3(79), Vol. 1, 2014
Under current conditions when increasing anthropogenic effect leads to enhancement of soil degradation, the search of the most economical and environmentally acceptable means of improving of soil fertility becomes of great importance. In this regard, there was conducted a research to make agroecological substantiation of the technology elements of Cucurbita moschata growing for its cultivation without irrigation on the lands of Southern State Agrarian Experimental Station of the Institute of Water Problems and Melioration attached to the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine, located in Hola Prystan district, Kherson region during the years 2011-2013. Soil of the experimental area is southern solodized low-humic chernozem, characterized by a high content of potassium and phosphorus and low content of nitrogen. The climate of the experimental area is arid, hydrothermal index is 0.6. Precipitation is 325-420 mm per year, of which 211-273 mm occurs in the warm season. Drought and dry winds of varying intensity on the territory are annually observed.
The objects of study were two varieties of cucurbita moschata: quickly ripening variety Yanina and mid-ripening variety Gilea. The experimental design consisted of the following options: variety (factor A) – Yanina and Gilea; the area of plant nutrition (factor B) – 2, 3, 4 and 5 m2; doses and fertilizer application methods (factor C) – without fertilizers (control), the recommended dose of fertilizers (N60P90K60 broadcast method), ½ of the recommended dose (N30P45K30 locally), ⅓ of the recommended dose (N20P30K20 locally), ¼ of the recommended dose (N15P23K20 locally).
The research proved that the highest supply of available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was observed by applying N60P90K60 compared with other variants of fertilization. While the enhancement of feed regimen leads to the maximum levels of nutrients content in the tilth-top soil, the level of its content remains high using the other fertilized variants compared with unfertilized control. Under conditions of limited possibilities of fertilizers using, it is advisable to use ½ of the recommended dose of fertilizer. Such approach promotes environmentally safe cultivation of cucurbita moschata.
Dynamics of nutrients content in soil under cucurbita moschata is subject to the general laws according to which its maximum number is displayed at the beginning of vegetation development and it decreases during the growth and development of cucurbita moschata and it reaches the smallest value at the end of the period of vegetation development. We noted a tendency of decreasing the number of nutrients while reducing the area of plant nutrition of cucurbita moschata from 5 to 2 m2. On average over the periods, to define the elements of nutrition in the soil, its quantity decreased in proportion to plants crowding: nitrates – by 4-8% phosphorus – by 2-7% potassium – by 3.7% compared with the spaced planting with the area of nutrition 5 m2.
It was established that the application of nutrients from the soil to form future yield depended on crop varietal characteristics of cucurbita moschata. Yanina variety consumed 1,4-1,9 times more nitrate nitrogen, 1.2-1.6 times more labile phosphorus, 1.1-1.2 times more exchange potassium to form future yield.
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