In today’s Ukrainian reality, the use of traditional methods of making managerial decisions in agriculture does not fully ensure the expected effect, since it focuses, to a greater extent, on the correction of existing deficiencies in the activities of agricultural enterprises.
At the same time, such a mechanism for the adoption of managerial decisions is required, as a result of which agricultural enterprises not only could react in a timely manner to the problems that have emerged, but also to forecast these problems and avoid them.
Management decisions must comply with changing conditions, so it becomes impossible to use the same management tools for a long time. It is necessary to synthesize updates of existing decision-making systems that respond quickly to changing market environment conditions. The question arises about finding a new decision-making system that would meet the requirements of the current economic situation. In our opinion, one of the most important areas for improving management decision-making can be the use of information systems allowing the construction of simulation models for enterprise development, which take into account many economic indicators of enterprises.
Any agricultural enterprise, regardless of the organizational form of management, is a complex economic system, in determining the prospects of development of which the leading role is assigned to the use of economic and mathematical methods. The application of economical and mathematical methods based on the use of modern computers and application software packages gives a number of significant advantages over other methods. Namely:
- increasing of speed and quality of plans;
- there are conditions for the implementation of a multivariate statement of the problem;
- the possibility of operative adjustment in accordance with changes in internal and external conditions of production;
- The principle of a system approach is fully implemented.
However, the decision of optimization tasks, as shown by the experience of their implementation on a PC, requires a large number of preliminary calculations in the preparation of input information, analysis of the results of the decision, etc. Most often all calculations are labor-intensive and suffer from a degree of inaccuracy.
Therefore, the most rational form of using a PC for the implementation of optimization tasks is the development and implementation of automated information systems.
The technology of automated processing of economic information is based on the principles:
- Integration of data processing and user work capabilities under the conditions of operation of automated centralized storage systems and collective use of data (data banks);
- distributed data processing on the basis of advanced transmission systems;
- a rational combination of centralized and decentralized management and organization of computing systems;
- Modeling and formalized description of data, procedures for their transformation, functions and workspaces of performers;
- accounting for specific features of an object in which the machine processing of economic information is implemented.
Proceeding from this, we have partially developed and implemented (using Microsoft Excel) an automated information system for the preparation of input information, modeling, automatic matrix generation, implementation and analysis of economic and mathematical problems.
The basis of this information system is the development and implementation of an economic and mathematical model for optimizing the sectoral structure of production in agricultural enterprises. If till now such economic and mathematical models were developed on the basis of pre-prepared manual input information, the proposed information system allows to automate almost all stages of its implementation.
To select and make a unique decision, a number of special decision criteria can be used, among which we considered such criteria as minimax, gambling, Bayes Laplace, Sevdih, neutral player, Hurwitz, “An improved Hurwitz criterion” and “Hodge-Lehman”.
An important feature of the system we have developed is the principle of its openness, that is, the possibility of increasing the range of realized tasks on the basis of the use of information of source directories, reference directories and databases, formed on the basis of the results of the solution of the economic and mathematical problem.
Thus, the implementation of the developed automated information system allows, on the basis of reasonable initial data, to automate the process of modeling, to determine the optimal parameters of the system’s operation, the unique choice of the solution taking into account the level of certainty of the external environment.
- Vikhliaieva, S. I. Shliakhy optymizatsii upravlinskykh rishen pidpryiemstva v umovakh ryzyku ta nevyznachenosti [Tekst] / S. I. Vikhliaieva, V. I. Fediai // Visnyk NTU «KhPI». – 2013. – № 67 (1040). – S. 143-147.
- Derlou, D. Kliuchovi upravlinski rishennia. Tekhnolohiia pryiniattia rishen [Tekst] : posib. / Derlou Des. – K.: Vsesvit, Naukova dumka, 2001. – 242 c.
- Druker, P.F. Upravlenye, napravlennoe na rezultatyi [Tekst] : per.s anhl. /PF.Druker. – M. : Tekhn. shk. byznesa, 1992. – 192s.
- Zavalkevych, L. Pryniatye reshenyi: Psykholohycheskye aspektyi optymyzatsyy [Tekst] / L. Zavalkevych // Antykryzysnyii menedzhment. – 2003. – № 9. – S. 14 – 18.
- Meskon M.Kh. Osnovy menedzhmenta : Per. s anhl. / Meskon M.Kh., Albert M., Khedoury F. – M.: Delo, 2000.– 707s.
- Myntsberh, H. Shkolyi stratehyi [Tekst] / H. Myntsberh, B. Alstrend, Dzh. Lembel ; per. s anhl. Yu. N. Kapturevskoho. – SPb.: Pyter, 2000. – 670 s.
- Ansoff,Y. Stratehycheskoe upravlenye [Tekst] : per. s anhl./ Y.Ansoff – M. : Ekonomyka, 1989.– 315 s.
- Upravlenye orhanyzatsyei : Entsyklopedycheskyi slovar / Pod red. A.H. Porshneva, A.Ia. Kybanova, V.N. Hunyna. – M. : Ynfra-M, 2001. (http://yas.yuna.ru).
- Sokolovska, Z. M. Prykladne imitatsiine modeliuvannia yak analitychna osnova pryiniattia upravlinskykh rishen [Tekst] / Z. M. Sokolovska, N. V. Yatsenko // BIZNESINFORM. – 2013. – № 6. – S. 69-76.