Issue 1 (105), 2020

 

Cover sheet
Content

ECONOMICAL SCIENCES

V. Shebanin, O. Novikov, M. Karpenko. The applicability of implementation of the irrigation in modern conditions4
T. Lunkina, А. Burkovska, А. Burkovska. Features of forming socio-responsible behavior in the consumer of organic production of the agricultural sector in Ukraine11
I. Honcharenko, V. Pereta, N. Kuchmanich. The potential of the strategic development of the united territorial communities of the region19
A. Diuk. Social responsibility in the production system of agricultural enterprises: Methodical aspects of evaluation27
S. Lutkovska. Strategic management of environmental risks as a direction of ensuring sustainable ecological and economic development37

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES

L. Antipova. Hay yield of alfalfa varieties depending on weather conditions and the application of the growth-regulating drug Emistim C43
V. Gamayunova, V. Kudrina. Formation of aboveground mass and sunflower yield under the influence of certain elements of cultivation technology50
Y. Kravchenko. Implementation of scientific approaches in a soil conservation agriculture and an agrarian policy for north-eastern Chinese chernozems fertility reproduction58
L. Strika, T. Pidpala., O. Petrova, N. Shevchuk. Optimization of the parameters of the technological process of production of cooked sausages71
T. Synenko, N. Frolova. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins of milk79
L. Lanzhenko, N. Dets, O. Kruchek, Ye. Izbash. Selection of fat and vegetable components for the production of combined ice cream87

TECHNICAL SCIENCES

V. Pastukhov, V. Zubko. Research changes in the soil and plants properties in different periods of the production process94
V. Prуshliak, I. Babyn, I. Hunko. Modeling of the operating modes of the washing system for milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector102
S. Mykolenko, M. Omelchenko. Application of sprouted spelt grain for bread production110

S. Mykolenko, M. Omelchenko. Application of sprouted spelt grain for bread production.

UDC 664.664.9

 

S. Mykolenko

M. Omelchenko

 

Expanding the range of food products enriched with valuable nutrients as well as reducing the loss of raw materials along the food chain are essential tasks of the food industry. Production of sprouted wholegrain bread allows to exclude the intermediate stages of grain processing and obtain the final product for consumer, while increasing the efficiency of grain using, minimizing the loss of food row material, energy and labor resources in the technological cycle. Spelt grain has a high content of proteins, lipids, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals, which is the main reason for the growing demand for this culture in the EU and the USA. Spelt mucopolysaccharides are capable of enhancing immunity, lowering blood cholesterol. Protein content of spelt grain is 2.4 % higher than that of wheat, and it increases by 7.8 % in wet gluten. Spelt spouted wholegrain bread showed a 7 % reduction in volume and deteriorating organoleptic characteristics. Obtaining spelt spouted wholegrain bread of decent quality needs to adjust the composition and technological parameters of spelt grain processing. Chia seeds as functional ingredient were introduced into the composition of the bread as a whole and crashed. According to comprehensive assessment, the samples of bread with crushed chia are by 36 % better than the control samples. Crushed chia seeds have a positive effect on the specific volume of bread, increasing it in 6–8 % compared to control samples without chia seeds. When using plasma-chemically activated water, the soaking time of the spelt grain is reduced from 24 to 16 hours. The bread made using plasma-chemically activated water has a 48 % higher specific volume than the products made using water without pre-treatment. The products made with water exposed to the action of non-equilibrium plasma with a concentration of peroxide compounds 200–400 mg/l show the highest quality. The use of crushed chia seeds in the amount of up to 10 % and applying plasma-chemically activated water while soaking spelt grain can improve quality of spelt sprouted wholegrain bread and allow to obtain a product enriched with biologically active components, reducing the duration of bread production.

Keywords: spelt, sprouted whole grain, bread, chia seeds, plasma-chemically activated water.

References:

