Modelling of the lactation curves in dairy cattle on the basis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

UDC 636.2.034/57.087

S. Kramarenko,
N. Kuzmichova,
A. Kramarenko

It is noted in the article that two main (latent) factors that determine the shape of the lactation curve can be distinguished on the basis of the Analysis of the Main Component (PCA).
Data on the origin and indices of lactation activity (n = 526) during 1-9 lactations of 113 red red steppe cows that were descendants of 6 pedigree bulls and kept in the ST “Plemreproduktov” steppe (Mykolaiv region, Ukraine) during 2001-2014 pp. was used in the study. In addition, the total hopes for 305 days of lactation (Y305) were used to study the effects of the age and the month of calving of cows on the form of their lactation curves.
High correlations were found between the level of productivity during different months of lactation. The Analysis of the Main Component (PCA), performed on the basis of the correlation matrix of tastes for M1 … M10, proves the possibility of obtaining two new variables (PC1 and PC2) describing about 80% of the variability of the output data. The first main component (PC1) describes 53.0%, while the second (PC2) describes about 26.9% of the variability of the output data, respectively. PC1 had probable and positive correlations with M3 … M9 ranging from 0.658 to 0.938, while PC2 had probable and positive correlations with M2-M3 (0.695 … 0.717), but high and negative with M9-M19 (- 0.673 … -0.661). Thus, PC1 determines the potential level of dairy productivity, while PC2 characterizes the persistence of the lactation curve (the rate of reduction in milk productivity after reaching the peak).
The PC1 had a very high correlation with Y305 (0.958; p & lt; 0.001), while PC2 was uncorrelated with total lactation thirst for 305 days (0.007; p = 0.856). The absence of a correlation between PC2 and Y305 coincides with the suggestion by some authors of the possibility of using persistence as a measure that does not depend on the level of milk productivity.
It has been established that the calving number, age and month of calving of cows are also able to change the standard shape of the lactation curve. The first-breeders had the lowest milk productivity (Y305).
The obtained results indicate that the breeding work was mainly aimed at raising the level of milk productivity, rather than on the correction of the persistence of the lactation curve.

Keyword: lactation curve, persistency, Principle Component Analysis (PCA), dairy cattle.

Modelling of the lactation curves in dairy cattle on the basis of Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

Issue 4 (96), 2017

Analysis of the linear models using to assess the influence of different factors on the productivity of dairy cows

UDC 636.2.034/57.087

О. Kramarenko,
O. Potryvaieva

To determine the influence of various factors on the milk yield of cows, we used a linear model of a mixed type, as a random factor, the genotype of a bull-producer, and as fixed – the number of lactation, the year of birth and the calving season of cows. In total, data on 526 lactations per 113 red steppe cows were included in the analysis, which were kept in the conditions of State Enterprise “Plepreproductor” Stepnoe “(Ukraine, Mykolayiv region) during 2001-2014.
Data on milk yield for ten months (M1-M10) and 305 days of lactation (Y305) were used as a dependent variable. For individual gradations of factors, the estimates of the coefficients with the employer of the LSM procedure (Least squares means ± SE) were computed in the model, and the level of reliability of their deviation from zero (p-estimation) was determined. All calculations were carried out using the module “GLM” (General Linear Model) of the MiniTab software package v. 15.
We have established an insignificant, but it is possible that some bulls-producers influence the hopes of their daughters during M2 … M4. Thus, it was found that the milk of the Altea was lower for the M2-M3 daughters, whereas the milk yield for M2 … M4 in the daughters of the bull of Narcissus was, on the contrary, higher than the average population value. In addition, the last almost 130 kg prevailed in relation to milk yield for 305 days of lactation.
The first-borns were characterized by less milking during the first half of the lactation (especially, according to M1-M2), and by 416 kg inferior to the average population estimate. On the other hand, cows at the age of eighth lactation, on the contrary, showed significantly higher milk yield during the average lactation months (M4 … M8), and an average population estimate prevailed on 662 kg of milk.
In addition, a high level of milk productivity was established for cows born in 2005, 2007 and 2009, which is primarily due to the increase in their milk productivity in the first half of lactation.
The presence of a highly probable effect of the calving season on the level of milk productivity of cows is manifested primarily in the increase in milk yields (especially in M4 … M8) in January calving, and, conversely, in decline – with calving in June and July.

Keyword: Linear models, number of lactation, year of birth, season of calving, dairy cattle.

Analysis of the linear models using to assess the influence of different factors on the productivity of dairy cows.

