An analysis of the parameters of technological operations to make hard cheeses in the second heating, the improvement of the technology of making the elite hard cheese using concentrate of whey proteins.
Cheese can be made only from milk suitable for cheese-making which meets the official regulations.
The suitability of milk for making cheese is determined by feeds for cows. These experiments show that if cows’ feed contain many similar concentrates, the quality of cheese made of such cows’ milk is worse. Therefore cows should not be fed with one type of concentrate feeds which constitutes 20–30% of the daily norm. Feeding cows with a lot of corn feeds (such as grass, grain and silage) has a positive effect on the quality of milk and makes it possible to make high quality cheeses.
Milk microflora, including lactic and propionic acid bacteria, are useful for making cheese. Colon bacillus are harmful and dangerous in cheese-making. The quantity of microflora in milk is checked with reductase probes and the quality is checked by rennet-fermentation probes. Aseptic milk or raw milk contaminated with microbes, and also milk with disease-causing microbes is not suitable for cheese-making.
In normal cheese making processes, before fermentation, milk must contain a sufficient number of lactic bacteria – streptococcus and bacillus. The quantity of this microflora in milk determines the degree of its maturity and suitability for cheese-making.
The maturity of milk is also determined by the state of salts, namely calcium phosphate. In fresh raw milk these salts are in the colloidal state, that causes milk sedimentation and clotting. Thus fresh raw milk is considered to be unsuitable for cheese-making.
Using a concentrate of whey proteins allows for an increase in the number of cheeses by 53. 3 or 10 heads daily. similarly enterprises can earn 35241. 7 UAH implementing this technology and 37648. 9 UAH applying an improved technology. The profitability level is 8. 27% and 15. 66% respectively.
Thus, improving the technology of making hard cheeses increases production profitability on the whole, that will lead to improved results of the enterprise.
Key words: bacteria, yeast, casein, cheese-making.