  1. Bastrikov , D.O.,Pankratov, G.V. (2006). Novy`jproduktizcel`nogozernapshenicy. Xleboprodukty, 4, 36–37.
  2. Palumbryk, M.O. (2011). Vuhlevody v kharchovykhproduktakh і zdorov’iliudyny. Akademperіodyka. 487 s.
  3. Bortnіchuk, O.V., Tsyrulnіkova, V.V., &Dotsenko, V.F. (2014). Vykorystanniapshenychnykhvysіvok u vyrobnytstvіkhlіbobulochnykhvyrobіv. Tekhnіchnіnauky – tekhnolohіiprodovolchykhtovarіv,1, 8–12.
  4. Bogaty`reva, T.G. (2013). Ispol`zovaniepolbyanojmuki v texnologiixlebobulochny`xizdelij.Xleboprodukty, 2, 40–43.
  5. Makarova, O.V. (2015). Povy`sheniekachestvaxlebanazernovojosnove. Zernovіprodukti і kombіkormi, 4, 38–44.
  6. Sіrenko, N.M., &Chajka, T.O. (2012). Organіchnіproduktixarchuvannya u zabezpechennіprodovol`choїbezpekiUkraїni. Ekonomіka APK,1, 49–53.
  7. Semenova, A.B., Pysarets, O.P., &Drobot , V.І. (2016). Doslіdzhenniastrukturno-mekhanіchnykhvlastyvosteitіsta z sutsіlnozmelenohopshenychnohotaspeltovohoboroshna . Khranenye y pererabotkazerna,6–7, 58–61.
  8. Slavin J. Whywholegrainsareprotective: biologicalmechanisms. (2003)ProceedingsoftheNutritionSociety, 62, 129‒134.
  9. Dudko, M.A., &Sokol, N.V. (2015). Razrabotkatexnologiizernovogoxlebaizvy`sokobelkovy`xsortov. Sborniknauchnixtrudovvserossijskogonauchno-issledovatel`skogoinstitutaovcevodstva i kozovodstva,8, 87–90.
  10. Escarnot Е. Comparativestudyofthecontentandprofilesofmacronutrientsinspeltandwheat, a review. (2012). Biotechnology, Agronomy, SocietyandEnviromnent, 16, 243–256.
  11. Bojnanska T., FrancakovaН.(2002). Theuseofspeltwheat (Triticumspelta L.) forbakingapplications.RostlinnaVyroba, 48,141–147.
  12. Drobot, V.І., Mykhonіk, L.A., &Semenova, A.B. (2014). Porіvnialniakharakterystykakhіmіchnohoskladutatekhnolohіchnykhvlstyvosteisutsіlnozmelenohopshenychnohoboroshnataboroshnaspelty. Tekhnolohyiakhranenyia y sushky,4, 37–39.
  13. Hospodarenko, H.M., Poltoretskyi, S.P., &Liubych, V.V. (2018). Formuvanniayakostіmakaronnykh і kondyterskykhvyrobіvіzzernapshenytsіspelty. Vіsnykahrarnoinaukyprychornomor’ia, 1, 199–210.
  14. Drobot, V.І., &Mіkhonіk, L.A. (2014). Tekhnolohіchnіaspektyvykorystanniaboroshnaspelty u khlіbopechennі. Prodovolchіresursy: zbіrnyknaukovykhprats,2, 15–17.
  15. Lyubich, V.V. (2017). Konditers`kіvlastivostіzernapsheniczіspel`tizalezhnovіdpoxodzhennyasortutalіnії. Zbіrniknaukovixpracz` Umans`kogo NUS,91, 46–54.
  16. Alaverdian, L.M., Yudіcheva, O.P., &Romanenko, O.V. (2019). Boroshnozіspelty: vyznachenniataobgruntuvanniatendentsіirozvytkurynku, otsіnkayakostі. Tovaroznavchyivіsnyk,12, 6–17.
  17. Semenova, A.B., Pysarets, O.P., &Drobot, V.І. (2016). Porіvnianniavuhlevodno-amіlaznohokompleksupshenychnohotaspeltovohoboroshna. Tovaroznavchyivіsnyk,7, 178–182.
  18. Semenova, A.Y., &Drobot, V.І. (2014). Obgruntuvannyaskladurecepturnoїkompoziczії z suczіl`nozmelenogoboroshnaspel`titagrechanixplastіvczіv. Naukovіzdobutkimolodі – virіshennyuproblemxarchuvannyalyudstva u XXІ stolіttі, 3, 172–173.
  19. Mykolenko, S., Stepanskiy D., Tishchenko А. (2014). Investigationoftheeffectofwaterexposedtononequilibriumcontactplasmaontosaccharomycescerevisiaeyeast. Ukrainianfoodjournal, 3, 218–228.
  20. Mykolenko, S.Y., Sokolov, V.Y., &Penkova, V.V. (2016). Doslіdzhenniatekhnolohіchnykhaspektіvvyrobnytstvakhlіbaіzdysperhovanoizernovoimasy z vykorystanniamdodatkovoipіdhotovkysyrovyny. GrainProductsandMixedFodder’s,64, 10–15.
  21. Shmal`ko, N.A., Bochkova, L.K., &Roslyakov, Y.F. (2004). Ispol`zovaniedispergirovanny`xsemyanamaranta v xlebopechenii. Xlebopek,1, 24–26.
  22. Makarova, O.V., Pshenyuk, G.F., &Ivanova, A.S. (2015). Povy`sheniekachestvaxlebanazernovojosnove. Zernovіprodukti і kombіkormi,4, 38–44.
  23. Kordzvia, N.R. (2012). Yakіsttsіlnozernovohopshenychnohokhlіba z vykorystanniamkoreneplіdnykhovochіv. Tovary і rynky,1, 102–110.
  24. Pіvovarov, O.A., &Mykolenko, S.Y. (2011). Osoblyvostіbezoparnohopryhotuvanniakhlіbobulochnykhvyrobіv z vykorystanniamplazmokhіmіchnoaktyvovanykhvodnykhrozchynіv. Obladnanniatatekhnolohіikharchovykhvyrobnytstv,27, 140–146.
  25. Pivovarov А., Mykolenko S., Honcharova O. (2017). Biotestingofplasma-chemicallyactivatedwaterwithuseofhydrobionts. Eastern-EuropeanJournalofEnterprise Technologies, 10, 44–50.
  26. Bel`mer, S.A. (2011). Neperenosimost` glyutena i pokazaniya k bezglyutenovojdiete. Vrach,5, 17–21.
  27. Shidakova-Kamenyuka, O.G., Shklyaev, O.M., &Rogova, A.L. (2017). Analіzxіmіchnogoskladunasіnnyachіayakperspektivnoїsirovinidlyakonditers`kixvirobіv. Progresivnіtexnіkatatexnologіїxarchovixvirobnicztvrestorannogogospodarstva і torgіvlі,25, 80–91.
  28. Vasyliev, S.V., &Papuk, N.V. (2017). Zernopolby – perspektyvnasyrovynadliaproduktіvfunktsіonalnohopryznachennia . Problemyformuvanniazdorovohosposobuzhyttia u molodі, 1, 68–69.
  29. Mуkolenko, S.Y., Czaruk, L.Y., &Chursіnov, Y.O. (2018). Vplivproduktіvpererobkiamarantu і chіanayakіst` xlіba. VіsnikNaczіonal`nogotexnіchnogounіversitetu “XPІ”. Serіya : Novіrіshennya v suchasnixtexnologіyax., 5, 145–151.

