The article presents the results of studies on the influence of the sowing time of various varieties of winter barley and microelement compounds used for pre-sowing seed preparation on the formation of leaf area, photosynthetic potential and the synthesis of absolutely dry plant mass. The optimal sowing dates and possible deviations of the sowing dates for each of the varieties have been established. Due to the significant lack of winter barley – low resistance to low temperatures, – considerable attention is paid in the article to its winter hardiness. Features of growth, development, formation of winter hardiness and productivity are considered taking into account the climatic conditions for the period of research.
It is proved that the potential productivity of barley at the initial phases of development depends on a number of components, where the main ones are: leaf area and the timing of its photosynthetic activity.
In the conditions of the south of Ukraine, the formation of the vegetative mass of barley seedlings is caused not only by the biological characteristics of the varieties, but also largely depends on the time of sowing. The largest mass of absolutely dry matter of seedlings of various varieties of barley was synthesized during the first term of sowing.
When changing the time of sowing seeds, especially under adverse conditions, the periods of active vegetation of plants are significantly reduced, as a result of which the mass of dry substances decreases by 48.6-55%. The analysis showed that among the studied varieties of winter barley, the most efficiently limited natural resources were used in shoots of the Ninth Shaft variety, ensuring the formation of 156.4 kg / ha of dry matter until the end of the autumn vegetation.
It is noted that the accelerated formation of leaf area, an increase in the photosynthetic potential and high productivity of photosynthesis, under adverse conditions of water and thermal conditions, are most fully provided by the Ninth Shaft variety.
It has been shown that microelement compounds applied at the stage of pre-sowing seed preparation, accelerated the passage of the first stage of organogenesis by plants, increasing the duration of the active growing season of the ladder, as a result of which the mass of absolutely dry matter increased to 40.4 % and reached 155.7-230.4 kg/ha compared to the control.
Keywords: barley varieties, sowing dates, trace elements, leaf area, mass of absolutely dry matter.
- Nichyporovych, A.A. (1961). Fotosyntetycheskaya deyatel’nost’ rastenyy v posevakh: metodu y zadachy uchёta v svyazy s formyrovanyem urozhaev. Moskva [in Russian].
- Ponomarenko, S.P., Anyshyn, L.A., Zhylkyn, V.A. & Hrytsaenko Z.M. (2003). Tekhnolohyy prymenenyya rehulyatorov rosta rastenyy v zemledelyy : metodycheskoe posobye. Kyev [in Ukrainian].
- Kalens’ka S.M., Dmytryshak M Ya. & Demydas’ H.I. (2014). Roslynnytstvo z osnovamy kormovyrobnytstva: pidruchnyk. Vinnytsya: Nilan LTD [in Ukrainian].
- Onehina, V.M. (2014). Suchasni zahrozy prodovol’chiy bezpetsi v Ukrayini ta derzhavne rehulyuvannya. Visnyk KhNTUSH: ekonomichni nauky. Vоl. 149. [in Ukrainian].
- Yarchuk, I.I., Bozhko, V. Yu. & Kelypenko M. M. (2013). Ahroekolohichni aspekty formuvannya produktyvnosti posiviv yachmenyu ozymoho zalezhno vid mineral’nykh dobryv. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats’ PDATU. Kam”yanets’-Podil’s’kyy : PDATU [in Ukrainian].
- Metodyka derzhavnoho sortovyprobovuvannya sil’s’kohospodars’kykh kul’tur. (2001). Kyyiv [in Ukrainian].
- Biolohichni osoblyvosti ta tekhnolohiya vyroshchuvannya ozymoho yachmenyu. Retrieved from : http://agroua.net/plant/catalog/cg-1/c-3/info/cag-209/ [in Ukrainian].
- Pryadkyna, H.A. & Shadchyna, T.M. (2009). Svyaz mezhdu pokazatelyami moshnosti razvitiya fotosinteticheskogo apparata i zernovoj produktivnostyu ozimoj pshenicy v razlichnye po pogodnym usloviyam gody. Fiziologiya i biohimiya kulturnyh rastenij. T. 41 [in Russian].
- Stroky sivby ozymykh zernovykh: elektron. versiya. Retrieved from : http://agro-business.com.ua/agro/ahronomiia-sohodni/item/9013-stroky-sivby-ozymykh-zernovykh.html [in Ukrainian].
- Asfaw S. & Maggio G. (2016). Gender integration in to climate-smart agriculture. Tools for data collection and analysis for policy and research. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome.
- Sadras V.O., Cassman K.G., Grassini, P. and etc. (2015). Yield gap analysis of field crops. Methods and cases tudies. FAO Water Reports. Rome, Italy.Vol. 41.