M.A. Domaskina, A.I. Kolomoytsev, Automatic selection of the optimal solution. In the agricultural household

M.A. Domaskina

A.I. Kolomoytsev

In today’s Ukrainian reality, the use of traditional methods of making managerial decisions in agriculture does not fully ensure the expected effect, since it focuses, to a greater extent, on the correction of existing deficiencies in the activities of agricultural enterprises.

At the same time, such a mechanism for the adoption of managerial decisions is required, as a result of which agricultural enterprises not only could react in a timely manner to the problems that have emerged, but also to forecast these problems and avoid them.

Management decisions must comply with changing conditions, so it becomes impossible to use the same management tools for a long time. It is necessary to synthesize updates of existing decision-making systems that respond quickly to changing market environment conditions. The question arises about finding a new decision-making system that would meet the requirements of the current economic situation. In our opinion, one of the most important areas for improving management decision-making can be the use of information systems allowing the construction of simulation models for enterprise development, which take into account many economic indicators of enterprises.

Any agricultural enterprise, regardless of the organizational form of management, is a complex economic system, in determining the prospects of development of which the leading role is assigned to the use of economic and mathematical methods. The application of economical and mathematical methods based on the use of modern computers and application software packages gives a number of significant advantages over other methods. Namely:

  • increasing of speed and quality of plans;
  • there are conditions for the implementation of a multivariate statement of the problem;
  • the possibility of operative adjustment in accordance with changes in internal and external conditions of production;
  • The principle of a system approach is fully implemented.

However, the decision of optimization tasks, as shown by the experience of their implementation on a PC, requires a large number of preliminary calculations in the preparation of input information, analysis of the results of the decision, etc. Most often all calculations are labor-intensive and suffer from a degree of inaccuracy.

Therefore, the most rational form of using a PC for the implementation of optimization tasks is the development and implementation of automated information systems.

The technology of automated processing of economic information is based on the principles:

  • Integration of data processing and user work capabilities under the conditions of operation of automated centralized storage systems and collective use of data (data banks);
  • distributed data processing on the basis of advanced transmission systems;
  • a rational combination of centralized and decentralized management and organization of computing systems;
  • Modeling and formalized description of data, procedures for their transformation, functions and workspaces of performers;
  • accounting for specific features of an object in which the machine processing of economic information is implemented.

Proceeding from this, we have partially developed and implemented (using Microsoft Excel) an automated information system for the preparation of input information, modeling, automatic matrix generation, implementation and analysis of economic and mathematical problems.

The basis of this information system is the development and implementation of an economic and mathematical model for optimizing the sectoral structure of production in agricultural enterprises. If till now such economic and mathematical models were developed on the basis of pre-prepared manual input information, the proposed information system allows to automate almost all stages of its implementation.

To select and make a unique decision, a number of special decision criteria can be used, among which we considered such criteria as minimax, gambling, Bayes Laplace, Sevdih, neutral player, Hurwitz, “An improved Hurwitz criterion” and “Hodge-Lehman”.

An important feature of the system we have developed is the principle of its openness, that is, the possibility of increasing the range of realized tasks on the basis of the use of information of source directories, reference directories and databases, formed on the basis of the results of the solution of the economic and mathematical problem.

Thus, the implementation of the developed automated information system allows, on the basis of reasonable initial data, to automate the process of modeling, to determine the optimal parameters of the system’s operation, the unique choice of the solution taking into account the level of certainty of the external environment.


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Modeling the investment strategy of agricultural enterprises

UDC 33.338.2

M. Domaskina Candidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor
V. Gursky Masters,
Mykolaiv National Agrarian University

