There has been an increase in the demand for corn in the world. Its production requires the use of high-performance agricultural machinery, including combines. Modern corn harvesters have high grain losses and, therefore, their main apparatuses must be improved. Known methods for the separation of corn cobs have been analyzed. Designing corn harvesters requires specific knowledge, including the mechanical properties of the crop itself. For this reason, a literary analysis was carried out to study the physical and mechanical properties of corn stalks and cobs. The impact of a number of factors such as mechanical and physical properties of stalks, the mechanical forces exerted through the harvester combine, plant curvature, and pick-up cobs, etc. on the cutting process have been found from previous researches. The aim of this article is the theoretical justification of forces for corn cobs separation. To achieve this aim, a mathematical model which takes into account the complex combination of several forces has been developed. The technological process of corn-cobs separation is considered as the combination of different forces, and the valuation of the resulting tension was done. The results of the simulation were compared to experimental data to verify this model. The wave theory has proved to be more accurate compared to the static model. The results of the theoretical research for corn-cobs separation from stems are given. The experimental results made it possible to refine the mathematical model. Further research will be focused on the intensification of this process by the integration of stretching the stalk together with its twisting.
Key words: corn, cob, separation, cob separation system, mathematical model.
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