The aim of the study – determining the influence of weather conditions on the formation of the harvest of alfalfa varieties on hay under conditions of natural moisture in the southern steppe of Ukraine to identify the most drought-adapted varieties valuable high-protein grass.
Research results. It is established that alfalfa plants of the second year of life (and use) provide higher productivity compared to the first and third and fourth years of life. On average for four years of use (2015-2018), the highest yield of hay in arid conditions on the southern chernozems is provided by varieties of alfalfa Vavilovka 2 (increase of 0.33 t / ha or 11.7% to the standard variety Nadezhda, accepted for control , the yield of which was 2.83 t / ha). Also noteworthy are the varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba (yield increase of 10.2, 9.3 and 8.6%, respectively, compared to the control). These varieties use the resource potential of moisture more efficiently compared to the control variety.Slightly higher against control plants is the productivity of alfalfa varieties Regina, Unitro, Laska, for the cultivation of which the increase in hay yield was 6.3, 5.7, 5.5% to control. In the first year of life (and use) at 1ºC effective air temperatures above + 5ºC formed leaf-stem mass for hay, on average by varieties, 1.76 kg, and in the second, third, fourth years of life-3.96, 3.52, 3.46 kg, respectively. On average, over four years of use, at 1ºC of effective air temperatures, the most hay of the Vavilovka 2 variety was harvested – 3.32 kg, which is 0.37 kg, or 12.5% more than in the control (2.95 kg). In the varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba this indicator increased by 10.8, 10.0 and 9.1%, respectively. In the first year of life (and use) on 1 mm of precipitation and productive moisture of 0-100 cm of a layer of soil the leaf-stem weight for preparation of 7,41 kg of hay on the average on grades is formed, and in the second, third, fourth years-18.64, 14.59, 13.99 kg / 1 mm of water, respectively. 1 mm of available precipitation moisture was collected and most of the hay of the Vavilovka 2 variety was collected from the soil – 14.29 kg, which is 1.58 kg or 12.4% more than in the control (12.71 kg / 1 mm of moisture). In the varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba, this figure increased by 10.6, 9.7 and 8.8%, respectively.
Conclusions. Productivity of alfalfa plants significantly depends on weather conditions of a year, a grade, life expectancy. On average for four years of life and use, the highest yield of hay was provided by the alfalfa variety Vavilovka 2 (increase of 0.33 t / ha or 11.7% to the standard variety Nadezhda, the yield of which was 2.83 t / ha). Higher productivity against control is formed by varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba (yield increase by 10.2, 9.3 and 8.6%, respectively).
Keywords: alfalfa, variety, weather conditions, hay, productivity.
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