V. Pastukhov, V. Zubko. Research changes in the soil and plants properties in different periods of the production process

UDC 631.559.2


V. Pastukhov

V. Zubko


Each plant has its own individual needs and requirements for soil, nutrition, disease and pest treatment, density, etc. There are common elements that characterize the process of growth and development in the system of development of all the plants.
For maximum yield, it is necessary to realize the biological potential of plants with mechanized technologies.
The main purpose of the work is to study the changes in the properties of soil, seed and plant in different periods of the production process.
Studying field conditions showed that after harvest, a lot off plant residues and weeds remain, the field is covered with stubble and tracks from the tractor wheels.
After soybean threshing with the harvester, the crushed plant residues are distributed on the field unevenly. It was determined by field research.
It is established that 60-75% grain losses on the thresher are concentrated in the straw roll after the shredder.
It is necessary to ensure correct operation harvester shredder and spreader to solve this problem.
The intensity of development of the root system decreases with soil compaction by running systems. This reduces the yield. The compacted layers prevent the accumulation of moisture in the soil and the use of groundwater by plants, limiting the development of the root system.
We investigated the effect soil moisture retention in different layers of soil, with and without crop residues on the surface of the field.
We investigated the influence of plant residues on the surface of the field on the following technological operations. The uneven distribution residues significantly and impedes the movement of the unit in depth.
The research of the quality of disking after winter wheat shows that straw is not cut by discs, but is broken. This process is accompanied by longitudinal destruction of the stem. This leads to its faster decomposition.
We explored the field after harvesting corn for grain. We found that the requirements for the quality of shredding stems are usually not met.
Decreasing soil moisture and increasing its temperature significantly affects its structure. It becomes solid, does not crumble, and becomes stronger over time.
The monitoring photo from satellite and drone shows plants development differentiated on the one’s field.
Our research shows that the quality of the technological operations performed does not meet the needs of the plants.
In order to improve the quality of technological operations, it is necessary to use machines and to make adjustments, taking into account the needs of plants and appropriate operating conditions of the unit.

Key words: quality, realization of biopotential, necessity of plant, technological operation, development of plant.


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