 

V. Prуshliak, I. Babyn., I. Hunko. Modeling of the operating modes of the washing system for milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector

UDC 637.115:664.3.033:519.673

 

V. Prуshliak

I. Babyn

I. Hunko

 

During the operation of milk pipelines of milking equipment, milk residues of various properties, composition and thickness are formed on the internal surfaces of the pipeline. Their presence leads to an increase in bacterial contamination of milk. If all the necessary conditions for keeping livestock buildings are met, the main share of the mechanical and bacterial contamination of milk is formed due to insufficiently washed milking machine equipment. Therefore, to improve the quality of flushing, we propose to use an injector, which performs the function of periodically supplying air to the volume of the milk line, while creating significant fluctuations in the vacuum pressure and, as a consequence, controlled water hammer which should be controlled using automated systems of milking equipment. The aim of the study is to carry out a numerical simulation of the operating modes of the system for flushing milk pipelines of milking equipment with an air injector and determine their rational values . As a result of numerical simulation of the process of washing the milk line of the milking machine using the injector in the software package STAR-CCM +, the dependences of the rate of change of pressure and the change of the thickness of the layer of milk on the wall of the milk line at different values of its diameter from the working vacuum pressure, the duration of the injection stroke and the injection stroke the duration of the air injector pause. Solving the compromise problem, which reduces to minimizing the thickness of the milk layer on the wall of the milk pipeline and the rate of change of pressure for various values of the diameter of the milk pipeline, the corresponding rational parameters of the injector operating modes are obtained.

Keywords: milking unit, washing system, washing solution, multiphase medium, numerical simulation.

References:

 

V. Pastukhov, V. Zubko. Research changes in the soil and plants properties in different periods of the production process

UDC 631.559.2

 

V. Pastukhov

V. Zubko

 

Each plant has its own individual needs and requirements for soil, nutrition, disease and pest treatment, density, etc. There are common elements that characterize the process of growth and development in the system of development of all the plants.
For maximum yield, it is necessary to realize the biological potential of plants with mechanized technologies.
The main purpose of the work is to study the changes in the properties of soil, seed and plant in different periods of the production process.
Studying field conditions showed that after harvest, a lot off plant residues and weeds remain, the field is covered with stubble and tracks from the tractor wheels.
After soybean threshing with the harvester, the crushed plant residues are distributed on the field unevenly. It was determined by field research.
It is established that 60-75% grain losses on the thresher are concentrated in the straw roll after the shredder.
It is necessary to ensure correct operation harvester shredder and spreader to solve this problem.
The intensity of development of the root system decreases with soil compaction by running systems. This reduces the yield. The compacted layers prevent the accumulation of moisture in the soil and the use of groundwater by plants, limiting the development of the root system.
We investigated the effect soil moisture retention in different layers of soil, with and without crop residues on the surface of the field.
We investigated the influence of plant residues on the surface of the field on the following technological operations. The uneven distribution residues significantly and impedes the movement of the unit in depth.
The research of the quality of disking after winter wheat shows that straw is not cut by discs, but is broken. This process is accompanied by longitudinal destruction of the stem. This leads to its faster decomposition.
We explored the field after harvesting corn for grain. We found that the requirements for the quality of shredding stems are usually not met.
Decreasing soil moisture and increasing its temperature significantly affects its structure. It becomes solid, does not crumble, and becomes stronger over time.
The monitoring photo from satellite and drone shows plants development differentiated on the one’s field.
Our research shows that the quality of the technological operations performed does not meet the needs of the plants.
In order to improve the quality of technological operations, it is necessary to use machines and to make adjustments, taking into account the needs of plants and appropriate operating conditions of the unit.

Key words: quality, realization of biopotential, necessity of plant, technological operation, development of plant.

