The conjuncture of the market forces pig-breeding companies to find the ways to reduce production costs and improve product quality. For successful competition, the high conservation of piglets, the intensive growth of fattening young and the high yield of meat in carcasses are important.
Depending on the intensity of the pig growth of one breed, there is a significant difference in terms of productivity, therefore, the purpose of our research was to determine the effect of the genotype and the intensity of animal growth in the initial period of ontogenesis on the meat qualities of the experimental young pigs.
The research was carried out on pure-breed pigs of Large White breed, crossbred animals – (LW x L) and (LW x (D x H), as well as hybrid young (LW x L) x (D x H) under conditions of the breeding reproducer of the private company «Plemservice» in the Globynsky District of the Poltava region. For the studies animals were divided into classes of growth intensity in the age range of 0-2 months in each animal group by determining the mean values and normalized deviation, while the modal class was attributed to individuals that were within ± 0,5δ, respectively, to the grade of the plus and minus-variant animals with high and low values of the index of decline in the intensity of growth.
It was proved that the highest rate of slaughtered output was observed in pigs of the combination of LW x L and hybrid young (LW x L) x (D x H), and they significantly exceeded their peers in the control group, respectively, by 2.6-3.2% (p≤ 0.01). In the division of animals into classes for the intensity of growth within each group, the highest value of the slaughtered release in pigs of the class plus is determined by all experimental groups.
Correlation analysis establishes a direct relationship between the slaughter щгезге and the output of meat in the carcass (r = 0,57˗0,86), which proves the possibility of predicting the meatiness of the carcass after the slaughter.
It was established that carcasses of crossbred pigs differed in a small thickness of subcutaneous fat, compared with carcasses of purebred pigs of Large White breed. The smallest thickness of fat at the level of 6-7 thoracic vertebrae was characterized by carcasses of hybrid young pigs, in which this index was 33.5% (p≤ 0.001) lower than that of analogues of Large White breed.
It was proved that the use of meat genotype breeders contributed to an increase in the yield of meat in carcasses of crossbred pigs by 1.9 ˗ 4.2% (p≤ 0.001) and a decrease in fat ˗ by 2.8-6.6% (p≤0 , 01).
Getting heterosis offspring, which is distinguished by increased productivity, is due to the efficiency of combining different genotypes. It was established that the highest positive values were obtained when crossing the Large White breeds with high growth rates with Landrace (1.75%) and terminal boars (0.35%), as well as the combination of crossbred mothers with terminal breeders (D x H) – 2.25%.
Consequently, the best meat qualities were characterized by hybrid pigs, which proves the effectiveness of this combination to increase the meatiness of commercial hybrids. This is confirmed by the high level of combination and heterosis effect. Within the limits of each group of animals the pig-grade plus-variant was high-yielding.
Key words: pig, genotype, growth intensity, meat quality, slaughter output, meat content in the carcass.