А.І. Kryvenko Optimization of norms and terms for nutririon of winter wheat with nitrogen fertilizers in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine

УДК 631.816.2:633.11(477.7)

DOI: 10.31521/2313-092X/2018-4(100)-9

А. І. Kryvenko

According to the results of experimental studies, it was determined that the yield and quality of winter wheat grain in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine depended on a large extent on the provision of plants with mineral nutrients throughout the entire vegetation.  The greater the crop and the higher the rate of mineral fertilizer application, the greater is the winter wheat removal of nutrients from the soil.  Intensive varieties are characterized by higher nutritional requirements, and only with full and balanced provision of nutrients can fully realize their genetic potential.

It is determined that the optimum system of winter wheat nutrition involves the introduction of mineral fertilizers: under the basic cultivation of soil, in rows during sowing, as fertilization during vegetation of plants. For the maximum effect, the full norm of phosphoric-potassium fertilizers is introduced under the basic soil cultivation. Mixing of mineral fertilizers with a layer soil during basic soil cultivation provides the maximum efficiency of growing winter wheat from their use: the root system is better developed, tilling capacity improves, winter-resistance increases.  To create optimal conditions for growth and development, winter wheat is provided with readily available forms of nitrogen throughout the entire vegetation. However, excessive nitrogen intake from the autumn leads to a sharp decrease in winter resistance and overgrowing of winter wheat plants.  In winter, much of the nitrogen that was not used was washed into the deeper layers of the soil, reducing the effectiveness of its application.  Therefore, for the effective provision of plants with nitrogen during the fertilization of fertilizers are introduced separately in several measures.

It was established that the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers by rootstock at the beginning of the winter wheat plant output into the tube maximally increased its yield both in comparison with the control, and in relation to the background of the introduction of phosphoric-potassium fertilizers.  Feeding plants of wheat with winter nitrogen fertilizers provided an increase in the concentration of protein and vitreousness of grain products.

Key words: norms and terms of nutrition, technology of growing, nitric fertilizers, winter wheat, productivity, quality of grain.


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A. Kryvenko. Efficiency of siderial cultures organic mass accumulation in dependence on soil treatment in south steppe of Ukraine.

UDC 631.147:631.874:631.51(477.7)

DOI: 10.31521/2313-092X/2018-3(99)-11

A. Kryvenko

On results experimental researches efficiency of piling up of organic mass of different is certain after the biological features of sideration cultures in shot term crop rotations depending on till of soil in the droughty terms of South Steppe of Ukraine. In particular, vetch winter-annual, mixture peas with mustard white and peas in the clean sowing. It is found out, that the feature of growing of vetch winter-annual and peas was that they belong to the leguminous cultures able to fix nitrogen from air. Grow peas both in the independent sowing and in mixtures with other cultures. In particular with mustard white, that is one of the most widespread cultures for growing on a green fertilizer. Mustard white carries out transformation of difficult of access phosphoric connections of soil in soluble phosphates and abandons their part untapped.

It is set that at growing of vetch winter-annual on a green fertilizer, the most productivity of organic mass is formed, the greatest maintenance of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and protein is marked. It is found out, that surplus over of nitrogen after a vetch winter-annual can bring to outgrowing of vegetative mass of wheat winter-annual, id est to increase her bushing out. In the conditions of drought through the increase of bushing out a wheat winter-annual can be provided not enough by moisture that results in diminishing to her productivity. Certainly, that in the droughty terms of South Steppe of Ukraine peas in the clean sowing on a green fertilizer to use beside the purpose. For the effective growing of sideration cultures it is needed to inculcate without shelves deep till and system of without shelves of shallow till of soil. The structure of soil got better due to application of the system of without shelves of shallow till, vegetable bits and pieces on the surface of soil protected him from water and wind erosion, the best water-supply came true from the deeper layers of soil, decline of airing of soil prevented disintegration of humus, diminishing of depth to till of soil kept rain-worms, favourable terms were created for the ground microorganisms, as a result of less mineralization of organic substance the level of carbon dioxide went down in soil.

Key words: organic mass, productivity, predecessors, sideration cultures, wheat winter-annual, treatment of soil.


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