Expanding the range of food products enriched with valuable nutrients as well as reducing the loss of raw materials along the food chain are essential tasks of the food industry. Production of sprouted wholegrain bread allows to exclude the intermediate stages of grain processing and obtain the final product for consumer, while increasing the efficiency of grain using, minimizing the loss of food row material, energy and labor resources in the technological cycle. Spelt grain has a high content of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals, which is the main reason for the growing demand for this culture in the EU and the USA. Spelt mucopolysaccharides are capable of enhancing immunity, lowering blood cholesterol. Protein content of spelt grain is 2.4 % higher than that of wheat, and it increases by 7.8 % in wet gluten. Spelt spouted wholegrain bread showed a 7 % reduction in volume and deteriorating organoleptic characteristics. Obtaining spelt spouted wholegrain bread of decent quality needs to adjust the composition and technological parameters of spelt grain processing. Chia seeds as functional ingredient were introduced into the composition of the bread as a whole and crashed. According to comprehensive assessment, the samples of bread with crushed chia are by 36 % better than the control samples. Crushed chia seeds have a positive effect on the specific volume of bread, increasing it in 6–8 % compared to control samples without chia seeds. When using plasma-chemically activated water, the soaking time of the spelt grain is reduced from 24 to 16 hours. The bread made using plasma-chemically activated water has a 48 % higher specific volume than the products made using water without pre-treatment. The products made with water exposed to the action of non-equilibrium plasma with a concentration of peroxide compounds 200–400 mg/l show the highest quality. The use of crushed chia seeds in the amount of up to 10 % and applying plasma-chemically activated water while soaking spelt grain can improve quality of spelt sprouted wholegrain bread and allow to obtain a product enriched with biologically active components, reducing the duration of bread production.
Keywords: spelt, sprouted whole grain, bread, chia seeds, plasma-chemically activated water.
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During the operation of milk pipelines of milking equipment, milk residues of various properties, composition and thickness are formed on the internal surfaces of the pipeline. Their presence leads to an increase in bacterial contamination of milk. If all the necessary conditions for keeping livestock buildings are met, the main share of the mechanical and bacterial contamination of milk is formed due to insufficiently washed milking machine equipment. Therefore, to improve the quality of flushing, we propose to use an injector, which performs the function of periodically supplying air to the volume of the milk line, while creating significant fluctuations in the vacuum pressure and, as a consequence, controlled water hammer which should be controlled using automated systems of milking equipment. The aim of the study is to carry out a numerical simulation of the operating modes of the system for flushing milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector and determine their rational values . As a result of numerical simulation of the process of washing the milk line of the milking machine using the injector in the software package STAR-CCM +, the dependences of the rate of change of pressure and the change of the thickness of the layer of milk on the wall of the milk line at different values of its diameter from the working vacuum pressure, the duration of the injection stroke and the injection stroke the duration of the air injector pause. Solving the compromise problem, which reduces to minimizing the thickness of the milk layer on the wall of the milk pipeline and the rate of change of pressure for various values of the diameter of the milk pipeline, the corresponding rational parameters of the injector operating modes are obtained.
Keywords: milking unit, washing system, washing solution, multiphase medium, numerical simulation.
Each plant has its own individual needs and requirements for soil, nutrition, disease and pest treatment, density, etc. There are common elements that characterize the process of growth and development in the system of development of all the plants.
For maximum yield, it is necessary to realize the biological potential of plants with mechanized technologies.
The main purpose of the work is to study the changes in the properties of soil, seed and plant in different periods of the production process.
Studying field conditions showed that after harvest, a lot off plant residues and weeds remain, the field is covered with stubble and tracks from the tractor wheels.
After soybean threshing with the harvester, the crushed plant residues are distributed on the field unevenly. It was determined by field research.
It is established that 60-75% grain losses on the thresher are concentrated in the straw roll after the shredder.
It is necessary to ensure correct operation harvester shredder and spreader to solve this problem.
The intensity of development of the root system decreases with soil compaction by running systems. This reduces the yield. The compacted layers prevent the accumulation of moisture in the soil and the use of groundwater by plants, limiting the development of the root system.
We investigated the effect soil moisture retention in different layers of soil, with and without crop residues on the surface of the field.
We investigated the influence of plant residues on the surface of the field on the following technological operations. The uneven distribution residues significantly and impedes the movement of the unit in depth.
