Features accumulation of wet weight and dry matter, photosynthetic activity in soybean cultivation in the South of Ukraine.

4(81), 2014
UNC 633.34:631.526.3:631.6(477.72)
Vozhegova R. Melnik M.

Relevance of the topic. Soybean belongs to the most important protein and oilseeds, which provides production useful for human food, animal feed and it is a valuable raw material for manufacturing. An important scientific and practical problems when growing soybean yields are insufficient in terms of production because its cultivation technology is not fully study. To realize a high potential of domestic varieties of culture the modern science based soybean growing technology on irrigated land, including irrigation regimes and use of inoculants must be developed and implemented.

The main results. The research had found that the phase of beans pouring out the lowest levels of wet weight at 10.9 t/ha were under irrigation to the flowering phase for sowing varieties Dion, which seeds are not treated with inoculants. When the preparation Nitrofix and Optimize were used. The indicator had increased to 20.5 and 22.0 t/ha, or 6,6-12,7%. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation show the advantage of irrigation to phase pouring beans and sowing varieties Apollon and Deimos.

Maximum leaf surface of the cloak — 43.2 thousand. m2/ha had been reached in a phase of ripening beans. The smallest assimilation surface area at 25.3 thousand. m2/ha had been formed in the form of watering to flowering phase, sowing varieties Dion and without the use of inoculants. The highest photosynthetic capacity of crops of soybeans in the experiment were the conditions of vegetation watering to phase pouring beans, planting varieties Apollo, which seeds were treated with Optimize preparation. Calculations had proved that the net productivity of photosynthesis highest values can be reached in interphase period from bud to bloom.

Conclusions. Increase in wet weight and dry matter, and indices of leaf surface, photosynthetic potential crop productivity and net photosynthesis can be reached its maximum values during the phase of watering pouring beans, seeding varieties Deimos and treatment preparation Optimize. This technology allows to increase the output to the wet weight 20,5-22,0 t/ha and generate maximum leaf surface area, which ensures the growth of photosynthetic capacity of crops to 6,3-11,1%.

Keywords soybeans, crude supply, dry matter, leaf area, photosynthetic potential, net productivity of photosynthesis (more…)