А. І. Kryvenko
According to the results of experimental studies, it was determined that the yield and quality of winter wheat grain in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine depended on a large extent on the provision of plants with mineral nutrients throughout the entire vegetation. The greater the crop and the higher the rate of mineral fertilizer application, the greater is the winter wheat removal of nutrients from the soil. Intensive varieties are characterized by higher nutritional requirements, and only with full and balanced provision of nutrients can fully realize their genetic potential.
It is determined that the optimum system of winter wheat nutrition involves the introduction of mineral fertilizers: under the basic cultivation of soil, in rows during sowing, as fertilization during vegetation of plants. For the maximum effect, the full norm of phosphoric-potassium fertilizers is introduced under the basic soil cultivation. Mixing of mineral fertilizers with a layer soil during basic soil cultivation provides the maximum efficiency of growing winter wheat from their use: the root system is better developed, tilling capacity improves, winter-resistance increases. To create optimal conditions for growth and development, winter wheat is provided with readily available forms of nitrogen throughout the entire vegetation. However, excessive nitrogen intake from the autumn leads to a sharp decrease in winter resistance and overgrowing of winter wheat plants. In winter, much of the nitrogen that was not used was washed into the deeper layers of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of its application. Therefore, for the effective provision of plants with nitrogen during the fertilization of fertilizers are introduced separately in several measures.
It was established that the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers by rootstock at the beginning of the winter wheat plant output into the tube maximally increased its yield both in comparison with the control, and in relation to the background of the introduction of phosphoric-potassium fertilizers. Feeding plants of wheat with winter nitrogen fertilizers provided an increase in the concentration of protein and vitreousness of grain products.
Key words: norms and terms of nutrition, technology of growing, nitric fertilizers, winter wheat, productivity, quality of grain.
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