The research of the quality of disking after winter wheat shows that straw is not cut by discs, but is broken. This process is accompanied by longitudinal destruction of the stem. This leads to its faster decomposition.
We explored the field after harvesting corn for grain. We found that the requirements for the quality of shredding stems are usually not met.
Decreasing soil moisture and increasing its temperature significantly affects its structure. It becomes solid, does not crumble, and becomes stronger over time.
The monitoring photo from satellite and drone shows plants development differentiated on the one’s field.
Our research shows that the quality of the technological operations performed does not meet the needs of the plants.
In order to improve the quality of technological operations, it is necessary to use machines and to make adjustments, taking into account the needs of plants and appropriate operating conditions of the unit.
Key words: quality, realization of biopotential, necessity of plant, technological operation, development of plant.
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UDC 663.674.014 : 665.1.2 : 615.451.3 – 035.23
The main task of the food industry is production of high-quality and healthy products for people. Considering thisnew types of products with balanced fatty acidand protein compositionswith addition of plant components are increasingly being created in the dairy industryas a source of polyphenolic compounds.
The article substantiates the prescription composition of special-purpose combined ice cream with the addition of vegetable oils and basil extract. Sunflower and sesame refined and deodorized oils were selected as the fatty recipe component after determining organoleptic (taste, smell, color, transparency) and physicochemical parameters (acid, peroxide and iodine numbers).
To obtain a balanced fatty acid composition of the milk-fat base for the production of combined ice cream, mathematical modeling was carried out according to the formula of N. Lipatov, which resulted in a ratio of saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acids 1,3: 1,0: 1,0, which is close to perfect 1,0: 1,0: 1,0. As close as possible to the ideal ratio is achieved with a ratio of sunflower oil: sesame oil: milk fat 0,25: 0,25: 0,5.
Further, there were substantiated rational parameters (temperature, duration) of extraction of biologically active substances (polyphenolic compounds) with water and skim milk from dried basil leaves at a ratio of basil: extractant 1: 10 for further use of the selected milk extract as a raw material component in special-purpose ice cream recipes. The content of polyphenolic substances in the extracts was chosen as the determining parameter. Following rational extraction parameters were selected: temperature 50 °С, duration 15 min, the extractant is skim milk.
In the produced extract there were determined organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological quality indicators which allow to use it as a vegetable component in the production of combined ice cream for special purposes.
Keywords: combined ice cream, vegetable oils, balanced fatty acid composition, basil, extraction, polyphenolic compounds.
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Experimental studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis patterns of whey proteins have been carried out. Proteases of different origin (animal, plant and microbial) were selected and optimal hydrolysis parameters were selected.
The studies were performed with serum protein concentrate obtained by ultrafiltration with 80% mass fraction of protein (KSB-80 manufacturer “TechMolProm” (TM “Bios”). Enzyme preparations used: pepsin (LLC “Alsi”), papain PSM-400 (LLC “Alex”), protolade (SE “Enzym”). The degree of hydrolysis of the protein substances of the samples was evaluated by changing the concentration of nitrogen amine groups (NAG).
The patterns of hydrolysis of serum proteins were studied by the following parameters: concentration of enzyme and substrate, pH of the medium, temperature and duration of the process. It was found that NAG in the initial (control) solution of whey protein concentrate with a protein content of 20% is 32,67 mg / 100 g.
The dynamics of pepsin concentrations from (0,5 to 3)% at pH 2.0, papain and protolade – (1-6)% at pH 7.0 were studied. It was found that the optimal concentration of pepsin enzyme for the subsequent studies is 2,5% (NAG content is 56,0 mg / 100 g), papain – 4% (NAG – 67,67 mg / 100 g), Protolad – 5% (NAG – 102,67 mg / 100 g).
Studies of the effect of substrate concentration at a fixed enzyme concentration showed that the maximum accumulation of NAG (53,67 mg / 100 g) occurred in an environment with 25% protein and 2,5% pepsin; maximum NAG value (70 mg / 100 g) with 20% protein and 4% papain; maximum NAG value (102,67 mg / 100 g) with 20% protein and 5% Protolad enzyme.
Studies of changes in the degree of hydrolysis of serum peptide bonds by changes in the pH of the medium for pepsin from 1 to 6, for papain – (3-12), for Protolad – (4-12). It was found that NAG acquires the most value when using pepsin pH is 2.0 (NAG 53,67 mg / 100 g); when using papain or protolate pH 8.0 (NAG 84,0 mg / 100 g and 107,33 mg / 100 g, respectively).
