Liubych V. V., Leshchenko I. A. Whole and quality grits yield of emmer wheat grain depending on endosperm consistency and water-heat treatment

UDC 664.7+664.71–11


Liubych V. V.

Leshchenko I. A.


The article is devoted to the determining of the effect of water-heat treatment regimes (moistening and softening) and hulling during the production of whole grits of emmer wheat with different vitreous endosperm. A comparative analysis of grits products yield was made, depending on the studied factors, and the optimal regimes are determined taking into account the culinary assessment of the finished product.
The great impact of the duration of hulling and vitreousness on grits and hulling bran is significant. Due to the different hulling duration of emmer wheat grain with flour endosperm (from 20 to 200 s) without water-heat treatment, the yield of whole grits was obtained from 81.0 to 97.5 %. Without water-heat treatment, the yield of vitreous grain was 85.0–99.3 %. Grain moistening before hulling increased grits yield, but this effect was unreliable (p> 0.05) and had a low level of impact. The effect of moistening duration of emmer wheat grain was insignificant and unreliable. The use of grain moistening (more than 14.0 %) is inefficient, as it does not significantly affect the grits yield. The obtained line mathematical influence models of grain moistening, softening, hulling on grits yield can be used for grits production.
Culinary quality depends on hulling coefficient and grain vitreousness. Thus, in case of grain processing with vitreous endosperm, the culinary assessment is 6.5–8.5 points depending on hulling duration. Culinary assessment of grits obtained from flour grain is 6.2–8.1 points. The highest yield of whole grits can be obtained with the minimum hulling duration (20 s) and moisture content of 13.0–14.0 %. However, such product is characterized by an overall culinary assessment which is below satisfactory.
During the production of whole grits of emmer wheat, the optimal to hull vitreous grain of moisture content 12.0–13.0 %. The duration of hulling of such grain should be 40–120 s (grits yield 92–97 %) to production high quality cereals and 120–140 s (grits yield 86–90 %) – with very high.

Key words: emmer wheat, grain, whole grit, hulling bran, hulling, water-heat treatment.



  1. Kroshko, G., Levchenko, V., Nazarenko, L. et al. (1998). The rules of organization and management process in cereal plants. Kiev: Vipol, 163.
  2. Lyuby`ch, V. V., Novikov, V. V., Leshhenko, I. A. (2019). Vply`v try`valosti lushhennya na vodoteplovogo obroblennya zerna na vy`xid i kulinarnu ocinku plyushhenoyi krupy` iz psheny`ci polby`. Vcheni zapy`sky` Tavrijs`kogo nacional`nogo universy`tetu, 30 (69), 107–112.
  3. Cavazos, A., Mejia, E. (2013). Identification of bioactive peptides from cereal storage proteins and their potential role in prevention of chronic diseases. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf.,12, 364–380.
  4. Arcila, J. A.; Rose, D. J. (2015). Repeated cooking and freezing of whole wheat flour increases resistant starch with beneficial impacts on in vitro fecal fermentation properties. Funct. Foods,12, 230–236.
  5. Adam, A., Levrat-Verny, M.A., Lopez, H.W., Leuillet, M. (2001). Whole wheat and triticale flours with differing viscosities stimulate cecal fermentations and lower plasma and hepatic lipids in rats. Nutr, 131 (6), 1770–1776.
  6. Le Gall,, Serena,A., Jorgensen. H., Theil. P. K., Bach Knudsen, K. E. (2009). The role of whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients on the digestion and fermentation processes in the gut a model experiment with pigs. Br. J. Nutr., 102, 1590–1600.
  7. Sofi, F., Whittaker, A., Cesari, F., Gori, A. M. (2013). Characterization of Khorasan wheat (Kamut) and impact of a replacement diet on cardiovascular risk factors: Cross-over dietary intervention study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 67, 190–195.
  8. Shewry, P. R., Hey, S. (2015). Do ‘ancient’ wheat species differ from modern bread wheat in their contents of bioactive components? Cereal Sci., 65, 236–243.
  9. Dinu, M., Whittaker, A., Pagliai, G., Benedettelli, S., Sofi, F. (2018). Ancient wheat species and human health: Biochemical and clinical implications. Nutr. Biochem., 52, 1–9.
  10. Lyuby`ch, V. V. (2019). Krup’yani vlasty`vosti zerna psheny`ci m’yakoyi ozy`moyi zalezhno vid sortu. Visny`k Xarkivs`kogo nacional`nogo texnichnogo universy`tetu sil`s`kogo gospodarstva imeni Petra Vasy`lenka, 2, 71–79.
  11. Lyuby`ch, V. V. (2017). Produkty`vnist` sortiv i linij psheny`cz` zalezhno vid abioty`chny`x i bioty`chny`x chy`nny`kiv. Visny`k agrarnoyi nauky` Pry`chornomorya, 95, 146–161.
  12. Lyuby`ch. V. V., Novikov. V. V., Leshhenko. I. A. (2019). Vy`xid ciloyi krupy` iz zerna psheny`ci polby` zalezhno vid try`valosti lushhennya i vodoteplovogo obroblennya. Visny`k Xarkivs`kogo nacional`nogo texnichnogo universy`tetu sil`s`kogo gospodarstva imeni Petra Vasy`lenka, 2, 60–67.
  13. Liubych, V., Novikov, V., Polianetska, I. et al. (2019). Improvement of the process of hydrothermal treatment and peeling of spelt wheat grain during cereal production. Eastern European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 3(99), 40–51.
  14. Liubych, V., Polyanetska, I. (2015). Quality of cereals grain of spellt wheat depending on the index its unhusking and water-heat processing. Bulletin of the Uman National Horticultural University, 2, 34–38.
  15. Knaub, James. (1987). Practical Interpretation of Hypothesis Tests – letter to the editor – TAS. The American Statistician, 41, 246–247.