Statement of the problem. For increasing the level of living of the population and improving the stabilization in economy it is planned to increase grain export. To achieve the strategic goals a number of activities is envisaged, in particular, the use of grain varieties that provide high return on investment resources.
The aim of this work was to study the condition of grain production in Ukraine and to define the productivity recommended for the cultivation of winter wheat.
Presentation of the basic material. According to the Main Department of Statistics in Ukraine, in 2016 it was harvested 66.1 million tons of grain and leguminous crops, including winter wheat – 25.32 million tons, the yield of which was 4.61 and 4.22 t/ha, and by the plan for 2020 provides increasing in grain production up to 80 million tons, whereas in 1990 it was produced 51.0 million tones. It is planned to increase grain yield of wheat to 4.94 t/ha.
On the fields of the State Institution at “Nikolaev state agricultural experimental station of the Institute of irrigated agriculture NAAS” a research work was conducted on formation of productivity of winter wheat varieties.
It has been established that the productivity of the varieties significantly depends on weather conditions, especially for plants with provided moisture during critical periods of their development. In 2016 maximum yield was formed by Konka variety, Odessa Niva (4.5 t/ha), Lytanovka, Zhavoronok (4.4 t/ha). The indicator results exceeded the yield of dry 2015 year for 24.3%, 21.3%, 13.7%, 23.2% according to the names. The lowest yield was obtained by cultivation of semi-dwarf variety Ovidiy (3.6 t/ha), a decrease was for 5.0% in 2015. On average for two years of variety testing, the highest grain yield was obtained during the cultivation of wheat varieties of Odessa Schedrost’ (4.23 t/ha), the Odessa Moodrost’ (4.03 t/ha).
Conclusion. The use of winter wheat varieties (Litanovka, Vygoda, Odessa Istina, Odessa Schedrost’, Odessa Mudrost’, Conka, Lubimaya, Rosinka) that are adapted to arid conditions, will determine the increase of grain production and will promote the implementation of certain conditions inf agricultural development strategy of our country.
Key words: grain production, winter wheat, weather conditions, cultivar, yield.
Optimization of the winter wheat variety composition as one of the components of the development strategy of grain farming.
Ключевое название (Key title):
Vìsnik agrarnoï nauki Pričornomor'â (Online)
Сокращенное ключевое название (Abbreviated key title):
Vìsn. agrar. nauki Pričornomor'â (Online)
Параллельное название (Parallel title):
Ukrainian Black Sea region agrarian science