Shebanina E., Shapovalova I., Tverdovska A. The role of crop production regulation in improving the competitiveness of the agricultural sector

UDC 631.358:633.521

 

V. Sheichenko

I. Dudnikov

V. Shevchuk,

A. Kuzmich

 

The study is aimed at improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil tillage with needle harrows in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening in climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It is established that the interaction of a needle of any shape and design with the soil leads to the appearance on its surface of a figure close in shape to an ellipse. In this case, in the phase of the needle entering the ground in the direction opposite to the movement, a semi-ellipse is formed, the minor axis of which is equal to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle that has penetrated the soil. In the phase of emergence from the soil, the needle on its surface leaves flatness in the form of the second part of the semi-ellipse. The funnel (trace) that the needle forms represents a cone based on an ellipse.
A method was developed for the analytical assessment of the planar-surface and spatial-depth interaction of a needle harrow with soil, which allows increase the accuracy of forecasting technical and operational indicators of the technological process and reduce energy costs for its implementation. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of technological processes of soil treatment with needle harrows, especially in the conditions of their application for shallow surface loosening of soil in natural and climatic zones subject to wind erosion.
It was established that an increase in the angle of sharpening of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in the value of the angle of inclination of its axis to the horizon, at which the contact point of the side surface is farthest from the vertical axis of the deepening of the needle into the soil.
According to the results of the analysis of the surface-plane picture of the interaction of the needle with the soil, it was found that the semi-major axis of the ellipse compared to the radius of the conical (cylindrical) part of the needle deepened into the soil with a sharpening angle of 300 increased by 24%; with a sharpening angle of 450 by 11.7%; with a sharpening angle of 600 by 6%, respectively. The increase in area for this size of needles was at a depth of 4 cm – by 31%, per 6 cm – by 47%, per 8 cm – by 67%, per 10 cm – by 78%, respectively.
An increase in the immersion depth of the needle leads to a corresponding increase in volume, which is due to its contact with the soil. In conditions of deepening the needle with an angle of sharpening 300 from 4 to 10 cm, the volume increases by 2.8 times, and from 4 to 8 cm by 1.4 times. Under conditions of deepening the needle per 8 cm, the largest increase in the volume difference is established by the angle of sharpening 300 – by 9.1 cm3, angle 450 – by 10.8 cm3, angle 600 – by 10.8 cm3, respectively.

Keywords: needle of a harrow, interaction of the needle with the soil, coefficient of surface-plane interaction, spatial-depth interaction.

Shebanina O., Kormyshkin Yu. The modern paradigm of innovative development of agricultural entrepreneurship

UDC 338.432:334.722

 

O. Shebanina

Yu. Kormyshkin

 

The article examines modern approaches to innovative development of agrarian entrepreneurship. It is determined that in modern economic conditions the innovative activity is the determining vector of agrarian entrepreneurship development.  At the same time, insufficient level of financing of innovative projects, high risk of conducting innovative activity and low level of commercialization of scientific development impede the transition of enterprises to the model of innovative development. It is established that the creative and innovative function is the determining function of agrarian entrepreneurship, which provides for the implementation of new ideas, the implementation of scientific and technical developments and projects, the introduction of new technologies, the use of marketing techniques to conquer markets.  In the course of the research the peculiarities of innovative development of economic entities of the agricultural sector of the economy were identified. It is substantiated that today the agrarian sector and the IT industry in Ukraine have considerable potential.

Today, IT companies are emerging for which the agricultural sector is leading the way and is concentrating its own resources on developing agribusiness solutions.  Examples of such companies are Bvblogic (Ivano-Frankivsk) and Agtech in Ukraine.  Eight key areas of IT innovation in the agricultural sector have been identified: cartography; logistics solutions; monitoring of a technopark; analytics and planning; specialized CRM and HRM systems; analytics and rational decision making; health and quality monitoring; mobility.

It is proved that the main task of modern higher education institutions is to promote the development of different types of innovative thinking: paradigmatic; conceptual; technological; ideological and methodological; predictive; modeling; combinatorial. Education and science form the infrastructural support of agricultural entrepreneurship, which, in addition to institutions of higher education and scientific institutions, technoparks, technopolis, incubators, scientific-industrial complexes (consortia), clusters, business schools, scientific-intellectual exchanges, etc. are components. It is substantiated that further development of agrarian education should be directed by the vector of self-organization of higher education institutions to institutions of innovative type, their activity will be oriented towards the development of education and science as a defining resource of a new knowledge-based economy.  It is proved that operating subsystems and dynamic subsystems are predominant for innovative type universities.

It is determined that in the context of integration into the European educational space, it is important to strengthen the strategic partnership between higher education institutions, research institutions and enterprises, which will facilitate the harmonization of education-science-production in the process of training highly qualified personnel.  We believe that the most successful organizational form is the creation of consortia, following the example of the Scientific and Production Consortium “Yuzhny”, which included 7 research institutions, 5 agricultural institutions of higher education and 22 industrial enterprises of Ukraine.

Keywords: agrarian entrepreneurship, education and science, innovations, innovative development, innovative solutions.

O. V. Shebanina, A. I. Burkovska. Regulation of production capacity of agricultural production on the basis of food security indicators.

