Highproductive plantmicrobial systems in legume agrocenoses of Crimea

4(81), 2014
UNC 633.31/37:631.461

S. Didovych
R. Kulinich

At present in Ukraine main priorities in agricultural production are its ecologization, rational use natural resource, resource-conservation and economic practicability. In this connection, biotechnologies of growing of legumes have been designed. These technologies are based on the strategies of joint using biopreparations with strains of heterotrophic microorganism of different action (symbiotic nitrogen fixing, phosphate mobilizing and growth-promoting activity, antagonistic activity to phytopathogens, entomocide activity to phytophagans). Such biotechnologies allow raising plant productivity, to protect the plants from pathogen infection, to control the quantity of phytophagans, and to get qualitative and ecologically safe products of plant–grower.However, alternative ways of the creation of the efficient plant–microbial systems have a requirement in a further search and all–round studies in questions of the mechanism interactions micro– and macropartners, conditions their efficient function.The object of research – particularly the interaction of multifunctional biological agents of microbiological preparations with legume plants in agrocenoses. In order to study the efficacy of biologics multifunctional action in agro-technologies of cultivation of legumes in the Crimea were carried out field research. Using modern varieties Ukrainian selection legumes. Before sowing the seeds of leguminous plants treated with microbial agents on the basis of highly nitrogen-fixing strains of microorganisms Rizobofit (control) and preparations of multifunctional action: Fosfoenterin – based on microorganisms that mobilize hard-phosphates, thereby increasing the utilization rate of phosphate fertilizer and soil phosphate; Biopolitsid – based on microorganisms, inhibit the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms; Arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMG), the formulation of which is represented as a substrate-Koreneva mixture; used to increase seed production by providing plants with moisture, soil phosphorus compounds and reduce the destruction of the roots of pathogenic fungi; Tsianorizobialn Consortium (CRK) – on the basis of soil nitrogen-fixing algae Nostoc, associated with it microorganisms which are characterized by different dominant functions (fosfatmobilizatsiya, roststimulyatsiya) in the rhizosphere of plants. The possibility of creating high-performance plant-microbe systems agrocenoses legumes by applying pre-seed bakteryzationpolyfunctional biological products, thus improving plant productivity chickpeas 7,7-16,3 % on average, peas – 10% while increasing crude protein in seeds 1,0-2,8 %. (more…)