M. Povod – Prof. Dr. in Agriculture, Sumy NAU
O. Kravchenko – Prof. PhD in Agriculture, Poltava State Agrarian Academy
A. Getya – Prof. Dr. in Agriculture, NUBiP Ukraine
At present the consumers all over the world pay considerable attention not only to increasing of productivity of farm animals and improvement of products quality but also to creation of comfortable living conditions for animals, which are similar to their natural needs.
Especially actual this issue appears for EU community. Strategic directions of desired future development of technological processes, regarding housing, rearing and fattening of pigs has been reflected in Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008.
General attention as producers so consumers is directed to the problems, related to boars castration. In fact the substances, which cause the boar odor, are defined and well known. Therefore, the main focus of researchers nowadays, are being applied to development of methods for prevention of appearance of odor in pork or to decreasing of its negative impact on pork quality.
One of such methods, which expected to be effective, is the immunological castration of boars. To explore its effectiveness on carcass quality, obtained from boars fattened, the presented research has been conducted.
To explore the problem two pig groups were formed. One consists of chirurgical castrated boars (at 4 days of life) and second – of immunocastared boars (Improvac). After the animals have reached live weight 100 kg, 3 pigs from each group were slaughtered and the carcasses were assessed and dissected according to common scheme.
As the result of research it has been determined that the carcasses, obtained from immunocastrated boars, had lower backfat level over the whole carcass. After their dissection more meat was gained (by 4,62%) and less fat (by 5,93%), comparing with chirurgical castrated boars.
It was established that the carcasses of immunocastared boars had higher content of most valuable pork pieces by 3,2%.
Obtained results allow to state that application of immunocastration may promote the increasing of carcass quality or boars. At the same time, to form the finale conclusion the additional research with involvement of more animals is needed.
Keyword: boars, immunocastrated boars, chirurgical castrated boars, carcass quality.
1. Denvera, S., Sandøea, P., Christensena, T. (2017). Consumer preferences for pig welfare – Can the market accommodate more than one level of welfare pork? Meat Science. 129, 140–146.
2. European Union. Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs. OJ L 47, 18.2.2009.
3. Moorea, K.L., Mullanc, B.P., Dunsheaa, F.R. (2017). Boar taint, meat quality and fail rate in entire male pigs and male pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor as related to body weight and feeding regime. Meat Science. 125, 95–101.
4. Kravchenko, О.I. Getya D.A. (2011). Perspektyvy zaprovadzhennja novoji normatyvnoji bazy ocinky jakosti tush svynej v Ukrajini. Aghrarnyj visnyk Prychornomor’ja. 58, 37-41.
5. Oliver, M.A. ALCASDE – Final report. (2009). http://www.alcasde.eu.
6. Weiler, U., Dehnhard, M., Herbert E., Claus, R. (1995). Einfluss von Geschlecht, Genotyp und Mastendgewicht auf die Androstenon- und Skatolkonzentration im Fett von Mastschweinen, 14-32. In: Die Ebermast, Angewandte Wissenschaft Heft 449, Schriftenreihe des Bundesministeriums für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Landwirtschaftsverlag Münster.
7. Willeke, H., Claus, R., Müller, E., Pirchner F., Karg, H. (1987). Selection for high and low level of 5 α- androst-16-en-3- one in boars. I. Direct and correlated response of endocrinological traits. Journal Animal Breeding and Genetics 104, 64-73.
8. Zamaratskaia, G., Babol, J., Andersson, H.K., Andersson, K., Lundström, K. (2005). Effect of live weight and dietary supplement of raw potato starch on the levels of skatole, androstenone, testosterone and oestrone sulphate in entire male pigs. Livestock Production Science. 93(3), 235-243.
9. Frieden, L., Looft, C., Tholen, E. (2011). Breeding for reduced boar taint. Lohman Information, 46(1), 21-27.
10. Frieden1, L., Große-Brinkhaus, C., Neuhoff, C., Schellander, K., Looft, C., Tholen E. (2014). Möglichkeiten zur Reduktion von geschlechtsbedingten Geruchsabweichungen am Schlachtkörper von männlichen, unkastrierten Mastschweinen Teil 2: Genetische Fundierung des Merkmals Ebergeruch und genetische Beziehungen zu paternalen und maternalen Reproduktionsleistungen. Züchtungskunde, 86, (5/6), 319–341.
11. Hofmo, PO. (2006). Sperm sorting and low dose insemination in the pig an update. Acta Vet Scand. 48, 11.
12. American veterinary medical association. Literature Review on the Welfare Implications of Swine Castration. May 29. 2013, 5p. https://www.avma.org/KB/Resources/LiteratureReviews/Documents/swine_castration_bgnd.pdf.
13. Backus, Gé. Human nose scoring system for boar taint. Presentation at the IPEMA 2nd Annual meeting. February 2017, Prague.
14. Hart, J., Crew, A., McGuire, N. and Doran, O. (2016). Sensor and method for detecting androstenone or skatole in boar taint. EP2966441 A1. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/28667.
15. Meinert, L., Dall Aaslyng, M. The use of tainted meat. Presentation at the IPEMA 2nd Annual meeting. February 2017, Prague.
16. CA COST Action CA15215 (2016-2018) – Innovative approaches in pork production with entire males – IPEMA http://www.ca-ipema.eu/.
17. Giri, SC, Yadav, BPS, Panda, SK (2002). Chemical castration in pigs. Indian Journal of Animal Science, 72, 451-453.
18. Daxenberger, A., Hageleit, M., Kraetzl, W., Lange, I., Claus, R., Bizec, B., Meyer, H. (2001). Suppression of androstenone in entire male pigs by anabolic preparations. Livestock Production Science, 69: 139-144.
19. Prunier, A., Bonneau, M., von Borell, EH, Cinotti, S., Gunn, M., Fredriksen, B., Giersing, M., Morton, DB., Tuyttens, FAM., Velarde, A. (2006). A review of the welfare consequences of surgical castration in piglets and the evaluation of non-surgical methods. Anim Welf.,15, 277–289.
20. Skrlep, M., Batorek, N., Bonneau, M., Prevolnik, M., Kubale, V., Ćandek-Potokar, M. (2012). Effect of immunocastration in group-housed commercial fattening pigs on reproductive organs, malodorous compounds, carcass and meat quality. Czech J. Anim. Sci., 57(6), 290–299.
21. Zamaratskaia, G., Andersson, H., Chen, G., Andersson, K., Madej, A., Lundstrom, K. (2008). Effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine (Improvac (TM)) on steroid hormones, boar taint compounds and performance in entire male pigs. Reprod Domest Anim., 43, 351-359.
22. Andersson, K., Brunius, C., Zamaratskaia, G., Lundström, K. (2011). Early vaccination with Improvac®: effects on performance and behaviour of male pigs. Animal, FirstView:1-9.
23. Pauly, C., Spring, P., O’Doherty, J.V., Ampuero Kragten, S. & Bee, G. (2009). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of group-penned surgically castrated, immunocastrated (Improvac) and entire male pigs and individually penned entire male pigs. Animal, 3(7), 1057-1066.
24. Skrlep, M., Čandek-Potokar, M., Lukač, N. B., Povše, M. P., Pugliese, C., Labussière, E., & Flores, M. (2016). Comparison of entire male and immunocastrated pigs for dry-cured ham production under two salting regimes. Meat science, 111, 27-37.
25. Nacionaljnyj standart Ukrajiny. Svyni dlja zaboju. Tekhnichni umovy. Zmina #1 do DSTU 4718:2007. Kyjiv, Minekonomrozvytku Ukrajiny, 2014.