References:

  1. Effect various factors on corn yield: elektron. versiya. Retrieved from :https://agromage.com/stat_id.php?id=999)  [in Ukrainian].
  2. Pastukhov V.I. (2001) Quality work agricultural machinery and biopotential of agricultural crops. Scientific and Technical Journal “APC Engineering”. Vol. No. 5-6 (545-546). [in Ukrainian].
  3. Galushko VP, Kovtun OA., TaranetsL.S. (2017) Evaluation of sunflower seeds production efficiency in market relations. Actual problems of innovative economyVol. No4, 5-10.
  4. Kovtun Y.I. (2007) Field-machine quality system with the basics of agroqualimetry. Kharkiv:Pompoekt.
  5. Kovtun Y.I. (2000) Agroqualimetry. Kharkiv: Original Kharkiv National Techn. University of Agriculture. P. Vasilenko.
  6. Auditing, checking, crops monitoring, yield forecasting, consultations of professional agronomists: elektron. versiya. Retrieved from :http://farming.org.ua/Ревізія,%20перевірка%20моніторинг%20стану%20посівів%20та%20полів%20прогнозування%20врожайності,%20агрономічні%20поради.html[in Ukrainian].
  7. PN-83/R-55000. MaszynyRolnicze. Metodybadańnarzędziimaszynuprawowych (Agricultural machinery. Test methods for tools and cultivation machines.
  8. PN-90/R-55004. MaszynyRolnicze. Metodybadań. Charakterystykaenergetyczna.
  9. Agricultural machinery. Methods for determining test conditions. (1994). KND 46.16.02.08-95. Gosstandart Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  10. The governing document. Testing of agricultural machinery. Machines and tools for surface tillage. Test program and methods. (1990) RD 10.4.2-89. Gosstandart Ukraine, 117 [in Ukrainian].
  11. Agricultural machinery. Nomenclature of quality indicators (1997). КND.46.16.02.-96. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine, 58 [in Ukrainian].
  12. Standart ASAE S313.3 FEB1999ED (R2013), Soil Cone Penetrometer, 2013.
  13. Testing agricultural machinery. Machines and tools for tillage. Test methods. (2006). SOU 74.3-37-155:2004. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  14. Testing agricultural machinery. Machines are sowing. Test methods. (2006) SOU 74.3-37-129:2004. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  15. Testing agricultural machinery. Machines for transportation and application  liquid fertilizers. Test methods. (2006). SOU 74.3-37-142:2004. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  16. Testing agricultural machinery. Sprayers, pollinators, entomophageal settlers, machines for preparation and transportation of working fluid. Test methods. (2006). SOU 74.3-37-137:2004. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  17. Testing agricultural machinery. Sprayers tractor and self-propelled. Test methods. (2006). SOU 74.3-37-266:2005. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  18. Tests agricultural machinery. Grain harvesting machines. Program and test methods. (1981). OST 70.8.1-81. Ministry of Agrarian Policy Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  19. DörtheHolthusen, atall(2018,December) Soil functions and in situ stress distribution in subtropical soils as affected by land use, vehicle type, tire inflation pressure and plant residue removal.Soil and Tillage ResearchVolume 184, 78-92.

 

L. Lanzhenko, N. Dets, O. Kruchek, Ye. Izbash. Selection of fat and vegetable components for the production of combined ice cream

UDC 663.674.014 : 665.1.2 : 615.451.3 – 035.23

 

L.Lanzhenko

N. Dets

O. Kruchek

Ye. Izbash

 

The main task of the food industry is production of high-quality and healthy products for people. Considering thisnew types of products with balanced fatty acidand protein compositionswith addition of plant components are increasingly being created in the dairy industryas a source of polyphenolic compounds.
The article substantiates the prescription composition of special-purpose combined ice cream with the addition of vegetable oils and basil extract. Sunflower and sesame refined and deodorized oils were selected as the fatty recipe component after determining organoleptic (taste, smell, color, transparency) and physicochemical parameters (acid, peroxide and iodine numbers).
To obtain a balanced fatty acid composition of the milk-fat base for the production of combined ice cream, mathematical modeling was carried out according to the formula of N. Lipatov, which resulted in a ratio of saturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fatty acids: polyunsaturated fatty acids 1,3: 1,0: 1,0, which is close to perfect 1,0: 1,0: 1,0. As close as possible to the ideal ratio is achieved with a ratio of sunflower oil: sesame oil: milk fat 0,25: 0,25: 0,5.
Further, there were substantiated rational parameters (temperature, duration) of extraction of biologically active substances (polyphenolic compounds) with water and skim milk from dried basil leaves at a ratio of basil: extractant 1: 10 for further use of the selected milk extract as a raw material component in special-purpose ice cream recipes. The content of polyphenolic substances in the extracts was chosen as the determining parameter. Following rational extraction parameters were selected: temperature 50 °С, duration 15 min, the extractant is skim milk.
In the produced extract there were determined organoleptic, physicochemical and microbiological quality indicators which allow to use it as a vegetable component in the production of combined ice cream for special purposes.

Keywords: combined ice cream, vegetable oils, balanced fatty acid composition, basil, extraction, polyphenolic compounds.

