# Hruban V., Havrysh V., Kalinichenko A. The determining of the force for corn-cobs separation

UDC 636.3:636.083.37/575.22:636.3.082.2

Hruban V.

Havrysh V.

Kalinichenko A.

There has been an increase in the demand for corn in the world. Its production requires the use of high-performance agricultural machinery, including combines. Modern corn harvesters have high grain losses and, therefore, their main apparatuses must be improved. Known methods for the separation of corn cobs have been analyzed. Designing corn harvesters requires specific knowledge, including the mechanical properties of the crop itself. For this reason, a literary analysis was carried out to study the physical and mechanical properties of corn stalks and cobs. The impact of a number of factors such as mechanical and physical properties of stalks, the mechanical forces exerted through the harvester combine, plant curvature, and pick-up cobs, etc. on the cutting process have been found from previous researches. The aim of this article is the theoretical justification of forces for corn cobs separation. To achieve this aim, a mathematical model which takes into account the complex combination of several forces has been developed. The technological process of corn-cobs separation is considered as the combination of different forces, and the valuation of the resulting tension was done. The results of the simulation were compared to experimental data to verify this model. The wave theory has proved to be more accurate compared to the static model. The results of the theoretical research for corn-cobs separation from stems are given. The experimental results made it possible to refine the mathematical model. Further research will be focused on the intensification of this process by the integration of stretching the stalk together with its twisting.

Key words: corn, cob, separation, cob separation system, mathematical model.

References:

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# Fedorchuk M., Kovalenko O., Havrish V., Chernova A., Hruban V. Energy evaluation of sorghum growing technology in the South of Mykolaiv region

UDC 633.17

Fedorchuk M.,

Kovalenko O.,

Havrish V.,

Chernova A.,

Hruban V.

In the conditions of a high drought of climate of the Nikolaev area and fluctuations of temperature on years the important direction of increase of productivity of arable land is cultivation of drought-resistant cultures and improvement of the technological receptions directed on creation of highly productive agrocenoses.

Industrial-scale cultivation of non-food energy crops for biofuels production is generally recognized as a positive step toward ensive enpreventing energy shortages and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. As part comprehergy plan, its bioenergy industry is vigorously accelerating cellulosic ethanol fuel production and diversifying feedstock supplies to include new crops such as cassava and sweet sorghum. In 2020, ethanol yield  reached 4.0 million tons, a 90% increase from 2.1 million tons in 2015, according to the 13th 5-Year Plan for bioenergy

Sorghum is a crop that can withstand high temperatures and prolonged droughts: to consume a one kg of dry matter, it consumes almost 1.5 times less water than corn and 2 times less than cereals. Its value is also due to the versatility of use, the ability to give stable yields, the possibility of growing on unproductive soils.

Energy sorghum, including biomass and sweet type varieties, has recently gained favor as bioethanol feedstock amongst numerous candidate crops. Low input requirements, wide adaptability, and remarkable biological productivity confer better energy balance to sorghum as compared to other competing crops. Using current renewable energy technologies, soluble sugars and structural carbon compounds (cellulose and hemicellulose) in energy sorghum stems and leaves could be the most promising approach for the first and second generation ethanol production.

This article evaluates the energy efficiency of growing sugar and grain sorghum in the context of climate change.

Keywords: energy equivalent, energy efficiency coefficient, energy costs, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, biofuel, energy efficiency.

References:

