Grain quality of winter wheat varieties depending on the factors and conditions of the year of cultivation in the south of Ukrainian Steppe

UDC 644.71.633.11(477.7)

V. Gamayunova,
A. Litovchenko,
T. Hlushko,
O. Sdyakina

The article presents the results of studies carried out for four years with winter wheat varieties Albatross Odessa (st), Kuyalnik, Victoria Odesskaya, Selyanka and Ermak on chernozem southern in the Steppe of Ukraine. The years of research were similar and typical for the temperature regime, but were significantly different in the amount of precipitation during the vegetation period of winter wheat plants.
Basic indexes over of quality of grain of winter wheat and as they depend and change under influence of predecessor, background of feed, of high quality features and weather terms, folded during the vegetation of culture. It is certain that maintenance of gluten, albumen, mass 1000 grains etc. regardless of year of growing formed most optimal for growing after black steam. All indicated indexes substantially increase and get better under influence of bringing of mineral fertilizers id est on optimization of feed of plants. It is set that quality of grain depends and from weather terms being during the vegetation of plants of winter wheat, and from biological features.
According to the results of the research, the southern Steppe zone of Ukraine, according to the soil-climatic characteristics, is suitable for growing winter wheat varieties with high grain quality indices. The grain content of the studied wheat varieties of winter wheat and gluten significantly increases and improves after growing the crop after a black couple, and especially for optimizing plant nutrition. It was established that the introduction of mineral fertilizers, and especially nitrogen, ensures the receipt of high-quality grain and the placement of wheat after corn for silage and starch precursor. It is also determined that the main indicators of grain quality, such as protein content, gluten and gluten quality, are significantly higher in dry and dry years, and are characterized by less favorable indicators for excessive moisture and, especially during the period of grain pouring.
Similarly, under the influence of the predecessor, the background of nutrition and the conditions of the growing season, the following indicators of grain quality, such as the weight of 1000 seeds, and the actual weight of grain, change.

Keyword: winter wheat, varieties, grain quality, gluten and protein content, precursor, food background.

Grain quality of winter wheat varieties depending on the factors and conditions of the year of cultivation in the south of Ukrainian Steppe.

References:
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2. Kysil’ V.I. Ahrokhimichni aspekty ekolohizatsiyi zemlerobstva / V.I. Kysil’. – Kharkiv, 13 typohrafiya, 2005. – S. 37-38.
3. Lisovyy M.V. zastosuvannya pidzhyvlennya ozymoyi pshenytsi u dva stroky spryyaye pidvyshchennyu urozhaynosti i yakosti zerna / M.V. Lisovyy, O.V. Dotsenko, I A. Panchenko // Visnyk KhNAU. Ser «Ahrokhimiya». – 2004. – # 1. – S.208-211.
4. Holubchenko V.F. Vplyv mineral’nykh dobryv na vrozhaynist’ ta yakist’ zerna pshenytsi ozymoyi v roky z riznoyu volohozabezpechenistyu hruntu / V.F. Holubchenko, M.V. Lisovyy, E.V. Kulidzhanov, H.A. Kapustina, N.A. Yamkova // Peredhirne ta hirs’ke zemlerobstvo i tvarynnytstvo, 2015. – Vyp. 58 (1). – S.51-55.
5. Gamajunova V.V. Vlijanie sistematicheskogo primenenija azotnyh udobrenij na urozhajnost’ i kachestvo kul’tur v uslovijah oroshenija na juge Ukrainy / V.V. Gamajunova // «Agrohimija», – 1997. – № – S. 47-50.
6. Ol’hovskij G.F. Ispol’zovanie azota nekornevyh podkormok rastenijami ozimoj pshenicy / G.F. Ol’hovskij // Agrohіmіja і ґruntoznavstvo. – Kniga tretja. Specіal’nij vipusk do VI zїzdu UTGA (1-5 lipnja 2002, m.Uman’) – Harkіv, 2002. – S. 267-269.
7. Sidorenko A.V. Vlijanie nekornevoj podkormki mikroudobrenijami i karbamidom na kachestvo zerna ozimoj pshenicy v uslovijah central’nogo Kryma / A.V. Sidorenko, D.P. Dudarev // Mіzhvіdomchij tematichnij naukovij zbіrnik «Zroshuvane zemlerobstva» – Herson: «Ajlant», 2012. – Vip. 57. – S. 68-72.
8. Netis I.T. Vplyv poperednykiv, dobryv i zakhystu roslyn na yakist’ zerna ozymoyi pshenytsi / I.T. Netis, O.O. Makarchuk // Tavriys’kyy naukovyy visnyk. – Kherson, 2004. – Vyp. 32. – S. 37-42.
9. Kostyrya I.V. Urozhaynist’ zerna pshenytsi ozymoyi ta riven’ yoho yakosti zalezhno vid poperednykiv i systemy udobrennya v umovakh Prysyvashshya / I.V. Kostyrya // Mizhvidomchyy tematychnyy naukovyy zbirnyk «Zroshuval’ne zemlerobstvo» – Kherson: «Aylant», 2012. – Vyp. 58. – S. 51-53.
10 Dem”yanenko V.V. Vplyv strokiv sivby na riven’ produktyvnosti zerna ta nasinnya suchasnykh sortiv ozymoyi pshenytsi. Sayt TOV «Ahrosvit Ukrayina» [Elektronnyy resurs] – Rezhym dostupu http://agroskop.com.ua/ua/news/54. html.
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Issue 3 (95), 2017