References:

  1. Polishchuk,H.at al.(2011). Mikrobiologichni pokazniki roslinnih ekstraktiv roslinnih ekstraktiv dlya virobnictva moroziva. Biotehnologiya, 4, 95–100.
  2. Tkachenko, N. atal. (2017).Novi kombinovani produkti z radioprotektornimi vlastivostyami i zbalansovanim himichnim skladom dlya vijskovosluzhbovciv: perspektivi virobnictva. Naukovi praci ONAHT, 81, 76–86.
  3. Pavlyshyn, M, Zakharchyn, M., Burak, Ye. (2014) Formuvannya yakosti moroziva z dodavannyam dikoroslih yagid. Naukovij visnik NLTU Ukrayini, 24.2, 173–177.
  4. Lanzhenko, L.at al. (2018).Pererobka sirovatki v desertni zhelejni produkti. Vcheni zapiski TNU imeni V.I. Vernadskogo. Seriya: tehnichni nauki, 29 (68), 53–60.
  5. Ditrikh, I., Lytvyn, Ya. (2015). Ajva yaponska yak ingrediyent plodovo-yagidnogo moroziva. Tovari i rinki, 1,106–112.
  6. Pavliuk, R., Poharska, V., Berestova, A. (2013). Innovacijni texnologiyi vitaminnogo plodovoyagidnogo morozyva z vykorystannyam zamorozhenyx dribnodyspersnyx dobavok z roslynnoyi syrovyny. Vostochno-Evropejskyj zhurnal peredovih texnologyj, 4/10 (64), 57–62.
  7. Telezhenko, L., Kashkano, M. (2014).Texnologiya gorixovyh sousiv zi zbalansovanym zhyrnokyslotnym skladom. Tovari i rinki,1, 175–184.
  8. Medeiros,E. at al. (2014)Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils. Molecules, 19, 992–1003. doi:10.3390/molecules19010992
  9. Rafiee, Z.at al. (2012).Antioxidant effect of microwave-assisted extracts of olive leaves on sunflower oil. J. Agr. Sci. Tech., 14, 1497–1509.
  10. Gagan, R.at al. (2018).Biochemical assay to evaluate phytoconstituents and free radical scavenging activity of sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). The Pharma Innovation Journal, 7(3), 232–237.
  11. Hashempour-Baltork, F. at al. (2018). Chemical, rheological and nutritional characteristics of sesame and olive oils blended with linseed oil. Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 8(1), 107–113 doi: 10.15171/apb.2018.013 http://apb.tbzmed.ac.ir
  12. AbbasHayam, M.at al. (2017).Antioxidant, rheological and sensorial properties of ultra-filtrated soft cheese supplemented with basil essential oil. International Journal of Dairy Science, 12 (5), 301–309.DOI: 10.3923/ijds.2017.301.309.
  13. Yehorov,B., Mohylianska,N. (2014). Ocinka sanitarnyx pokaznykiv pryano-aromatychnoyi syrovyny ta pryano-olijnyx sumishej. Xarchova nauka i texnologiya, № 2(27), 34–38.
  14. Simakhina, H., Naumenko,N. (2016). Xarchuvannya yak osnovnyj chynnyk zberezhennya stanu zdorovya naselennya. Problemy starenyya y dolgoletyya, 25, 204–214.
  15. Merete, B. Munkat al. (2018)Using Ethylcellulose to Structure Oil Droplets in Ice Cream Made with High Oleic Sunflower Oil. Journal of Food Science, 83, 2520–2527.
  16. Khan,Sh. at al. (2018).Sucralose and maltodextrin – an altrernative to low fat sugar free ice-cream. Bioscience biotechnology research communications, 11(1),136–143.
  17. Pelaes Vital, A.C.at al. (2018)Ice cream supplemented with grape juice residue as a source of antioxidants. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 71,183–189. doi: 10.1111/1471-0307.12412.
  18. Lanzhenko, L.O, Ivashchenko, A.A, Manukyan, V.O. (2018)Balanced pupped oils for food and cosmetic products. Zbirnyk naukovyx pracz molodyx uchenyx, aspirantiv ta studentiv ONAXT, 119–121.
  19. Singleton, V., Orthofer, R., Lamuela-Raventos, R. (1999) Analysis of total phenols and other oxidations substractes and antioxidans by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Methоds enzymology, 299, 152–178.

 

T. Synenko, N. Frolova. Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins of milk

UDC 637.344.8:577.15

 

T. Synenko

N. Frolova

 

