastukhov, V. Zubko. Research changes in the soil and plants properties in different periods of the production process94
V. Prуshliak, I. Babyn, I. Hunko. Modeling of the operating modes of the washing system for milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector102
S. Mykolenko, M. Omelchenko. Application of sprouted spelt grain for bread production110

S. Mykolenko, M. Omelchenko. Application of sprouted spelt grain for bread production.

UDC 664.664.9

 

S. Mykolenko

M. Omelchenko

 

Expanding the range of food products enriched with valuable nutrients as well as reducing the loss of raw materials along the food chain are essential tasks of the food industry. Production of sprouted wholegrain bread allows to exclude the intermediate stages of grain processing and obtain the final product for consumer, while increasing the efficiency of grain using, minimizing the loss of food row material, energy and labor resources in the technological cycle. Spelt grain has a high content of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals, which is the main reason for the growing demand for this culture in the EU and the USA. Spelt mucopolysaccharides are capable of enhancing immunity, lowering blood cholesterol. Protein content of spelt grain is 2.4 % higher than that of wheat, and it increases by 7.8 % in wet gluten. Spelt spouted wholegrain bread showed a 7 % reduction in volume and deteriorating organoleptic characteristics. Obtaining spelt spouted wholegrain bread of decent quality needs to adjust the composition and technological parameters of spelt grain processing. Chia seeds as functional ingredient were introduced into the composition of the bread as a whole and crashed. According to comprehensive assessment, the samples of bread with crushed chia are by 36 % better than the control samples. Crushed chia seeds have a positive effect on the specific volume of bread, increasing it in 6–8 % compared to control samples without chia seeds. When using plasma-chemically activated water, the soaking time of the spelt grain is reduced from 24 to 16 hours. The bread made using plasma-chemically activated water has a 48 % higher specific volume than the products made using water without pre-treatment. The products made with water exposed to the action of non-equilibrium plasma with a concentration of peroxide compounds 200–400 mg/l show the highest quality. The use of crushed chia seeds in the amount of up to 10 % and applying plasma-chemically activated water while soaking spelt grain can improve quality of spelt sprouted wholegrain bread and allow to obtain a product enriched with biologically active components, reducing the duration of bread production.

Keywords: spelt, sprouted whole grain, bread, chia seeds, plasma-chemically activated water.

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V. Prуshliak, I. Babyn., I. Hunko. Modeling of the operating modes of the washing system for milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector

UDC 637.115:664.3.033:519.673

 

V. Prуshliak

I. Babyn

I. Hunko

 

During the operation of milk pipelines of milking equipment, milk residues of various properties, composition and thickness are formed on the internal surfaces of the pipeline. Their presence leads to an increase in bacterial contamination of milk. If all the necessary conditions for keeping livestock buildings are met, the main share of the mechanical and bacterial contamination of milk is formed due to insufficiently washed milking machine equipment. Therefore, to improve the quality of flushing, we propose to use an injector, which performs the function of periodically supplying air to the volume of the milk line, while creating significant fluctuations in the vacuum pressure and, as a consequence, controlled water hammer which should be controlled using automated systems of milking equipment. The aim of the study is to carry out a numerical simulation of the operating modes of the system for flushing milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector and determine their rational values . As a result of numerical simulation of the process of washing the milk line of the milking machine using the injector in the software package STAR-CCM +, the dependences of the rate of change of pressure and the change of the thickness of the layer of milk on the wall of the milk line at different values of its diameter from the working vacuum pressure, the duration of the injection stroke and the injection stroke the duration of the air injector pause. Solving the compromise problem, which reduces to minimizing the thickness of the milk layer on the wall of the milk pipeline and the rate of change of pressure for various values of the diameter of the milk pipeline, the corresponding rational parameters of the injector operating modes are obtained.

Keywords: milking unit, washing system, washing solution, multiphase medium, numerical simulation.

