Synthetic growth regulators are often used in agriculture, due to their ability to influence on morphogenesis and plant productivity. In particular, the effect of drugs of inhibitory action is well studied and described in literary sources, but the effect of growth stimulators, including gibberellins, requires a more detailed study.
The obtained results of the study indicate that gibberellic acid had a typical influence on the growth of tomato plants – significantly increased the height, total mass and mass of individual vegetative organs of the plant. Significant changes occurred in the photosynthetic apparatus: the number of leaves per plant increased, as well as the area of surface of individual leaves, which affected the productivity of plants. In addition, the thickness of chlorenchymes increased significantly. The leaf index, which characterizes the ratio of the area of the leaf surface to the plot, significantly increased. At the same time, there was no significant increase in the chlorophyll index and the index of net productivity of photosynthesis. This evidences that the gibberellin action in plants increased the effectiveness of the photosynthetic apparatus precisely by increasing its total area.
The concentration of carbohydrates and reserve starch in the ontogenesis of plants decreased in vegetative organs, which may be caused by their outflow to the fruits. In general, in plants treated with gibberellin preparations, due to changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, there was an increase in the concentration of carbohydrates compared with the control. A similar situation was observed with the content of nitrogen. These results may indicate the role of vegetative parts of the plant in the supply of carbohydrates and nitrogen to fruits during the period of carpogenesis.
Changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, as well as the redistribution of assimilate streams in plants treated with gibberellin preparations, caused a significant increasing of the crop`s productivity. In particular, there is a significant increasing of yield of experimental plants by 30%. The results of the research indicate the high efficiency of the use of gibberellic drugs in order to control the increasing of the productivity of valuable crops, such as tomatoes.
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