Experimental studies of the enzymatic hydrolysis patterns of whey proteins have been carried out. Proteases of different origin (animal, plant and microbial) were selected and optimal hydrolysis parameters were selected.
The studies were performed with serum protein concentrate obtained by ultrafiltration with 80% mass fraction of protein (KSB-80 manufacturer “TechMolProm” (TM “Bios”). Enzyme preparations used: pepsin (LLC “Alsi”), papain PSM-400 (LLC “Alex”), protolade (SE “Enzym”). The degree of hydrolysis of the protein substances of the samples was evaluated by changing the concentration of nitrogen amine groups (NAG).
The patterns of hydrolysis of serum proteins were studied by the following parameters: concentration of enzyme and substrate, pH of the medium, temperature and duration of the process. It was found that NAG in the initial (control) solution of whey protein concentrate with a protein content of 20% is 32,67 mg / 100 g.
The dynamics of pepsin concentrations from (0,5 to 3)% at pH 2.0, papain and protolade – (1-6)% at pH 7.0 were studied. It was found that the optimal concentration of pepsin enzyme for the subsequent studies is 2,5% (NAG content is 56,0 mg / 100 g), papain – 4% (NAG – 67,67 mg / 100 g), Protolad – 5% (NAG – 102,67 mg / 100 g).
Studies of the effect of substrate concentration at a fixed enzyme concentration showed that the maximum accumulation of NAG (53,67 mg / 100 g) occurred in an environment with 25% protein and 2,5% pepsin; maximum NAG value (70 mg / 100 g) with 20% protein and 4% papain; maximum NAG value (102,67 mg / 100 g) with 20% protein and 5% Protolad enzyme.
Studies of changes in the degree of hydrolysis of serum peptide bonds by changes in the pH of the medium for pepsin from 1 to 6, for papain – (3-12), for Protolad – (4-12). It was found that NAG acquires the most value when using pepsin pH is 2.0 (NAG 53,67 mg / 100 g); when using papain or protolate pH 8.0 (NAG 84,0 mg / 100 g and 107,33 mg / 100 g, respectively).
The dependence of the proteolysis intensity of serum protein peptide bonds by the enzymatic preparations on the dynamics of temperature changes (from 20 to 90 °C) was investigated. Studies have shown that in the temperature range (20-50) °C with the participation of pepsin there is a steady increase of NAG from (39,67 to 53,67) mg / 100 g; papain – at (20-60) ° C NAG is from (44,33 to 88,67) mg / 100 g; The protolade – at (20–40) °C the NAG was 93,33 mg / 100 g, and at (60–70) ° C – 102,67 mg / 100 g.
The dependence of the degree of hydrolysis on the duration of hydrolysis was investigated. It has been found that the test enzymes provide the most intense hydrolysis in the first 30 min of the enzymatic process followed by a gradual increase in the NAG value over 180 min of hydrolysis. Thus, for pepsin, the content of NAG for (30–180) min increases from (42,00 to 60,67) mg / 100 g; for papain – from (67,67 to 95,67) mg / 100 g; Protolade – from (91,00 to 128,33) mg / 100 g.
Thus, it was found that obtaining a product with a high degree of hydrolysis is possible with the use of the enzyme preparation Protolad at a concentration of 5%, with a protein substrate concentration of 20%, with the medium should be alkaline, the pH value is 8.0, and the process temperature should be 60 °C.
Hydrolysis of whey proteins allows to obtain low molecular weight peptides and amino acids, which further ensure the production of flavors and aromatic substances. Research findings can be used in the development of natural flavoring additives.

Key words: whey, whey protein concentrate, enzymatic hydrolysis, pepsin, papain, Protolad.

References:

