The work was performed during 2010 to 2013 at the Dnipro Experimental Farm of the Institute of the Steppe Zone Agriculture in a three-factor field experiment which was carried out using the successive plot method in a systematic way. The elementary plot area was 60 m2, the declared area 40 m2. Repetition in the experiment – three times.
The aim of our work was to give scientific credence to the elements of technology of growing of winter wheat varieties with different levels of intensity when placing them after soybean.
The results of the experiment show a strong tendency towards formation of slightly higher yield indices of winter wheat of different varieties in a version where the basic background fertilizer N45 P45 K45 was introduced during the pre-sowing cultivation with subsequent nourishment of the crops with nitrogen N30 on the slightly thawed frozen soil and application of a similar doze in the spring tillering phase. Thus Zira and Rozkishna varieties over the three years of the experiment in average formed the highest yield indices in this version, namely 4.11 and 4.29 tons per 1 ha respectively, while Zamozhnist had the lowest yield index having produced 3.75 tons per 1 ha. The lowest average yield of all the varieties under experiment was obtained in a version with pre-sowing introduction of complete mineral fertilizer N45 P45 K45 (background) without subsequent nourishment of the crops. The crop yield of the varieties in these plots was as follows: Zira – 2.92 t/ha, Zamozhnist – 2.77 t/ha and Rozkishna – 3.22 t/ha.
Comparison of yields of varieties of winter wheat with different levels of intensity shows that semi-intensive Zira and universal Rozkishna, which depending on the level of their mineral nutrition provided the crop yield within 2.92 to 4.11 and 3.22 to 4.29 tons per 1 ha respectively, are the best adaptive to growing conditions and the most productive varieties.
Thus, based on the results of the carried out experiments, it has been found that the yield capacity of modern varieties of winter wheat is largely dependent not only on weather conditions during their growing season but also to a large extent on their predecessor and determination of an optimal level of mineral nutrition of the main crop which makes it possible to satisfy the needs of plants at all stages of organogenesis during their growing season.
Key words: winter wheat, varieties, predecessor, mineral nutrition, yield.
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