The dependence of the proteolysis intensity of serum protein peptide bonds by the enzymatic preparations on the dynamics of temperature changes (from 20 to 90 °C) was investigated. Studies have shown that in the temperature range (20-50) °C with the participation of pepsin there is a steady increase of NAG from (39,67 to 53,67) mg / 100 g; papain – at (20-60) ° C NAG is from (44,33 to 88,67) mg / 100 g; The protolade – at (20–40) °C the NAG was 93,33 mg / 100 g, and at (60–70) ° C – 102,67 mg / 100 g.
The dependence of the degree of hydrolysis on the duration of hydrolysis was investigated. It has been found that the test enzymes provide the most intense hydrolysis in the first 30 min of the enzymatic process followed by a gradual increase in the NAG value over 180 min of hydrolysis. Thus, for pepsin, the content of NAG for (30–180) min increases from (42,00 to 60,67) mg / 100 g; for papain – from (67,67 to 95,67) mg / 100 g; Protolade – from (91,00 to 128,33) mg / 100 g.
Thus, it was found that obtaining a product with a high degree of hydrolysis is possible with the use of the enzyme preparation Protolad at a concentration of 5%, with a protein substrate concentration of 20%, with the medium should be alkaline, the pH value is 8.0, and the process temperature should be 60 °C.
Hydrolysis of whey proteins allows to obtain low molecular weight peptides and amino acids, which further ensure the production of flavors and aromatic substances. Research findings can be used in the development of natural flavoring additives.
Key words: whey, whey protein concentrate, enzymatic hydrolysis, pepsin, papain, Protolad.
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It was determined the moisture content in cooked sausages during the production, which was 55.9% in a sequential method of cutting, compared with parallel and accelerated methods. It is proved that cooked sausages, made in the cutter by the accelerated method, were characterized with the low moisture content.
According to the requirements of the state standard, the amount of moisture in cooked sausage products “Molochna” should not be more than 58%. Research has shown that sausages meet the required standards.
It was determined the organoleptic characteristics of the sausage “Molochna” which depend on the method of cutting. It was found that sausage products were characterized by higher organoleptic parameters in a consistent way of cutting.
According to the results of the experiment it is proved that the indicators of protein, fat, salt, sodium nitrite content, although they meet the requirements of the standard, but they differ from one another. According to the tasting indicators, the sausage “Molochna” tasted better because of adding 20% of water to the stuffing. Products with an average amount of added water were characterized by good appearance of sausages, which is an important indicator in the consumer appeal of products.
The lower value of the tasting qualities belonged to the “Molochna” sausages made with low amount of water. Sausages with medium amount of water were characterized by a better appearance, consistency, juiciness and taste.
The physical and chemical parameters of cooked sausages “Molochna”, produced at different duration of cutting, were investigated. The short cutting time was 4-6 minutes, the medium 8 was 10 minutes, the long one was 11-12 minutes. The lowest moisture content noticed in cooked sausages which were made with medium duration of cutting. Other different groups of sausages met the requirements of the state standards.
The study of the qualitative indicator of sausages was carried out in 3 control variants. The production was performed at low (8-10ºC), medium (12-14ºC) and elevated (15-18ºC) cutting temperature. The moisture content of the sausages during manufacture was 56.3% at a medium grinding temperature. The low moisture content was in the cooked sausages made at elevated temperature of water grinding.
During the experiment it was proved that the amount of water in the production affects the quality of the products. Studies have found that the moisture content of cooked sausages was 56.1% with the addition of a large amount of water. Lower moisture content was at cooked sausages with the addition of a small amount of water (ice). It was proved that at the medium cutting temperature (10-12ºC) the products had the highest tasting score.
Cutting temperature affects the quality of finished products. The optimum temperature of the finished minced meat after cutting was 12°C, with using high-speed cutters the minced meat temperature reached 20°C for 3 minutes of processing. It is found that the longer the grinding time is the lower temperature the meat must have.
Therefore, the technologies, used for the production of mince meat, affect the physical and chemical parameters of cooked sausages, depending on the parameters of the technological process.
Keywords: cooked sausages, technology, cutting, temperature of cutting, physical-chemical parameters, organoleptic parameters.