References:
1. Getya A. A., Dodenkhoff Y. Zastosuvannia BLUP-metodu pry orhanizatsii otsinky selektsiinoi tsinnosti svynei v Ukraini / A. A. Getya, Y. Dodenkhoff // Tekhnolohiia vyrobnytstva i pererobky produktsii tvarynnytstva. – 2010. – Vypusk 3 (72). – S. 52-55.
2. Danshin V. A. Ocenka geneticheskoj cennosti zhivotnyh / V. A. Danshin – K. : Agrarna nauka, 2008. – 180 s.
3. Sovremennye metody geneticheskogo kontrolya selekcionnyh processov i sertifikaciya plemennogo materiala v zhivotnovodstve / [N. A. Zinov’eva, P. M. Klenovickij, E. A. Gladyr’ i dr.]. – M. : RUDN, 2008. – 329 s.
4. Kuznecov V. M. Metody plemennoj ocenki zhivotnyh s vvedeniem v teoriyu BLUP / V. M. Kuznecov. – Kirov : Zonal’nyj NIISKH Severo-Vostoka, 2003. – 358 s.
5. Kramarenko S. S. Vykorystannia liniinykh modelei (BLUP) dlia otsinky pleminnoi tsinnosti koriv za molochnoiu produktyvnistiu / S. S. Kramarenko, O. I. Potryvaieva // Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomoria. – 2016. – Vyp. 2(2). – S. 187-192.
6. Kramarenko S. S. Novi metody matematychnogho modeljuvannja laktacijnykh kryvykh za dopomoghoju interpoljaciji / S. S. Kramarenko // V kn. : Materialy mizhnarodnoji naukovo-praktychnoji konferenciji «Novitni tekhnologhiji skotarstva u ХХІ stolitti» (Mykolajiv, 4-6 veresnja 2008 r.). – Mykolajiv : MDAU, 2008. – S. 159-164.
7. Ryan B. F. MINITAB Handbook : Update for release 16 / B. F. Ryan, B. L. Joiner, J. D. Cryer. – Pacific Grove, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 2012. – 560 p.
8. Wood P. D. P. The relationship between the month of calving and milk production / P. D. P. Wood // Animal Science. – 1970. – V. 12. – №. 2. – P. 253-259.
9. Miller P. D. Joint influence of month and age of calving on milk yield of Holstein cows in the northeastern United States / P. D. Miller, W. E. Lentz, C. R. Henderson // Journal of Dairy Science. – 1970. – V. 53. – №. 3. – P. 351-357.
10. Ray D. E. Season and lactation number effects on milk production and reproduction of dairy cattle in Arizona / D. E. Ray, T. J. Halbach, D. V. Armstrong // Journal of Dairy Science. – 1992. – V. 75. – №. 11. – P. 2976-2983.
11. Ptak E. Interaction of age and month of calving with year of calving for production traits of Ontario Holsteins / E. Ptak, H. S. Horst, L. R. Schaeffer // Journal of Dairy Science. – 1993. – V. 76. – №. 12. – P. 3792-3798.
12. Abate A. L. Seasonal variation of milk persistency of Kenana× Friesian crossbred dairy cows under confinement feeding in a hot environment / A. L. Abate, M. Atta, R. N. Anthony // Animal Science Journal. – 2010. – V. 1. – №. 1. – P. 13-18.

Issue 3 (95), 2017

Peculiarities of genetic structure of the Southern meat cattle breed were based on the microsatellite DNA of loci: TGLA53, TGLA122, TGLA126 and TGLA227

UDC 575.827: 636.2.033

O. Kramarenko
I. Dovhopola

Genetic structure of the Southern meat cattle breed from the State Enterprise Experimental Farm “Askaniyske” NAAS (Kherson region) were investigated based on the microsatellite DNA loci. A total of 192 individuals were analyzed. Of those, 100 individuals represented “Santa Gertrudis” (SG) subpopulation and 92 ones represented “Zebu” (ZB) subpopulation. A panel of 4 bovine-specific microsatellite markers (TGLA53, TGLA122, TGLA126 and TGLA227), recommended of the ISAG for cattle genetic diversity studies, was selected for genetic characterization and revealing the extent of genetic diversity in the Southern Meat cattle breed.
Genomic DNA was extracted from tissue samples using Nexttec column (Nexttec Biotechnology GmbH, Germany) following the manufacturer’s instructions. The DNA concentration was estimated by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm and the DNA quality was checked by separation on agarose gels. PCR products were detected by АВI 3130xl (Applied Biosystems, USA), subsequently processed via GeneMapper ID v. 3.2 software. All laboratory tests were conducted in the laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Animal Center of Biotechnology and Molecular Diagnostics, All-Russian Research Institute for Animal Husbandry named after academy member L.K. Ernst.
For the SG-subpopulation, frequency of the TGLA53156, TGLA122143, TGLA22789 and TGLA22797 alleles is significantly higher, whereas frequency of the TGLA53162, TGLA53166, TGLA122145, TGLA122149 and TGLA22781 alleles is predominant for the ZB-subpopulation.
We report for the first time, the distribution and the frequency of a taurine and an indicine specific alleles amongst SG- and ZB-subpopulations of the Southern Meat cattle breed. Three alleles (TGLA122149, TGLA12612 and TGLA22777) were classified as zebu diagnostic; on other hand, three other alleles (TGLA53156, TGLA122143 and TGLA126115) were classified as taurine breeds diagnostic.

Key words: microsatellite DNA loci, genotypic and allelic richness, taurus/indicus-specific alleles, the Southern Meat cattle breed, cattle.

Peculiarities of genetic structure of the Southern meat cattle breed were based on the microsatellite DNA of loci: TGLA53, TGLA122, TGLA126 and TGLA227.

Issue №1 (93), 2017

Аналіз генетико-демографічних процесів в популяції худоби півден ної м’ ясної породи

1(82), 2015
UNC 636.4:636.082:575.827

O. Kramarenko.
M. Gill

The studied population of the Southern Meat cattle breed is exposed to genetic and demographic processes. The negative impact of these processes was registered for «Santa-Ger trudis» subpopulations particularly. Signifi cant loss of rare alleles and the manifestation of the bot tleneck effect have been marked for  these animals. High levelof inbreeding is the result of these processes.

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Аналіз динаміки живої маси корів південної м’ясної породи різних типів методом BLUP

Номер, том, частина, рік
4(75), 2, 1, 2013

УДК
636.082.25

Автор
О.С. Крамаренко, аспірант
Науковий керівник – д. с.-г. н., професор Гиль М.І.
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет, Україна

Анотація
У статті наведено результати аналізу динаміки генетичного тренду показників росту телиць південної м’ясної породи різних ліній й типів, отриманого на основі метода BLUP. При використанні аналізу головних компонент (РСА) було визначено основні закономірності генетичного тренду та визначено найкращі лінії у кожному типі.

Ключові слова
метод BLUP, ВРХ, південна м’ясна порода, генеалогічна лінія
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