References:

 

V. Pastukhov, V. Zubko. Research changes in the soil and plants properties in different periods of the production process

UDC 631.559.2

 

V. Pastukhov

V. Zubko

 

Each plant has its own individual needs and requirements for soil, nutrition, disease and pest treatment, density, etc. There are common elements that characterize the process of growth and development in the system of development of all the plants.
For maximum yield, it is necessary to realize the biological potential of plants with mechanized technologies.
The main purpose of the work is to study the changes in the properties of soil, seed and plant in different periods of the production process.
Studying field conditions showed that after harvest, a lot off plant residues and weeds remain, the field is covered with stubble and tracks from the tractor wheels.
After soybean threshing with the harvester, the crushed plant residues are distributed on the field unevenly. It was determined by field research.
It is established that 60-75% grain losses on the thresher are concentrated in the straw roll after the shredder.
It is necessary to ensure correct operation harvester shredder and spreader to solve this problem.
The intensity of development of the root system decreases with soil compaction by running systems. This reduces the yield. The compacted layers prevent the accumulation of moisture in the soil and the use of groundwater by plants, limiting the development of the root system.
We investigated the effect soil moisture retention in different layers of soil, with and without crop residues on the surface of the field.
We investigated the influence of plant residues on the surface of the field on the following technological operations. The uneven distribution residues significantly and impedes the movement of the unit in depth.
The research of the quality of disking after winter wheat shows that straw is not cut by discs, but is broken. This process is accompanied by longitudinal destruction of the stem. This leads to its faster decomposition.
We explored the field after harvesting corn for grain. We found that the requirements for the quality of shredding stems are usually not met.
Decreasing soil moisture and increasing its temperature significantly affects its structure. It becomes solid, does not crumble, and becomes stronger over time.
The monitoring photo from satellite and drone shows plants development differentiated on the one’s field.
Our research shows that the quality of the technological operations performed does not meet the needs of the plants.
In order to improve the quality of technological operations, it is necessary to use machines and to make adjustments, taking into account the needs of plants and appropriate operating conditions of the unit.

Key words: quality, realization of biopotential, necessity of plant, technological operation, development of plant.

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L. Lanzhenko, N. Dets, O. Kruchek, Ye. Izbash. Selection of fat and vegetable components for the production of combined ice cream

UDC 663.674.014 : 665.1.2 : 615.451.3 – 035.23

 

L.Lanzhenko

N. Dets

O. Kruchek

Ye. Izbash

 

The main task of the food industry is production of high-quality and healthy products for people. Considering thisnew types of products with balanced fatty acidand protein compositionswith addition of plant components are increasingly being created in the dairy industryas a source of polyphenolic compounds.
The article substantiates the prescription composition of special-purpose combined ice cream with the addition of vegetable oils and basil extract. Sunflower and sesame refined and deodorized oils were selected as the fatty recipe component after determining organoleptic (taste, smell, color, transparency) and physicochemical parameters (acid, peroxide and iodine numbers).
To obtain a balanced fatty acid composition of the milk-fat base for the production of combined ice cream, mathematical modeling was carried out according to the formula of N. Lipatov, which resulted in a ratio of saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acids 1,3: 1,0: 1,0, which is close to perfect 1,0: 1,0: 1,0. As close as possible to the ideal ratio is achieved with a ratio of sunflower oil: sesame oil: milk fat 0,25: 0,25: 0,5.
Further, there were substantiated rational parameters (temperature, duration) of extraction of biologically active substances (polyphenolic compounds) with water and skim milk from dried basil leaves at a ratio of basil: extractant 1: 10 for further use of the selected milk extract as a raw material component in special-purpose ice cream recipes. The content of polyphenolic substances in the extracts was chosen as the determining parameter. Following rational extraction parameters were selected: temperature 50 °С, duration 15 min, the extractant is skim milk.
In the produced extract there were determined organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological quality indicators which allow to use it as a vegetable component in the production of combined ice cream for special purposes.

Keywords: combined ice cream, vegetable oils, balanced fatty acid composition, basil, extraction, polyphenolic compounds.

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