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UDC 631.452 (459): 631.6.02
The chernozem region in the North-east China is distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia provinces. It covers about 1,030,000 km2 of land. Approximately 213,000 km2or 20% of the regionis cultivated as farmland.The annual growth rate of grain yield in North-east China reaches 3.99%, and the proportion to the whole country accounts – 19.27%, making North-east China become a major contributor for maize (74.26 million t), japonica rice (33.939 million t) and beans (6.157 milliont) production.
Sustainable land management implementation in China was resulted due its long-time development and adjustment in history. The manuscript highlights a development of an agrarian policy of the Chinese government to conserve the chernozems from their intensive use. China has long recognized the importance of land sustainability and carried out a number of soil conservation programmes/projects to control the land degradation, such as: – the “Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA) guidelines”; – a pilot project to prevent and control soil and water loss in the black soil region of North-east China granted by the State Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Water Resources of China; – “Investigation on Soil Erosion and Ecological Security in China”, – “Integrated Soil and Water Conservation in North-east China”; – the “National Soil and Water Conservation law”; – the “Three-North Shelter belt Project (TNSP) (1979–2050)”; – the “Grain for Green Project (GGP)”; – the “Straw Checker boards Barrier” measures; – the “National Plan for Sustainable Development of Agriculture (2015–2030)”; – the “National Land Use Master plan(2006–2020)”; – the “Land Management Law”; – the “Sloping Farmland Conversion”Programme; – the “National Soil Testingand Fertiliser Programme (STFR)”; – the “Environment Law”; – the “National Soil Pollution Action Plan”; – “Integrated nutrient management” concept; – “Integrated soil-crop system management” program, etc.
Above mentioned state policies have influenced into adoption: conservation and contour tillage, slitting and furrowing, terracing, interrow/mixed and after harvesting cropping, integrated crop rotations, mulching and smart fertilizing in current Chinese agriculture. Using basin tillage for millet production on 20-27° slopes has reduced runoff up to 83% and 47%, respectively. Changing the up and down tillage on a 4.8° slope to a contour tillage has reduced the amount of runoff by71% and the annual loss of top soil by 0.26–0.01 cm. Rat tunnel tillage has reduced soil bulk density in a strip 0.9–1.0 m wide, enhancing in filtration capacity and soil water storage. Annual average water runoff under no-till were 92.4% less than under conventional till and 0.2% greater under reduced till. Terracing has reduced bulk density by0.12 g cm-3, increased total porosity by 2.0–2.9%, and had a soil in filtration rate of 0.4 mm/min. The transfer of conventional tillage into conversational in province Jilin has reduced both runoff and soil organic carbon content from 8.28 mln ton and 200 thousands ton to 0.6 mln ton and 15 thousands ton respectively. Strip intercropping, within cereal-bean rotation system, has increased by 100-; 17- і 45 % of soybean, millet and potato yield respectively. It’s became widely used the placement of grasses in 2-3 m wide strip interchanging with 5 m strip with cereals and beans in sloped landscapes. A crop rotation made up of sweet clover and wheat has increased on 7.5 % a soil organic carbon content in comparison with wheat-soybean rotation. Mulching application for 5 years has increased wheat yield from 2900 kg ha-1to 3750-5250 kg ha-1. Integrated nutrient management has increased cereals yield by 2-12 %, reduced nitrogen and phosphorus rates by 26- and 20 % respectively.
Key words: chernozem, soil conservation technologies, fertility, agrarian policy.
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Abstract. The article substantiates the question of the influence of leaf fertilizers by modern regregulating substances on the realization of the potential of formation of aboveground biomass and the yield of sunflower plants. The results of researches of the main tendencies and regional peculiarities of cultivation of the most widespread sunflower oil cultivation in the area of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine during the last years are analyzed and presented. The results of studies conducted with this culture (Dragan hybrid) during the 2016-2018 biennium on the black soil southern in the experimental farm “Green Koshary”, located in the Pervomaisk region of Mykolaiv region. On the basis of the conducted research and their analysis, the ways of more intensive growth of sunflower plants in height, accumulation of aboveground biomass and increase of seed productivity have been substantiated. Improvement of some of the most important elements of technology of cultivation, in particular optimization of nutrition of plants of sunflower, is offered. Sunflower plant nutrition optimization was developed on the basis of resource conservation. There is a close relationship between the improvement of sunflower nutrition, the growth processes of plants, the accumulation of aboveground biomass and the level of productivity of sunflower seeds.