The agricultural sector of Ukraine, being one of the largest sectors of the national economy, is experiencing a number of significant problems, largely inherent in the whole economic mechanism. First of all, this is financial instability, lack of legislative guarantees, low level of management. The crisis of agriculture, characterized by a decline in production, has exacerbated the problem of attracting investment, expanding funding sources and managing investment processes in the industry. Investment activity of an agricultural enterprise is reduced not only to meeting current investment needs, which is determined by the need to replace the assets that have left or their growth, but also to ensure further development in connection with changes in economic activity.
At the present stage, an increasing number of agricultural enterprises are aware of the need for efficient management of investment processes on the basis of scientific methodology, adaptation to the general objectives of enterprise development and environmental conditions.
The strategy of agricultural enterprise development: based on the possibilities of not only domestic investment, but also the attraction of additional external resources, both from the state, and from the private sector, and credit organizations. Only this will increase the investment attractiveness of agricultural enterprises and ensure the possibility of expanded reproduction.
At the same time, the following conditions are possible for the economic and organizational preconditions for the construction of optimal investment strategies for agricultural enterprises:
1) the general purpose is clearly formulated and substantiated – the corporate mission of the enterprise in the specific areas of activity and development;
2) satisfactory balance structure, as well as sufficient, level of financial stability;
3) the possibility of developing agricultural production through the involvement of both external and own sources of investment for development purposes.
In the presence of such general preconditions, the possibility of a stable and effective strategic development perspective can be achieved by implementing such an asset and liability management scheme.
The economic interpretation of the scheme of combined investment is as follows:
1. The primary stimulus of strategic development is the means of external lending – long-term loans and loans, which in the concept of financial analysis are treated as own funds of the enterprise, as well as sources of own funds – retained earnings, accumulation fund – in the total volume x1.
These funds are distributed in two directions:
– in the size x2 – for the development of an agricultural enterprise, connected with modernization and expansion of production capacities, technical preparation of production and marketing of agricultural products, the realization of which requires the growth of non-current assets;
– in the amount (x1 – x2) – on the growth of current assets, especially stocks and costs due to the expansion of agricultural production.
2. Since the investment project involves borrowing funds, it is necessary to determine the estimated interest rate on the loan.
3. The newly created profit ax1 can be divided into three directions:
– in the amount of x5 – to repay the most urgent obligations on payments to budgets of all levels and extrabudgetary funds, payables to suppliers, personnel of the enterprise, payment; interest for using a bank loan;
– in the size of x6 – for development purposes, which require an increase in non-current assets;
– in the amount (ax1- х5-х6) – on the growth of current assets.
4. In addition to long-term loans, loans as a source of investment, short-term loans and loans in the amount of x3 may be attracted, which are also distributed:
– in the volume x4 – for development purposes;
– in volume (х3 – х4) – on realization of the current production (replenishment and increase of stocks).
5. The result of the use of credit funds in the amount of x3 should be the receipt of net income ah3.
6. The gain of ah3 (which, like ah1, is similar in its economic essence to induced investments in macroeconomic processes) is also subject to distribution in three directions:
– in the amount of x7 – on regular and timely repayment of short-term debt;
– in the amount of x8 – for the purchase of fixed assets and other non-current assets;
– in size (ah3 – x7 – x8) – for current production.
According to this scheme, formalized limitations and boundary conditions of the optimization model – the investment strategy of an agricultural enterprise can be formalized. They will determine the area of such values of parameters, investment strategy, which would be acceptable for the requirements of ensuring financial stability of the enterprise and liquidity of its balance sheet.
The most general purpose function is profitability of assets (1), since the effect of the growth of the financial leverage of an enterprise involves increasing the profitability of assets (economic profitability) above the interest rate on investments. This condition is decisive in making decisions about the feasibility and the possibility of investment at all stages of their implementation. In this case, it is necessary to consider the task of maximizing this criterion.
The proposed economic models based on self-financing and combined investment contribute to bringing the balance sheet of the agricultural enterprise to a satisfactory structure that meets the requirements of investors. On the basis of the forecast balance, a financial appraisal of investments is made that allows management decisions to be made. However, a decision can not be considered justified without an economic assessment of investments, therefore, to determine the choice of strategy, it is also necessary to determine the economic efficiency of investments.

Keyword: investment, strategy, modeling, investment strategy, combined investment, economic and mathematical modeling.

Modeling the investment strategy of agricultural enterprises.

Issue 4 (96), 2017

Теоретичні аспекти застосування теорії нечітких множин в економіці

Номер, рік
2(72), 2013


М.А. Домаскіна, кандидат економічних наук
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

У статті розглянуто основні проблеми моделювання процесів сільського господарства та обґрунтовано необхідність застосування для моделювання складних економічних систем методів нечіткої математики, зокрема нечітких множин.

Ключові слова
моделювання, нечітка математика, нечіткі множини, стохастичне програмування, невизначеність