  1. Onwulata C., Huth P. (2009). Whey processing, functionality and health benefits. Ames, Iowa: John Wiley & Sons.
  2. Hramcov A. G. (2011). Fenomen molochnoj syvorotki [The phenomenon of whey]. Saint Petersburg: Profession. [in Russian].
  3. Evdokimov I. A., Hramtsov A. G., Nesterenko P. G. (2008). Sovremennoe sostojanie i perspektivy pererabotki molochnoj syvorotki [Present state of milk whey processing]. Molochnaja promyshlennost’ [Dairy industry], 11, 36–43. [in Russian].
  4. Frolova N., Ukrayinets A. (2018). Development of methods of production in natural aromatic production. Ukrainian Food Journal, 7, 4, 692–702. DOI: 10.24263/2304-974X-2018-7-4-13.
  5. Kurbanova M. G., Razumnikova I. S., Prosekov A. Yu. (2010). Belkovye gidrolizaty s biologicheski aktivnymi peptidami [Protein hydrolyzates with biologically active peptides]. Molochnaja promyshlennost’ [Dairy industry], 9, 70–71. [in Russian].
  6. Cheison S. C., Zhang S. B., Wang Z., Xu S. Y. (2009). Comparison of a modified spectrophotometric and the pH-stat methods for determination of the degree of hydrolysis of whey proteins hydrolysed in a tangential-flow filter membrane reactor. Food Research International, 42, 91–97. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodres.2008.09.003.
  7. Doucet D., Otter D. E., Gauthier S. F., Foegeding E. A. (2003). Enzyme-induced gelation of extensively hydrolyzed whey proteins by Alcalase: peptide identification and determination of enzyme specificity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 21, 6300–6308. DOI: 10.1021/jf026242v.
  8. Ghosh B. C., Prasad L. N., Saha N. P. (2017). Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey and its analysis. Journal of food science and technology, 54, 6, 1476–1483. DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-2574-z.
  9. Pihlanto-Leppala A., Koskinen P., Piilola K., Tupasela T., Korhonen H. (2000). Angiotension I—converting enzyme inhibitory properties of whey protein digest: concentration and characterization of active peptides. Journal of Dairy Research, 67, 53–64. DOI: 10.1017/S0022029999003982.
  10. Schmidt D. G., Poll J. K. (1991). Enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins. Hydrolysis of a-lactalbumin and b-lactoglobulin in buffer solution by proteolytic enzymes. Netherlands Milk and Dairy Journal, 45, 225–240.
  11. Lodygin A. D., Khramtsov A. G., Donskoy N. S. (2010). Metody gidroliza syvorotochnyh belkov moloka [Methods of hydrolysis of whey milk proteins]. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov SevKavGTU. Serija «Prodovol’stvie» [Collection of scientific papers of SevKavSTU. Series “Food”], 6, 19–21. [in Russian].
  12. Donskoy N. S., Khramtsov A. G., Lodygin A. D. (2009). Isledovanie kinetiki fermentativnogo gidroliza syvorotochnyh belkov, podvergnutyh jelektofizicheskoj obrabotke [Investigation of the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of whey proteins subjected to electrophysical processing]. Sbornik nauchnyh trudov SevKavGTU. Serija «Prodovol’stvie» [Collection of scientific papers of SevKavSTU. Series “Food”], 5, 28–31. [in Russian].
  13. Ostroumov L. A., Prosekov A. Yu., Babich O. O. (2008). Gidroliz koncentrata syvorotochnyh belkov jekzo- i jendopeptidazami [Hydrolysis of the whey protein concentrate with exo- and endopeptidases]. Molochnaja promyshlennost’ [Dairy industry], 12, 55–56. [in Russian].
  14. Prosekov A. Yu., Babich O. O. (2008). Osobennosti poluchenija smesi aminokislot iz belkov molochnoj syvorotki [Features of obtaining a mixture of amino acids from whey proteins.]. Aktual’nye problemy tehniki i tehnologii pererabotki moloka: sbornik nauchnyh trudov s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem. Barnaul: GNU Sibirskij NII syrodelija SO RASHN [Actual problems of machinery and technology for milk processing: a collection of scientific papers with international participation. Barnaul: GNU Siberian Research Institute of Cheesemaking SB RAAS], 5, 161–165. [in Russian].
  15. Tepel A. (1979). Himija i fizika moloka [Chemistry and physics of milk] (translation from German). Moscow: Food Industry. [in Russian].
  16. Borisova G. V., Novoselova M. V., Bondarchuk O. N., Malova Y. (2012) Vybor fermentnyh preparatov s cel’ju poluchenija gidrolizatov molochnoj syvorotki s nizkoj allergennost’ju [Schoice enzyme preparation to obtain whey hydrolyzate low allergenicity]. Fundamental’nye issledovanija [Basic research], 11, 5, 1164–1167. [in Russian].
  17. Tsyhankou V. G., Halavach T. N., Kurchenko V. P., Bondaruk A. M. (2015). Izuchenie peptidnogo sostava fermentativnogo gidrolizata koncentrata syvorotochnyh belkov korov’ego moloka s cel’ju razrabotki pishhevyh produktov dlja turistichesko-ozdorovitel’noj dejatel’nosti [Study of the peptide enzymatic hydrolysates of whey protein concentrate cow’s milk to develop foods for tourism and recreation]. Trudy BGTU. Lesnoe hozjajstvo [Proceedings of BSTU. Forestry], 1, 272–275. [in Russian].
  18. Kurbanova M. G. (2010) Fermentativnyj gidroliz belkov moloka s ispol’zovaniem razlichnyh proteaz [Enzymatic hydrolysis of milk proteins with various proteases use]. Vestnik Krasnojarskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University], 1, 157–160. [in Russian].
  19. Sidorov Yu. I., Poznanska S. A, Novikov V. P. (2008). Rozroblennja tehnologії oderzhannja bіologіchno aktivnoї sumіshі amіnokislot z molochnoї sirovatki [Development of technology for obtaining biologically active mixture of whey amino acids]. Vіsnik Nacіonal’nogo unіversitetu «L’vіvs’ka polіtehnіka» [Bulletin of the National University “Lviv Polytechnic”], 622, 88–96. [in Ukrainian].
  20. Halavach T. N., Havrilenko N.V., Zhabanos N. К., Kurchenko V. P. (2008). Zakonomernosti gidroliza syvorotochnyh belkov jekzo- i jendoproteazami [Regularities of hydrolysis of whey proteins with exo- and endoproteases]. Trudy BGU [BSU Proceedings], 3, 1, 1–15. [in Russian].
  21. Kurbanova M. G., Shevyakova K. A. (2017). Analiz fermentnyh preparatov, osushhestvljaemyh proteoliz syvorotochnyh belkov [Analysis of enzyme preparations projected by proteolysis of serum proteins]. Vysokie intellektual’nye tehnologii v nauke i obrazovanii [High intellectual technologies in science and education], 103–105. [in Russian].
  22. Kalinichenko М. А., Telishevskaya L. Y. (2009). Opredelenie kineticheskih konstant gidroliza belkovyh substratov raznymi proteoliticheskimi preparatami [Determination kinetic constants of hydrolysis protein substances by different proteolytic preparates]. Rossijskij veterinarnyj zhurnal. Sel’skohozjajstvennye zhivotnye [Russian Veterinary Journal. Farm animals], 1, 42–44. [in Russian].

