Mykolaiv National Agrarian University
The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the methods of basic tillage and herbicide Euro-Lightning® Plus on weediness of crops and the formation of productivity of Pioner P64LP130 sunflower hybrid in the South of Ukraine. Research results. On average, in 2020-2021, the expenditure of moisture by crops on the formation of the unit of yield is reduced by the application of the herbicide, which is due to a decrease in weeding. The height of sunflower plants for cultivation on the background of shallow shelf-free basic tillage and herbicide-free technology was 139 cm, while for plowing to a depth of 28-30 cm this indicator increased by 6 cm. for chemical weeding of crops against the background of deep (28-30 cm) shelfless main tillage – 179 cm. Weather conditions also significantly affect this indicator: in drier conditions during the growing season 2020, plant height ranged from 123-130 cm in areas not protected from weeds by herbicides) up to 146-151 cm – in the options of chemical weeding of crops, in more humid conditions in 2021 – from 155-159 cm to 170-179 cm, respectively. The number of weeds in the period of harvesting sunflower seeds by herbicide-free technology, on average on all backgrounds of tillage, was 144 pieces/m2. Due to the spraying of crops with herbicides, this figure decreased by 89.6%. During plowing for the period of sunflower harvest, the dry weight of weeds under control was 449 g m2. Due to the chemical weeding, this indicator decreased by 86.2%. The herbicide showed higher biological efficiency (87.4%) in the model of sunflower seed production against the background of deep tillage. The average yield in the experiment in 2020 was 2.31 t/ha, i.e. was lower by 0.99 t/ha compared to more moisture in 2021. More efficient with herbicide-free technology is the production of sunflower seeds on the background of deep plowing (yield reached 2.50 t/ha), while 2.33 t/ha were formed during deep tillage, and only 2.21 t/ha of seeds during shallow tillage. More effective was the technology of growing sunflowers using the chemical method of weed control against the background of deep shelfless loosening of the soil. The yield reached the level of 3.36 t/ha, i.e. 1.03 t/ha more seeds were formed compared to the control crop (without herbicides). Conclusion. The growth and development of sunflower plants depends on the degree of weed infestation, which ultimately affects its productivity. During chemical weeding of crops, moisture is used more sparingly for seed formation, especially against the background of deep non-shelf basic tillage. During plowing for the period of sunflower harvest, the dry weight of weeds under control was 449 g/m2. Due to herbicide spraying, this indicator decreased by 86.2%. The herbicide showed higher biological efficiency (87.4%) for seed production against the background of deep tillage. Seed yields are also significantly affected by weather conditions during the growing season of the crop, the methods of basic tillage. More efficient (with herbicide technology) is the production of sunflower seeds on the background of deep plowing (yield 2.50 t/ha). During chemical weeding of crops against the background of deep tillage, this indicator reached the level of 3.36 t/ha.
Key words: sunflower, weediness, methods of basic tillage, weather conditions, productivity.
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