Under the action of growth-regulating substances the crude above-ground biomass increased as relating to the biomass after the treatment of seeding of sunflower plants with water, it grew in the range of 23.0 up to 37.8%.
Over 2016-2018yrs in the control the yield of sunflower seeds was as average as 2.52 t / ha, and when processing the crops with growth-regulators, depending on their type, dose and phase of fertilizing, it increased from 2.76 t/ha up to 3.56 t/ha, or 41.3%. In our studies obtaining the maximum yield levels of sunflower seeds it was provided by two foliar nutritions in the phase of 3-4 leaves with FreshEnergy and FreshFlorid in the budding period as much as 0.5 kg / ha, while the increase in yield to control on average for 2016-2018yrs amounted to 1.04 t / ha (41.3%)
Yield levels varied significantly over the years. The lowest one was formed in unfavorable climatic conditions in 2017yr as in the control of 1.76 t / ha, the average one for nutrition variants was 2.50 t / ha, and in the most optimal variant (for a combination of two nutritions by FreshEnergy and FreshFlorid) it was received a seed yield of 2.80 t / ha, which was more than the control by 1.04 t / ha or 59.1%. In the most favorable 2018yr those indicators were formed at the levels of 3.34, 4.04, 4.33 and 29.6%, respectively.
The obtained research data give grounds to assert that regardless of weather conditions of years of cultivation growth-regulating preparations can significantly increase the productivity of plants, in particular the productivity of sunflower. However, their effectiveness is more pronounced under less favorable growing conditions.
Key words: sunflower, aboveground biomass, plant height, nutrition optimization, reregulating preparations, seed yield.
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UDC 633.311: 631.8
The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of the plant growth regulator Emistim C on the hay yield of alfalfa varieties in the dry Black Sea Steppe zone.
Materials and methods of research. The studies were conducted during 2014-2016 at the Mykolayiv National Agrarian University. The following varieties of alfalfa were sown in early spring without applying coverless varieties: Nadezhda (control), Vinnichanka, Regina, Sinyukha. The counts and observations in the experiments were carried out according to generally accepted methods.
Research results. It was established that the duration of the sowing-seedling period was 25-26 days when sowing with untreated seeds, and when treating seeds with Emistim C it decreased to 22-24 days. The duration of interphase periods of plant growth and development was adjusted both by the use of Emistim C and by weather conditions. Field germination also varied depending on the alfalfa variety and the seed treatment with Emistim C. In the control variant (Nadezhda), this indicator was 49.5%, while in the Regina variety, compared to other varieties under study, it was the highest (50.9%). Significant improvement in field germination was observed in crops treated with Emistim C: 58.9-60.8% of plants sprouted. With regard to the reaction of the varieties to the indicated drug, the indicator for the Nadezhda variety increased against the control (the corresponding variety without seed treatment) by 19.0%, Sinyukha by 17.5%, Regina by 18.7%, and Vinnichanka by 20.6%. Alfalfa productivity in the first year of life, on average across varieties, increased as a result of the use of Emistim C for seed treatment from 2.29 to 2.56 t / ha, or by 11.8%. There was no significant difference between the studied varieties in terms of hay yield. Thanks to seed treatment with Emistim C, this indicator increased by 0.27 t / ha, or 11.8% against the control (cultivar Nadezhda), by 9.5% in the cultivar Vinnichanka, and by 14.8% in the cultivar Regina. Among the varieties, the increase in hay yield ranged from 2.23 to 2.50 t / ha for Vinnichanka, from 2.36 to 2.62 t / ha for Regina, and from 2.30 to 2.55 t / ha for Sinyukha.
Conclusions. Weather conditions and seed treatment with Emistim C significantly affect the formation of alfalfa productivity in hay. There was no significant difference in yield between the studied varieties. The duration of the sowing-seedling period during seed treatment with Emistim C, depending on the variety, decreased by 2-3 days. At the same time, stress for alfalfa plants of high temperatures decreased, which extended the growing season by 1-3 days. The field germination of alfalfa varieties increased from 17.5% (Sinyukha) to 20.6% (Vinnichanka). When sowing with untreated seeds, the yield of hay of the grade Nadezhda (control) was 2.28 t / ha. Thanks to seed treatment, this indicator increased by 11.8%. In relation to varieties, the increase in the yield of hay from Vinnichanka was 12.1%, Regina 11.0%, and Sinyukha 10.9%.
Key words: alfalfa, hay, weather conditions, plant growth-regulator Emistim C, variety, yield.
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