The influence of modern plant growth regulators on leaf-area duration of false flax spring

UDC 633.85:631.811.98

V. Gamayunova, doctor of agricultural sciences, professor
I. Moskva, post graduate student
Nikolaev National Agrarian University, Nikolaev, Ukraine

The article contains the research results concerning the influence of using the advanced farming techniques on the leaf-area duration increasing of Stepovuy 1 variety of Camelina sativa L. Crantz. Research has shown that the highest index of the leaf-area duration of the false flax spring plants was after foliar application at the blooming period by Escort-Bio.
It was specified that using the modern plant growth regulators influences a lot on the leaf-area duration of false flax spring.
The highest index was at the blooming period and increased under the influence of the preseeding treatment at the main growing periods by modern biologies and background preseeding treatment by mineral fertilizers. The maximum assimilating area of Camelina sativa L. Crantz plants was after background preseeding treatment by N₁₅P₁₅K₁₅ and three-time foliar application (at the seadling period, at the blooming period and at the grain-filling period) by Escort-Bio. It was 9,60 thous. /hа 3-year average. But if was defined that assimilating area was almost the same after only one-time foliar application (at the blooming period) either by Escort-Bio or other biologies and by Crystalon yellow multiple-nutrient fertilizer treatment.
It was specified that the assimilating area of Camelina sativa L. Crantz plants increased a lot after preseeding treatment by Mochevin-K6 and Escort-Bio. So at the blooming period the three-year average index was 26,8-39,4%. And by adding the foliar application at the main growing periods with N₁₅P₁₅K₁₅ background and Crystalon yellow treatment the three-year average index increased by 42,9-51,6%.

Keyword: false flax spring (Camelina sativa L. Crantz), leaf-area duration, growth regulators.

The influence of modern plant growth regulators on leaf-area duration of false flax spring.