UDC 338.121

DOI: 10.31521/2313-092X/2018-3(99)-1

O. V. Shebanina
A. I. Burkovska

Abstract. The article analyzes the state of food security in Ukraine on the basis of its main indicators. The index of self-sufficiency of the state by the main types of food was researched and the conclusion about decreasing of the level of self-sufficiency of Ukraine by such types of food products as milk and dairy products, as well as fruits, berries and grapes among other commodity groups was made. Significant increase in the level of self-sufficiency of Ukraine by groups of goods, the domestic production of which previously did not meet the full volume of consumer needs, which is typical for the production of meat and meat products, as well as potatoes, was fixed. It was made a conclusion on the high level of food independence from imports in Ukraine on the basis of calculated indicators of the capacity of the domestic market of individual products and their comparison with the volumes of imports of the corresponding product groups. The analysis of indicators of the diet value is conducted, which allows us to make a conclusion about the state of satisfaction of the population needs in a balanced set of food products. A more complete description of the adequacy of the diet was obtained by defining indicators of the availability of basic foodstuffs for citizens. The factor model of the grain in the state reserves dependence on the volume of reserving and volumes of domestic consumption of grain by the population is developed. Determination of the level of energy nutrition sufficiency in the average daily diet of the population by regions of Ukraine has been determined and the tendency of reduction of the investigated indicator during the estimated period in all regions of the state has been recorded. The regression analysis of the factors influence on the yield of grain crops is used to assess the efficiency of land and capital use.

Key words: food safety, consumption, production, imports, energy nutrition, food self-sufficiency, capacity of the domestic market, daily average diet of the population.

References:

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  2. Lenore Newman Landscapes of food production in agriburbia: Farmland protection and local food movements in British Columbia / Lenore Newman, Lisa Jordan Powell, Hannah Wittman // Journal of Rural Studies. — 2015. — No 39. — P. 99-110.
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  7. Postanova KMU «Deiaki pytannia prodovolchoi bezpeky» [Elektronnyi resurs]. — Rezhym dostupu: http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1379-2007-%D0%BF .
  8. Statystychnyi zbirnyk «Balansi ta spojivannya osnovnih produktіv harchuvannya naselennyam Ukrainy» za redaktsiieiu Prokopenko O. M. — Kyiv: Derzhavna sluzhba statystyky Ukrainy. — 2018 — 59 s.
  9. Shebanina O. The investment in the meat sector in the context of food security in Ukraine / Olena Shebanina, Oksana Golubeva, Anna Burkovska, Gediminas Radzevičius // Managemen Theory and Studies for Rural Business and Infrastructure Development. — 2018. — Volume 40. — No 3. — P. 393-402.
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O. Shebanina. Investment progects and country`s food security guarantee

UDC 338.262

O. Shebanina

Abstract. The article determines the indicators of country`s food security and determines the level of food consumption adequacy in Ukraine as a whole and in the Mykolayiv region in particular. A comparison of the national and regional state of the food security with the basic indicator was made; the dynamics of changes in consumption adequacy in the region for the period under the study was analyzed. The weaknesses in the current state of the food security by the individual food groups, consumption of which does not meet rationally established norms, are revealed, and the ways of their elimination are proposed. The forecasts of milk consumption and dairy products consumption for 2020 according to the forecast population of Ukraine and normative volumes of consumption are developed. The forecast of the volume of milk and milk products production for 2020 is used, which compared with the projected volume of normative consumption, allows us to obtain the amount of milk and dairy products lacking in the diet of the population, to confirm the results obtained earlier and to evaluate the models used during the research. The article determines the need of investments in 2020 for the production of milk and dairy products in the necessary amount that satisfies the population`s needs in milk. It is based on the rationally defined norms established by the Ministry of Health of Ukraine is determined. Based on the normative documents that regulate the legal and organizational framework for ensuring the safety and the quality of milk and milk products for life and health of the population and the environment, promising directions of investment for realization of projects on production, transportation, processing, storage, sale of milk and dairy products; development of nationwide programs for the development of breeding and breeding business, as well as improvement of packaging and labeling of products that will improve the state of the food security in Ukraine as a whole and in particular regions are offered. It was emphasized the importance of increasing the export of dairy products including casein, skimmed milk and whole milk, which would allow to receive an additional foreign exchange earnings for the implementation of the quality projects.

Keywords: development projects, investments, food safety, consumption adequacy indicator, forecast model, milk production and dairy products, fixed assets, investment needs.

References:

  1.  Dejaki pytannja prodovoljchoji bezpeky [Elektronnyj resurs] : postanova KMU. – Rezhym dostupu : http://zakon2.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1379-2007-%D0%BF .
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Удосконалення механізму експортно-імпортних операцій аграрних підприємств Миколаївської області з країнами СНД

Номер, рік
3(73), 2013

УДК
339.56:631.11(477.73)

Автор
О.В. Шебаніна, доктор економічних наук, професор
Р.В. Данильченко, здобувач
Т.М. Борисова, магістр
Миколаївський національний аграрний університет

Анотація
У статті висвітлено сучасний стан експортно-імпортних операцій в аграрному секторі економіки Миколаївської області. Досліджено особливості процесу міжнародної торгівлі між підприємствами Миколаївської області та країнами СНД, а також фактори, що впливають на її кінцевий результат для кожної зі сторін. Запропоновано шляхи ефективного розвитку зовнішньоторговельних операцій.

Ключові слова
експорт, імпорт, сільськогосподарська продукція, інвестиції
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