Hruban V., Havrysh V., Kalinichenko A. The determining of the force for corn-cobs separation

UDC 636.3:636.083.37/575.22:636.3.082.2


Hruban V.

Havrysh V.

Kalinichenko A.


There has been an increase in the demand for corn in the world. Its production requires the use of high-performance agricultural machinery, including combines. Modern corn harvesters have high grain losses and, therefore, their main apparatuses must be improved. Known methods for the separation of corn cobs have been analyzed. Designing corn harvesters requires specific knowledge, including the mechanical properties of the crop itself. For this reason, a literary analysis was carried out to study the physical and mechanical properties of corn stalks and cobs. The impact of a number of factors such as mechanical and physical properties of stalks, the mechanical forces exerted through the harvester combine, plant curvature, and pick-up cobs, etc. on the cutting process have been found from previous researches. The aim of this article is the theoretical justification of forces for corn cobs separation. To achieve this aim, a mathematical model which takes into account the complex combination of several forces has been developed. The technological process of corn-cobs separation is considered as the combination of different forces, and the valuation of the resulting tension was done. The results of the simulation were compared to experimental data to verify this model. The wave theory has proved to be more accurate compared to the static model. The results of the theoretical research for corn-cobs separation from stems are given. The experimental results made it possible to refine the mathematical model. Further research will be focused on the intensification of this process by the integration of stretching the stalk together with its twisting.

Key words: corn, cob, separation, cob separation system, mathematical model.


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Fedorchuk M., Kovalenko O., Havrish V., Chernova A., Hruban V. Energy evaluation of sorghum growing technology in the South of Mykolaiv region

UDC 633.17


Fedorchuk M.,

Kovalenko O.,

Havrish V.,

Chernova A.,

Hruban V.


In the conditions of a high drought of climate of the Nikolaev area and fluctuations of temperature on years the important direction of increase of productivity of arable land is cultivation of drought-resistant cultures and improvement of the technological receptions directed on creation of highly productive agrocenoses.

Industrial-scale cultivation of non-food energy crops for biofuels production is generally recognized as a positive step toward ensive enpreventing energy shortages and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. As part comprehergy plan, its bioenergy industry is vigorously accelerating cellulosic ethanol fuel production and diversifying feedstock supplies to include new crops such as cassava and sweet sorghum. In 2020, ethanol yield  reached 4.0 million tons, a 90% increase from 2.1 million tons in 2015, according to the 13th 5-Year Plan for bioenergy

Sorghum is a crop that can withstand high temperatures and prolonged droughts: to consume a one kg of dry matter, it consumes almost 1.5 times less water than corn and 2 times less than cereals. Its value is also due to the versatility of use, the ability to give stable yields, the possibility of growing on unproductive soils.

Energy sorghum, including biomass and sweet type varieties, has recently gained favor as bioethanol feedstock amongst numerous candidate crops. Low input requirements, wide adaptability, and remarkable biological productivity confer better energy balance to sorghum as compared to other competing crops. Using current renewable energy technologies, soluble sugars and structural carbon compounds (cellulose and hemicellulose) in energy sorghum stems and leaves could be the most promising approach for the first and second generation ethanol production.

This article evaluates the energy efficiency of growing sugar and grain sorghum in the context of climate change.

Keywords: energy equivalent, energy efficiency coefficient, energy costs, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, biofuel, energy efficiency.



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Alternative fuels and effect on agricultural machines’ efficiency.

UDC 339.137.2:338.432

V. Havrysh, doctor of economic sciences, professor
M. Shatohin, assistant
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

Modern farming is highly energy-intensive production, including through the use of large volumes of motor fuels on the fulfi llment of manufacturing operations. The situation is complicated by the fact that the dominant global trend in the energy sector is a permanent increase in the price of fossil hydrocarbons: oil, coal and natural gas. This aff ects the production costs.
One way of improving both economic and environmental performance of agricultural production is the use of alternative motor fuels, including renewable. The decision to use them should be justified.

Key words: alternative fuels, agricultural machines, efficiency.

Alternative fuels and effect on agricultural machines’ efficiency.

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Issue 4 (92), 2016

Features of determination of discount rate for energy producing investment projects

Number, year
3(79), Vol. 1, 2014
UNC 681.5.0171

FEATURES of determination of discount rate for ENERGY producing investment projects

Valeriy I. Havrysh, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor

Interest in using biomass as feedstock for biofuel production has been increasing recently due to concerns about volatile oil prices, climate change, and so on. Producing of renewable energy involves large risks, while requiring heavy capital investment with relatively long payback periods when compared with other business sectors.

To arrive at a solution to the project evaluation problem, one will need to determine the level of discount rate for each project within an acceptable margin of error. The discount rate for a given project is typically determined by using risk-free market rates plus a market risk premium adjusted in relation to the volatility of the investment compared to the market. In practice, however, the discount rate is still subjective and dependent on corporate or other experience factors.

Several types of investment appraisals, such as payback period, accounting rate of return (ARR), internal rate of return (IRR), profitability index, and net present value (NPV), can be used to assess an investment project. The NPV is the most common project evaluation approach used by firms. The NPV index at the tth year depends on the selection of the discount rate, which can greatly affect the economics and decision making, particularly in capital-intensive projects.

A Discount Rate is used to convert projected cash flows into a present value to enable comparison of competing options for which the cash flows reflect differences in both timing and amounts. The Discount Rate reflects the Rate of Return expected by an investor to compensate the investor for placing capital at risk in a project.

Several studies estimating the Discount Rates have been conducted. Most of the above deals with the use of Discount Rates in the context of investment evaluation. But they do not take into account energy price dynamic. This decreases the precision of determination and, as a result, investment appraisals.

The dynamics of inflation and changing of energy resources prices, especially of motor fuel, have been analyzed. It is determined that the dynamics of the last factor can both improve and worsen the financial indicators of investment projects. The mutual influence of inflation and changing of energy resources prices on the incomes of these projects has been revealed. A method for determining the discount rate, taking into account the above factors has been offered.

The economic model developed here can be used to assess the discount rate of a renewable energy producing projects. The application results of the base case revealed that the calculated value as a rule less than one obtained without influence of energy price dynamic by 3…4 %.

This study provides a solid base for further research in assessing the discount rate of the biofuel facility.

Key words:
discount rate, risk, inflation, energy resources, investment (more…)

Аналіз енергетичної ефективності виробництва соняшнику в умовах півдня України

Номер, рік
1(71), 2013


М.Н. Малиш, доктор економічних наук, професор
Санкт-Петербурзький державний аграрний університет, Росія
В.І. Гавриш, доктор економічних наук, професор
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет, Україна
В.І. Перебийніс, доктор економічних наук, професор
Полтавський університет економіки і торгівлі, Україна

Виконано аналіз енергетичної ефективності виробництва соняшнику в умовах півдня України. Визначено структуру витрат енергетичних ресурсів за технологічними операціями та видами їх витрат.

Ключові слова
урожайність, ефективність, енергетичні ресурси, соняшник