National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”
One of the main problems of deterioration in the quality and safety of fats is their potential for oxidative spoilage. This problem is associated with the appearance of rancidity in fats. The primary products of oxidation – hydroperoxides do not smell and do not affect the taste of fats. However, the products of their transformation are secondary oxidation products, among which aldehydes, ketones, spites, hydroxy acids, epoxy compounds, etc. have their own taste and aroma. Aldehydes have a particularly low odor threshold, they are the main secondary oxidation products for fats with a high unsaturated fatty acid content. Octanal, nonanal, decanal, (E)-2-decenal, neanoic acid have the greatest influence on the sensation of rancidity in vegetable oils. The purpose of the research is to establish a connection between the formation of a feeling of bitterness in vegetable oils and the content of the main oxidation products – hydroperoxides and aldehydes, ie to find the possibility to predict the moment of oil rancidity using peroxide value and / or anisidine number. The article investigated the kinetics of oxidation of unrefined vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, linseed, corn, rapeseed) at 28 ° C by changing the value of peroxide and anisidine numbers. The degree of oxidative resistance according to changes and peroxide and anisidine numbers of crude oils can be arranged in the following series (as stability decreases): soybean oil> corn oil> rapeseed oil> sunflower oil> linseed oil. During oxidation at 28 ° C and access to oxygen, oils accumulated significant amounts of hydroperoxides (up to 160 – 180 mmol 1/2O/kg). However, a sharp increase in the amount of aldehydes and generally high values of anisidine numbers was not observed, which is associated with a low oxidation temperature and the absence of rapid destruction of peroxides. Oils with high peroxide number values did not impair their sensory characteristics. The study proved the presence of a correlation between the moment of exiting the induction period according to the data of anisidine numbers and the onset of rancidity of all the studied oils. Thus, using the anisidine number indicator, it is possible to predict the moment of oil rancidity – not only by qualitative and quantitative research of volatile compound oils, but also using a simpler common method – the anisidine number.
Key words: oxidation, rancidity, vegetable oils, anisidine number, aldehydes, peroxide number, hydroperoxides.
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Ключевое название (Key title):
Vìsnik agrarnoï nauki Pričornomor'â (Online)
Сокращенное ключевое название (Abbreviated key title):
Vìsn. agrar. nauki Pričornomor'â (Online)
Параллельное название (Parallel title):
Ukrainian Black Sea region agrarian science