Y. Kravchenko. Implementation of scientific approaches in a soil conservation agriculture and an agrarian policy for north-eastern Chinese chernozems fertility reproduction

UDC 631.452 (459): 631.6.02


Y. Kravchenko


The chernozem region in the North-east China is distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia provinces. It covers about 1,030,000 km2 of land. Approximately 213,000 km2or 20% of the regionis cultivated as farmland.The annual growth rate of grain yield in North-east China reaches 3.99%, and the proportion to the whole country accounts – 19.27%, making North-east China become a major contributor for maize (74.26 million t), japonica rice (33.939 million t) and beans (6.157 milliont) production.   
Sustainable land management implementation in China was resulted due its long-time development and adjustment in history. The manuscript highlights a development of an agrarian policy of the Chinese government to conserve the chernozems from their intensive use. China has long recognized the importance of land sustainability and carried out a number of soil conservation programmes/projects to control the land degradation, such as: – the “Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA) guidelines”; – a pilot project to prevent and control soil and water loss in the black soil region of North-east China granted by the State Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Water Resources of China; – “Investigation on Soil Erosion and Ecological Security in China”, – “Integrated Soil and Water Conservation in North-east China”; – the “National Soil and Water Conservation law”; – the “Three-North Shelter belt Project (TNSP) (1979–2050)”; – the “Grain for Green Project (GGP)”; – the “Straw Checker boards Barrier” measures; – the “National Plan for Sustainable Development of Agriculture (2015–2030)”; – the “National Land Use Master plan(2006–2020)”; – the “Land Management Law”; – the “Sloping Farmland Conversion”Programme; – the “National Soil Testingand Fertiliser Programme (STFR)”; – the “Environment Law”; – the “National Soil Pollution Action Plan”; – “Integrated nutrient management” concept; – “Integrated soil-crop system management” program, etc.
Above mentioned state policies have influenced into adoption: conservation and contour tillage, slitting and furrowing, terracing, interrow/mixed and after harvesting cropping, integrated crop rotations, mulching and smart fertilizing in current Chinese agriculture. Using basin tillage for millet production on 20-27° slopes has reduced runoff up to 83% and 47%, respectively. Changing the up and down tillage on a 4.8° slope to a contour tillage has reduced the amount of runoff by71% and the annual loss of top soil by 0.26–0.01 cm. Rat tunnel tillage has reduced soil bulk density in a strip 0.9–1.0 m wide, enhancing in filtration capacity and soil water storage. Annual average water runoff under no-till were 92.4% less than under conventional till and 0.2% greater under reduced till. Terracing has reduced bulk density by0.12 g cm-3, increased total porosity by 2.0–2.9%, and had a soil in filtration rate of 0.4 mm/min. The transfer of conventional tillage into conversational in province Jilin has reduced both runoff and soil organic carbon content from 8.28 mln ton and 200 thousands ton to 0.6 mln ton and 15 thousands ton respectively. Strip intercropping, within cereal-bean rotation system, has increased by 100-; 17- і 45 % of soybean, millet and potato yield respectively. It’s became widely used the placement of grasses in 2-3 m wide strip interchanging with 5 m strip with cereals and beans in sloped landscapes. A crop rotation made up of sweet clover and wheat has increased on 7.5 % a soil organic carbon content in comparison with wheat-soybean rotation. Mulching application for 5 years has increased wheat yield from 2900 kg ha-1to 3750-5250 kg ha-1. Integrated nutrient management has increased cereals yield by 2-12 %, reduced nitrogen and phosphorus rates by 26- and 20 % respectively.

Key words: chernozem, soil conservation technologies, fertility, agrarian policy.


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