1. Lan Tian Ren, Zu Xin Liu, Tong Yang Wei, Guang Hui Xie. (2012). Evaluation of energy input and output of sweet sorghum grown as a bioenergy crop on coastal saline-alkali land. Energy. 47. 166-173. URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.09.024
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3. Krzysztof Józef Jankowski, Bogdan Dubisa, Mateusz Mikołaj Sokólski, Dariusz Załuski, Piotr Bórawskia, Władysław Szempliński. (2020). Productivity and energy balance of maize and sorghum grown for biogas in a large-area farm in Poland: An 11-year field experiment. Industrial Crops & Products. 112326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112326.
4. Iosvany López-Sandin, Guadalupe Gutiérrez-Soto, Adriana Gutiérrez-Díez, Nancy Medina-Herrera, Edgar Gutiérrez-Castorena1 and Francisco Zavala-García. Evaluation of the Use of Energy in the Production of Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor (L.) Moench) Under Different Production Systems. Energies, 2019, 12, 1713; doi:10.3390/en12091713
5. Su, Y.; Zhang, P.; Su, Y. An overview of biofuels policies and industrialization in the major biofuel producing countries. Sust. Energ. Rev. 2015, 50, 991‒1003.
6. Rocha, A.; Araújo, A.; Carvalho, A.; Sepulveda, J. A. New Approach for Real Time Train Energy Efficiency Energies. 2018, 11, doi:10.3390/en11102660.
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9. Larnaudie, V.; Rochon, E.; Ferrari, M. D.; Lareo, C. Energy evaluation of fuel bioethanol production from sweet sorghum using very high gravity (VHG) conditions. Energ. 2016, 88, 280‒287.
10. Mathur, S.; Umakanth, A. V.; Tonapi, V. A.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, M. K. Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources. Biofuels. 2017, 10, 146.
11. Bai, Y.; Luo, L.; van der Voet, E. Life cycle assessment of switchgrass-derived ethanol as transport fuel. The J. Life Cycle Assess. 2010, 15, 468‒477.
12. Mishra, J. S.; Kumar, R.; Rao, S. S. Performance of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) cultivars as a source of green fodder under varying levels of nitrogen in semi-arid tropical India. Sugar Tech. 2017, 19, 532‒538.
13. Cosedido, V.; Vacas, R.; Macarulla, B.; Gracia, M. P.; Igartua, E. Agronomic and digital phenotyping evaluation of sweet sorghum public varieties and F1 hybrids with potential for ethanol production in Maydica. 2013, 58, 42‒53.
14. Barcelos, C. A.; Maeda, R. N.; Santa Anna, L. M.; Pereira, N. Sweet sorghum as a whole-crop feedstock for ethanol production. Biomass bioenergy 2016, 94, 46‒56.
15. Bonin, C. L.; Heaton, E. A.; Cogdill, T. J.; Moore, K. J. Management of sweet sorghum for biomass Sugar tech. 2016, 18, 150‒159.
16. Amaducci, S., Colauzzi, M., Battini, F., Fracasso, A., Perego, A., 2016. Effect of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization on the production of biogas from maize and sorghum in a water limited environment. J. Agron. 76, 54–65.
17. Bioenerhetychna otsinka sorhovykh kultur /[V.L. Kurylo, O.V. Yalanskyi, V.L. Hamandii ta in.] . Zbirnyk naukovykh prats IBKITsB. 2012. Vyp.14. S. 554-558.
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22. Alabushev A.B., Antypenko L.N. Эnerhetycheskaia otsenka proyzvodstva sorhovыkh kultur. Zernovыe y kormovыe kulturы (selektsyia, semenovodstvo, tekhnolohyia vozdelыvanyia). Zernohrad, 2000. S. 4-6.
23. Ivanina V. V., Sypko A. O., Sinchuk H. A Bioenerhetychna produktyvnist tsukrovoho sorho zalezhno vid umov azotnoho zhyvlennia. Bioenerhetyka. 2014. № 2. S. 25–27.
24. Mesiachnыe y hodovыe summы vыpavshykh osadkov v Nykolaeve: veb-sait. URL: [http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/history/33846_2.] (data zvernennia: 02.11.2020).
25. Melike E.Bildirici Economic growth and biomass energy. Biomass and Bioenergy. Volume 50, March 2013, Pages 19-24.
26. Anthony Turhollow; Robert Perlack; Laurence Eaton and others The updated billion-ton resource assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 70, 2014; pp. 149-164. URL: [https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/47693] (дата звернення: 02.11.2020).
27. Мatthew W. Veal, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist Mari S. Chinn, Associate Professor Matthew B. Whitfield Sweet Sorghum Production to Support Energy and Industrial Products. North Carolina Cooperative Extension. 2014 – 8 р. [http://content.ces.ncsu.edu/sweet-sorghum-production-to-support-energy-and-industrial-products].
28. Todd Pfeiffe, Michael Montros Sweet Sorghum for Biofuel. University of Kentucky, URL: [https://www.uky.edu/ccd/sites/www.uky.edu.ccd/files/sorghumbiofuel.pdf] (дата звернення: 02.11.2020).
29. Seied Naser Eshaghi Sardrood Effect of chemical fertilizers and bio-fertilizers application on some morpho-physiological characteristics of forage sorghum / Seied Naser Eshaghi Sardrood, Amin Bagheri Pirouz and Behzad Shokati. International journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. Vol., 4 (2), Pages 223 – 231, 2013 URL: [http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/11527/1/IJAPP_4_2_223_231_2013.pdf] (дата звернення: 02.11.2020).

