Korkhova M. Productivity of winter wheat spelt in the South Steps of Ukraine

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Assessment energy effi ciency of soft winter wheat dependence terms of sowing and seeding rate

UDC 633.11″324″:631.53.04

M. Korhova,
O. Kovalenko
A. Shepel
 

The article gives us the analysis of energy efficiency technology elements of Natalka variety soft winter wheat production in the conditions of the southern steppe of Ukraine. The results showed that terms of sowing and seeding rates also influence at the value of the energy accumulation in a grain of winter wheat. The highest level (74,3 GJ/ha) of the reachersed energy indicator was reached in sowing on October 10th with the seeding rate of 5 million similar seeds/ha. The lowest indicator was formed at 49,0 GJ/ha in variants with sowing date on September 10th with the seeding rate of 3 million similar seeds/ha.
By decreasing the seeding rate from 5 to 3 million similar seeds the spending of total energy in soft winter wheat decreased to 1,5 and 3,1 GJ/ha.
Energy increases by growing soft winter wheat of Natalka variety gained its maximum level (42,7 GJ/ha) on October 10th with the seeding rate and norms of sowing similar seeds 5 million/ha, while the power factor was 2,35. Thus, the sowing of soft winter wheat on October 10th in compare with the previously recommended period on September 30th caused the increasing of energy efficiency indicators in average seeding rate from 2,15 to 2,35, or 7,3%.
The highest level (9,8 GJ/t) of grain energy-capacity was reached in the period of sowing on September 10th with the seeding rate of similar seeds 5 million/ha and the lowest level was 6,7 GJ/t for sowing in the period of October 10th and the seeding rate of 3 million similar seeds per ha. Increasing the seeding rate from 3 to 5 million similar seeds per ha caused the increasing of grain energy-capacity in the cultivation of 1 ton of soft winter wheat from 6,7-9,3 to 6,9- 9,8 GJ/t or 3,0 – 5,4%. During the sowing on October 10th this indicator number was minimal and the average seeding rate was 6,8 GJ, and by planting it on September 30th, 20th, 10th we observed its increasing for 9,3 – 26,1%.

Assessment energy effi ciency of soft winter wheat dependence terms of sowing and seeding rate.

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Issue 4 (92), 2016