References:
1. Nichiporovich A. A. Fotosinteticheskayadeyatelnost i putipovyisheniyaeYoproduktivnosti / A. A. Nichiporovich. – V sb.: Teoreticheskieosnovyifotosinteticheskoyproduktivnosti. – M. : Nauka, 1972. – S. 12–16.
2. Musiienko M. M. Fiziolohiiaroslyn / M. M. Musiienko. – K.: Fitosotsiotsentr, 2001. – 392 s.
3. Maslichnyiekulturyidlyapischevogoispolzovaniya v Rossii (problemyiselektsiisortiment) : monografiya / [Kutuzova S. N., Gavrikova V. A., Dubovskaya A. G. i dr.]. – SPb. : VIR, 1998. – 70 s.
4. Rozhkovan V. Ryzhii — alternatyvnaoliinakulturataperspektyvyyiirozvytku / V. Rozhkovan // Propozytsiia. — 2003. — №1. — S.46–47.
5. Barbarych A. I. ZhyrooliiniroslynyUkrainy / A. I. Barbarych, O. M. Dubovyk, D. V. Strelko. – K: Naukovadumka, 1973. – 132 s.
6. Komarova I. B. Ryizhik – perspektivnayamaslichnayakultura / I. B. Komarova, V. V. Rozhkovan // Naukovo–tekhnichnyi biuleten IOK UAAN. – Zaporizhzhia. – 2001. – Vyp. 6. – S. 74 – 77.
7. Klishchenko S. Yak i dliachohovyroshchuiutyaryiryzhii / S. Klishchenko, M. Slisarchuk // Agroexpert. — 2009. — №5(10). — S.8–10.
8. Voskresenskaya G. S. Ryizhik / G. S. Voskresenskaya. — M.: Selhozgiz, 1952. — 47 s.
9. Semenova E. F. Maslichnyiyryizhik: biologiya, tehnologiya, effektivnost / E. F. Semenova, V. I. Buyankin, A. S. Tarasov. — Novocherkassk: Temp, 2005. — 88 s.

Issue 3 (95), 2017

Formation of productivity of spring wheat under the influence of modern growth regulating substances in the South of Ukraine

UDC 633.11:631.811.98 (477.7)

V. Dvoretskyi, T. Hlushko

In this article are shown the results of researches on the subject of efficiency in sowing treatment of spring wheat and triticale by modern growth regulating substances in the conditions of the Ukrainian south steppe on the south black soil. It has been experimentally proved that before planting application of these substances in a low dose of mineral nutritions – N30Р30 practically provides the productivity of grain at the same level as well as using of the nitrogen nutrition in doses N30. This information confirms that modern growth regulating substances are able to optimize the power of spring crops and it is advisable to use them as an element of energy-saving technologies of grain-crops growing in the steppe of Ukraine. It was established that formation of the grain-growing productivity of spring crops significantly grows in the condition of providing moisture to the plants due to rainfalls in a vegetation period.
It was established that spring wheat and triticale, significantly increase the grain-growing productivity by applying mineral nutrition. So, using N30Р30+ N30 on the stage of appearing a tube in spring wheat average for two years are formed 3,07 t / ha, while without fertilizer 1,57 t / ha and triticale is 3,47 and 2,07 t / ha. Proper treatment of investigated crops is provided by modern growth regulating substances escort and D2. Researches have established a high efficiency of their application in early exit tube plants, and double treatment of crops by substances provides the same level of grain yield, as their nutrition by nitrogen at a dose N30.
It is determined that in a southern steppe of Ukraine the level of productivity of agricultural crops, including spring crops, which are largely determined by the amount of rainfall during the growing season. By optimizing conditions of plants nutrition their productivity significantly increases regardless of weather and climate conditions.

Key words: spring wheat, yield, grain quality, plant nutrition, growth regulating growth regulating preparations, treatment of seeds, fertilizers payback.

Formation of productivity of spring wheat under the influence of modern growth regulating substances in the South of Ukraine

Issue 3(91), 2016

Shaping to productivities and quality varieties millet depending on sowing dates and background of fertilizer in condition of South of Ukraine.

