The results of three years of research on the growth and development of perennial grasses in the arid conditions of southern steppe on the example of the Mykolaiv region are put forward in order to determine the most productive of them to strengthen the food base.
Experiments were carried out at Mykolayiv State Agrarian University. Seeds Bromus inermis Leuss (variety Mars), Agropyrum pectiniforme L. (variety Petrovsky), Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. (variety Horse), Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. (variety Drongo) was used for sowing. All the which cultures were studied had a fairly long period of germination (19-22 days). Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. and Agropyrum pectiniforme L. mowing reached maturity (earing phase) faster than Bromus inermis Leuss. and Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. Field germination of seeds ranged from 50,0% (Bromus inermis Leuss) – 46,2% (Agropyrum intermedium Vassey.). The highest number of shoots was formed by perennial grasses in the second year of vegetation. The survival of plants Bromus inermis Leuss. (69,7%) was higher compared with Agropyrum pectiniforme L. by 0.9 percentage points and by 7,7 percentage points – with an average couch grass. Productivity of green mass study of perennial grasses in the first year of vegetation was low (5,71 t / ha Bromus inermis Leuss. – 3,78 t / ha Agropyrum pectiniforme L). This is due to their biological characteristics. Herbs of second year of life were the most productive. High yields of Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. with age (from 3.64 t / ha in the second year of life to 3.31 t / ha or 10.0% – in the third). Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. was more adapted to the arid conditions of the southern region. Its yields has not diminished in the third year of life, but even increased slightly. Thus, according to the data obtained the plants Bromus inermis Leuss., Arrenatherum elatius (L.) M. et. K. and Agropyrum intermedium Vassey. average are characterized by the highest productivity, which provide a more rational use of water plants and sediments, respectively formation of higher yields in the studied area. Agropyrum pectiniforme L. comb is more appropriate to use as a lawn grass for the grassing of slopes and to create pastures as the most drought-resistant plant.
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