O. V. Melnik, O. O. Drozd, I. O. Melnyk. Ethylene-activity of apples cv. Reinette Simirenko, treated with ethylene inhibitor depending on the harvest date and cultivating place.

O. V. Melnik

O. O. Drozd

I. O. Melnyk

Ethylene is a phytohormone responsible for the aging process of plants. The intensity of the ethylene synthesis in climacteric fruits depends on the harvest time and it increases during storage.

The optimal harvesting time affects the quality of apples and duration of cold storage. Early collected fruits do not acquire the proper taste, aroma and are prone to the development of skin browning (scald), and late collected ones are less prone to lesions with physiological disorders, but they actively lose the flesh firmness and are not suitable for sale in supermarkets.

Post-harvest treatment of the apples with 1-methylcyclopropane (1-MCP) slows the induction of endogenous ethylene and blocks the effects of exogenous one, which reduces the intensity of synthesis and hydrolysis processes in the fruits, restricts the occurrence of physiological disorders and fungal diseases and reduces energy consumption during storage (without reducing the quality of products).

The paper studies the influence of the cultivation place, time of harvesting and post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP on the ethylene activity of Reinette Simirenko apples for mass and late harvesting from orchards on the dwarf (M.9) rootstock during storage. Cooled to 5 °C, the fruits were treated with 1-MCP and stored in boxes lined with polyethylene film for up to seven months at a temperature of 2±1 °C and relative humidity of 85–90% (without treatment 1-MCP – control). The intensity of the ethylene emission was periodically measured by the analyzer ICA-56 at a temperature of 18…20 °С.

The article establishes the nature of the process of post-harvest ethylene emission by the apples of a late-winter cv. Reinette Simirenko does not depend significantly on the place of collection. The intensity of this process is lower in fruits of mass collection (without treatment of 1-MCP) from the Center of Ukraine. During storage, ethylene activity of apples from the West was lower by 8.0–16.2%.

The maximum ethylene activity of untreated apples of late collection (11.9 μl/kg x h) is achieved after 20 days of exposure at 20 °C (regardless of the cultivation place), and after 30 days for the fruit of mass collection, the indicator of the latter from the Center is 1.4 times lower than that from the West. A similar trend is observed during a six-month cold storage with a less dynamic increase in the emission of ethylene from the fruit of mass collection from the Center.

Postharvest treatment of 1-MCP dramatically reduces the fruit ethylene activity which, after six months of cold storage does not exceed 0.5 (West) and 0.3 μl/kg x h (Center), and its ethylene activity is 22 times lower compared to untreated fruits. The ethylene activity of recently harvested apples is mainly determined by the time of collection (factor impact is 37.9%), post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP (27.4%) and much less the place of cultivation (2.4%).

After two months of cold storage, the ethylene-activity of the fruits is determined by the harvest time (the impact of the factor is 16.8%), treatment of 1-MCP (52.5%), and after four months and to the end of storage – by postharvest treatment with 1-MCP (88.7–96.5%).

Keywords: Reinette Simirenko, cultivation place, harvest time, ethylene activity, storage, 1-methylcyclopropene, Smart Fresh.


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Physical parameters of cv. Reinette Simirenko apples treated with ethylene inhibitor, depending on the type of orchard and date of harvest

UDC 57.018.5:634.11:631.811.98:664.8.03

O. Drozd,
O. Melnik,
I. Melnyk

The effectiveness of a long-term storage of apples is dependent on the term of harvesting. Too early picked fruits do not get appropriate cultivar size, color, taste and aroma, and later picked fruits are not stable due to the aging process and premature loss of firmness during their storage.
Change in ground color (from green to yellow) during ripening of apple fruit takes place as a result of the degradation of chlorophyll in the skin, the intensity of which depends on the level of endogenous ethylene in fruits, synthesis of anthocyanins and carotenoids. Flesh firmness is the main indicator of assessing apples quality, so its maintaining during storage and marketing is a priority issue. The fruits of “hard” cultivars have to be on the market with a flesh firmness of at least 5.5-6.0 kg/cm2. In conditions of higher temperature after the shipment from the cold storage room the firmness will be lost faster, so immediately after the storage the level of this parameter has to be 1.0 kg/cm2 higher.
The design of a fruit orchard (rootstock) considerably influences the color and firmness change during pre-harvest ripening of fruits and during their storage. Maintaining of firmness and inhibition of apple ripening during storage of fruits harvested from orchards of different designs is achieved by a post-harvest treatment with ethylene inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).
The changes of flesh firmness and ground color (by means of reflected light) of cv. Reinette Simirenko apples picked in two terms 3 – with the onset of harvest maturity (mass picking) and in a week (late picking) from intensive orchard on dwarf (M.9) and traditional orchard on semi-vigorous (MM.106) rootstocks were investigated. Cooled to 5 °C fruits were treated with 1-MСP and preserved up to seven months at the temperature of 2 ± 1 °C and relative air humidity of 85-90% (control fruits without treatment).
The ground color of the skin was determined with spectro-colorimeter «Spekol» by measuring the reflection of light on the wave of 675 nm, which is typical for chlorophyll absorption. Flesh firmness was determined with penetro-meter FT-327 having plunger diameter of 11mm (peel was removed before the measurement).
It was found that the flesh firmness of cv. Reinette Simirenko apples from orchards on M.9 and MM.106 rootstocks (without 1-MСP treatment) at the end of a seven-month storage period was 5.8-6.2 kg/cm2, regardless of the harvesting time, and it is below the minimum parameter of 6.5 kg/cm2, which is set for supplying apples into supermarkets. Postharvest 1-MCP treatment ensures 2.5-3.1 kg/cm2 higher firmness of fruit harvested from orchards of both types (at the end of a seven-month storage period) regardless of picking time, which is 1.3 times higher than the minimum level specified for shipment. Index for untreated apples of delayed picking from intensive orchard was limited to a six-month storage, and for the fruits of mass picking from intensive orchard (M.9) and two picking periods from traditional orchard (MM.106) was limited to a four-month period of storage.
After seven-month storage the level of light reflection at 675 nm wave length (degree of yellowing) was lower for the untreated fruits from traditional orchard and for 1-MСP treated fruits of mass collection from the intensive orchard. Under postharvest 1-MCP treatment the level of indicator was 9.6-11.7% lower for apples from the intensive orchard and 4.3-5.1% lower for fruits of both picking dates from traditional orchard (compared to untreated fruits).

Key words: Reinette Simirenko, 1-methylcyclopropene, Smart Fresh, rootstock, harvest date, storage, flesh firmness, reflection of light.

Physical parameters of cv. Reinette Simirenko apples treated with ethylene inhibitor, depending on the type of orchard and date of harvest.

Issue 2 (94), 2017