UDC 633.171:631.51

V. Gamajunova,
V. Shevel

On the NPA lands “Zemlerobetc” Zhovtnevy district Nikolaevskaya region a research work was conducted to determine the peculiarities of the yield shaping and quality of millet grain which depend on elements of growing technologies in the conditions of the southern Steppe of Ukraine.
Relief of the field is flat. Topsoil of the experimental plot is represented by the southern black soil. The climate is continental, which is characterized by speedy and frequent fluctuations of annual and monthly air temperatures, large amounts of heat and aridity. The area of sowing plot is 75 м2, the registration area is 50 м2, repeated four times. Agrotechnics in the experiment was generally accepted for the southern Steppe of Ukraine. Predecessor was wheat winter.
Three-factor field research is conducted by the following scheme: factor A are varieties: Konstantynivskoe, Vostochnoe, Tavriyskoe; factor B is a sowing period: early one is the third decade of April – the first decade of May, after sustained warming of the soil to a depth of 10 cm to 10-12° C; middle (or recommended) period – the I – II decades of May, after sustained warming of the soil to a depth of 10 cm to 12-14° C; late period – II-III decades of May, after sustained warming of the soil to a depth of 10 cm to 14-16° C; factor C is nourishment status: no fertilizer (control), N40P30, estimated dose of fertilizer for a yield is 4 t/ha.
It is noted that the biggest amount of millet harvest was formed in 2010. The variety of millet Tavriyskoe turned out to be the most flexible and stable in cultivation and in the ability to form high yields which is 3.6 t/hа that is for 0.59-0.95 t/hа or 20-36% more in comparison to varieties Konstantinovskoe and Vostochnoe (on average for 2008-2010).
At the first term during the sowing period the variety Tavriyskoe gave the maximum harvest yield (4.59 t/hа) on the calculated dose of mineral fertilizers. In the III decade of April – I decade of May sowing millet, on the calculated dose of mineral fertilizers, allow obtaining maximum protein (0.525-0.795 t/hа), high protein content in a grain, low husk content, maximum grain-unite scale and output grain. The largest amount of protein was collected during growing the variety Tavriyskoe – 0.471 t/hа (on average sowing period and fertilizer backgrounds).

Key words: millet, fertilizers, sowing date, variety, yield, quality.

Shaping to productivities and quality varieties millet depending on sowing dates and background of fertilizer in condition of South of Ukraine.

Issue 3(91), 2016

Conditions and perspectives of spring false flax growth in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine

UDC 633.85(477.7)

I. Moskva, Ph. D. candidate
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

The article highlights conditions and perspectives of spring false flax growth in Ukraine. It is presented a review of classical and contemporary literature sources concerning this culture.
False flax is a culture of multidimensional use. Camelina oil is a valuable product of technical and daily use and of healthy meals; also it can be used as a raw material for biodiesel production.
Due to invention of the new areas of application the popularity of spring false flax and its products in other countries is growing rapidly, especially in the USA and Western Europe. So it is necessary to examine in depth the cultivation features and the value of this culture and to extend its use in Ukraine.
The research aim is to highlight the economic importance, natural area and biological characteristics to introduce in the plant introduction and to increase the growth area of this valuable and important crop, which can and should take a leading place among oilseed crops in our country, particularly in the southern zone.
Ukraine’s oil market is one of the most promising spheres of agricultural production. At the world market the demand on oil products are increasing and they take leading positions in the economy of producer States.
The solving of these issues can help to increase supply & demand of false flax seeds, to increase the agricultural production of this crop, to reboot the processing capacities and to increase exports.
The scientific researches about improving the growth techniques under the soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine can increase the seed production of Camelina sativa.
So there are objective reasons to believe that the spring false flax in Ukraine, as an ancient but forgotten oil plant, in the very near future will take an important place in the oil production for biodiesel and high-protein feed in the form of oil-meal and oil-cake. And the guarantee of this is the extremely adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions of cultivation and high production profitability.

Key words: spring false flax, growth techniques, oil, oil cake.

Issue 1(88). 2016

Баланс основних елементів живлення у ґрунті залежно від внесення мінеральних добрив під нут

Номер, рік
1(71), 2013

УДК
633.35:631.8:631.4(477.72)

Автор
В.В. Гамаюнова, доктор сільськогосподарських наук, професор
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет
А.В. Томницький, науковий співробітник
Інститут зрошуваного землеробства НААНУ

Анотація
Досліджено баланс азоту та калію в темно-каштановому грунті, їх винос урожаєм і витрати на формування одиниці врожаю залежно від доз і співвідношень мінеральних добрив при вирощуванні нуту в умовах південного Степу України.

Ключові слова
нут, баланс елементів живлення, мінеральні добрива, винос урожаєм
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