Korkhova M. Productivity of winter wheat spelt in the South Steps of Ukraine

UDC 633.11 “324”(477.7)

 

M. Korkhova

 

The article highlights the results of three-year studies (2016-2018) of the performance potential of wheat spelt in comparison to soft wheat depending on the variety characteristics. Field research was conducted on the research field of the Educational and Scientific Center of the Mykolaiv National Agrarian University. Predecessor – pea sown. Sowing time is 1 th October. Soft winter wheat sowing rate is 5 million similar seeds / ha; spelled wheat – 200 spikelets / m². The scheme of the experiment included: factor A – winter wheat (soft and spelt); factor B – domestic varieties of mild winter wheat (Shestopolivka, Vidrada, Zysk) and winter spelt (Zory Ukrainy and Europa). The area of ​​the accounting site is 25 m². Soil of experimental sites – southern black chernozem humus. The most favorable for the growth and development of winter wheat was the growing season of 2015-2016. The autumn-winter period of 2017-2018 was abnormal.
It has been determined that wheat spelt produces higher productive bushiness (5.7) than mild winter wheat (1.8), which is 3.9 more than soft wheat varieties. The height of plants of wheat  spelt varieties exceeds the height of plants of the studied soft winter wheat varieties by 35.9 cm. The number of spikelets in the ear and the graininess of the ear dominated by soft winter wheat varieties, and by the weight of 1 spike grain and 1000 seeds weight – varieties spell. Greater mass of grain with 1 ear (1.19 g / ear) was formed by the Europa variety, and a larger mass of 1000 seeds (46.3 g) – the Zory Ukrainy variety. On average, over the years of research, the yield of the soft wheat varieties studied was 5.72-6.27 t / ha, which is 0.19-2.39 t / ha more than the average of the wheat spelt varieties. The highest grain yield (5.80-7.13 t / ha) was obtained from the Vidrada variety. It is determined that high quality grain is formed in wheat of the variety of the Zory Ukrainy variety, whose mass fraction of protein was 21.9%, mass fraction of crude gluten – 44.9%, gluten deformation index – 100, number of falls – 451. This is 5.2 %, 3.9%, and 12.9 higher than the average for soft wheat varieties. However, such an indicator of grain quality as the number of fall was higher in wheat varieties of soft and was 430-452. So, in the conditions of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine, in order to obtain high-quality dietary grain of the southern steppes, you should sow wheat varieties of Zory Ukrainy and Europa, which form grain yields at 3.88-5.53 t / ha with a mass fraction of protein – 14 , 2-21.9% of crude gluten – 28.9-39.9%.

Keywords: spelt wheat, soft wheat, varieties, plant height, 1000 seeds weight, yield, grain quality.

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Assessment energy effi ciency of soft winter wheat dependence terms of sowing and seeding rate

UDC 633.11″324″:631.53.04

M. Korhova,
O. Kovalenko
A. Shepel
 

The article gives us the analysis of energy efficiency technology elements of Natalka variety soft winter wheat production in the conditions of the southern steppe of Ukraine. The results showed that terms of sowing and seeding rates also influence at the value of the energy accumulation in a grain of winter wheat. The highest level (74,3 GJ/ha) of the reachersed energy indicator was reached in sowing on October 10th with the seeding rate of 5 million similar seeds/ha. The lowest indicator was formed at 49,0 GJ/ha in variants with sowing date on September 10th with the seeding rate of 3 million similar seeds/ha.
By decreasing the seeding rate from 5 to 3 million similar seeds the spending of total energy in soft winter wheat decreased to 1,5 and 3,1 GJ/ha.
Energy increases by growing soft winter wheat of Natalka variety gained its maximum level (42,7 GJ/ha) on October 10th with the seeding rate and norms of sowing similar seeds 5 million/ha, while the power factor was 2,35. Thus, the sowing of soft winter wheat on October 10th in compare with the previously recommended period on September 30th caused the increasing of energy efficiency indicators in average seeding rate from 2,15 to 2,35, or 7,3%.
The highest level (9,8 GJ/t) of grain energy-capacity was reached in the period of sowing on September 10th with the seeding rate of similar seeds 5 million/ha and the lowest level was 6,7 GJ/t for sowing in the period of October 10th and the seeding rate of 3 million similar seeds per ha. Increasing the seeding rate from 3 to 5 million similar seeds per ha caused the increasing of grain energy-capacity in the cultivation of 1 ton of soft winter wheat from 6,7-9,3 to 6,9- 9,8 GJ/t or 3,0 – 5,4%. During the sowing on October 10th this indicator number was minimal and the average seeding rate was 6,8 GJ, and by planting it on September 30th, 20th, 10th we observed its increasing for 9,3 – 26,1%.

Assessment energy effi ciency of soft winter wheat dependence terms of sowing and seeding rate.

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Issue 4 (92), 2016