# Alternative fuels and effect on agricultural machines’ efficiency.

UDC 339.137.2:338.432

V. Havrysh, doctor of economic sciences, professor
M. Shatohin, assistant
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

Modern farming is highly energy-intensive production, including through the use of large volumes of motor fuels on the fulfi llment of manufacturing operations. The situation is complicated by the fact that the dominant global trend in the energy sector is a permanent increase in the price of fossil hydrocarbons: oil, coal and natural gas. This aff ects the production costs.
One way of improving both economic and environmental performance of agricultural production is the use of alternative motor fuels, including renewable. The decision to use them should be justified.

Key words: alternative fuels, agricultural machines, efficiency.

Alternative fuels and effect on agricultural machines’ efficiency.

Referenses:
1. Марков В.А. Работа дизелей на смесях дизельного топлива и метилового эфира рапсового масла / В.А. Марков, А.Ю. Шустер, С.Н. Девянин // Транспорт на альтернативном топливе. – 2009. – №4 (10). – С.33-37.
2. Clean Cities Alternative Fuel Price Report. October 2014. US Department of Energy. Energy Effi ciency and Renewable Energy. – 17 p.
3. Исследование показателей двигателя с искровым зажиганием при работе на газовых топливах/ В.А. Лукшо, А.В. Козлов, А.С. Теренченко, А.А. Демидов // Транспорт на альтернативном топливе. – 2011. – №8 (24). – С.28-33.
4. The Statistics Portal. Gasoline prices in selected countries worldwide as of November 2014 (in U.S. dollars per gallon). [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа: http://www.statista.com/statistics/221368/gas-prices-around-the-world/.

# Features of determination of discount rate for energy producing investment projects

Number, year
3(79), Vol. 1, 2014
UNC 681.5.0171

FEATURES of determination of discount rate for ENERGY producing investment projects

Valeriy I. Havrysh, Ph.D., D.Sc., professor

Interest in using biomass as feedstock for biofuel production has been increasing recently due to concerns about volatile oil prices, climate change, and so on. Producing of renewable energy involves large risks, while requiring heavy capital investment with relatively long payback periods when compared with other business sectors.

To arrive at a solution to the project evaluation problem, one will need to determine the level of discount rate for each project within an acceptable margin of error. The discount rate for a given project is typically determined by using risk-free market rates plus a market risk premium adjusted in relation to the volatility of the investment compared to the market. In practice, however, the discount rate is still subjective and dependent on corporate or other experience factors.

Several types of investment appraisals, such as payback period, accounting rate of return (ARR), internal rate of return (IRR), profitability index, and net present value (NPV), can be used to assess an investment project. The NPV is the most common project evaluation approach used by firms. The NPV index at the tth year depends on the selection of the discount rate, which can greatly affect the economics and decision making, particularly in capital-intensive projects.

A Discount Rate is used to convert projected cash flows into a present value to enable comparison of competing options for which the cash flows reflect differences in both timing and amounts. The Discount Rate reflects the Rate of Return expected by an investor to compensate the investor for placing capital at risk in a project.

Several studies estimating the Discount Rates have been conducted. Most of the above deals with the use of Discount Rates in the context of investment evaluation. But they do not take into account energy price dynamic. This decreases the precision of determination and, as a result, investment appraisals.

The dynamics of inflation and changing of energy resources prices, especially of motor fuel, have been analyzed. It is determined that the dynamics of the last factor can both improve and worsen the financial indicators of investment projects. The mutual influence of inflation and changing of energy resources prices on the incomes of these projects has been revealed. A method for determining the discount rate, taking into account the above factors has been offered.

The economic model developed here can be used to assess the discount rate of a renewable energy producing projects. The application results of the base case revealed that the calculated value as a rule less than one obtained without influence of energy price dynamic by 3…4 %.

This study provides a solid base for further research in assessing the discount rate of the biofuel facility.

Key words:
discount rate, risk, inflation, energy resources, investment (more…)

# Аналіз енергетичної ефективності виробництва соняшнику в умовах півдня України

Номер, рік
1(71), 2013

УДК
338.43:62.61

Автор
М.Н. Малиш, доктор економічних наук, професор
Санкт-Петербурзький державний аграрний університет, Росія
В.І. Гавриш, доктор економічних наук, професор
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет, Україна
В.І. Перебийніс, доктор економічних наук, професор
Полтавський університет економіки і торгівлі, Україна

Анотація
Виконано аналіз енергетичної ефективності виробництва соняшнику в умовах півдня України. Визначено структуру витрат енергетичних ресурсів за технологічними операціями та видами їх витрат.

Ключові слова
урожайність, ефективність, енергетичні ресурси, соняшник
(more…)