 

L. Strika, T. Pidpala., O. Petrova, N. Shevchuk. Optimization of the parameters of the technological process of production of cooked sausages

UDC 637.521.47

 

L. Strika

T. Pidpala

O. Petrova

N. Shevchuk

 

It was determined the moisture content in cooked sausages during the production, which was 55.9% in a sequential method of cutting, compared with parallel and accelerated methods. It is proved that cooked sausages, made in the cutter by the accelerated method, were characterized with the low moisture content.
According to the requirements of the state standard, the amount of moisture in cooked sausage products “Molochna” should not be more than 58%. Research has shown that sausages meet the required standards.
It was determined the organoleptic characteristics of the sausage “Molochna” which depend on the method of cutting. It was found that sausage products were characterized by higher organoleptic parameters in a consistent way of cutting.
According to the results of the experiment it is proved that the indicators of protein, fat, salt, sodium nitrite content, although they meet the requirements of the standard, but they differ from one another. According to the tasting indicators, the sausage “Molochna” tasted better because of adding 20% of water to the stuffing. Products with an average amount of added water were characterized by good appearance of sausages, which is an important indicator in the consumer appeal of products.
The lower value of the tasting qualities belonged to the “Molochna” sausages made with low amount of water. Sausages with medium amount of water were characterized by a better appearance, consistency, juiciness and taste.
The physical and chemical parameters of cooked sausages “Molochna”, produced at different duration of cutting, were investigated. The short cutting time was 4-6 minutes, the medium 8 was 10 minutes, the long one was 11-12 minutes. The lowest moisture content noticed in cooked sausages which were made with medium duration of cutting. Other different groups of sausages met the requirements of the state standards.
The study of the qualitative indicator of sausages was carried out in 3 control variants. The production was performed at low (8-10ºC), medium (12-14ºC) and elevated (15-18ºC) cutting temperature. The moisture content of the sausages during manufacture was 56.3% at a medium grinding temperature. The low moisture content was in the cooked sausages made at elevated temperature of water grinding.
During the experiment it was proved that the amount of water in the production affects the quality of the products. Studies have found that the moisture content of cooked sausages was 56.1% with the addition of a large amount of water. Lower moisture content was at cooked sausages with the addition of a small amount of water (ice). It was proved that at the medium cutting temperature (10-12ºC) the products had the highest tasting score.
Cutting temperature affects the quality of finished products. The optimum temperature of the finished minced meat after cutting was 12°C, with using high-speed cutters the minced meat temperature reached 20°C for 3 minutes of processing. It is found that the longer the grinding time is the lower temperature the meat must have.
Therefore, the technologies, used for the production of mince meat, affect the physical and chemical parameters of cooked sausages, depending on the parameters of the technological process.

Keywords: cooked sausages, technology, cutting, temperature of cutting, physical-chemical parameters, organoleptic parameters.

References:

  1. Baklanov, A. A. (2017). Novye tehnologii prigotovlenija farsha varenyh kolbas. Pishhevye ingredienty :syre I dobavki, 12-15.
  2. Verbelchuk, T. V., &Koshlan, Yu. O. (2016). Texnologiya vyrobnycztva varenyh kovbas v umovah tov VTF «Mar’yan» m. Zhytomyr. Texnologiyavyrobnycztva i pererobky produkciyitvarynnycztva, 6. 123-126.
  3. Gulyayev, V. M., Korniyenko, I. M., &Radchenko, O. S. (2015). Doslidzhennyaporivnyalnoyixarakterystyky kovbas – varenoyivyshhogosortu «likarska» tavlasnoruchvygotovlenoyidomashnoyikuryachoyizafizyko-ximichnymy vlastyvostyamy. Zbirnyknaukovyxpracz Dniprodzerzhynskogoderzhavnogotexnichnogouniversytetu. Texnichninauky,269-273.
  4. Donchenko, L. V., &Nadykta, V. D. (2012). Bezpekaxarchovoyisyrovyny taproduktivxarchuvannya. Kyyiv : Osnova. 105-107.
  5. DSTU 4436:2005 «Kovbasyvareni, sosysky, sardelky, khlibymiasni».
  6. Zharinov, O. I., &Yurkov, S. G. (2014). Texniko-texnologichniaspekty prygotuvannyam’yasnyxemulsij. Myasnaindustriya, 1. 31-34.
  7. Zhuravska, N. K., Aloxina, &L. T., Opryashenkova, L. M. (2006). Doslidzhennyatakontrol yakostim’yasaim’yasoproduktiv. M. :Nauka. 147-148.
  8. Zonyn, V. G. (2013). Suchasnevyrobnycztvokovbasnyxtasolono-kopchenyxvyrobiv. : Profesiya, 346-348.
  9. Petrychenko, O. A. (2008). Tendenciyarozvytkuefektyvnostigaluziskotarstva. Zbirnyknaukovyxpracz VDAU, 39. 45-55.
  10. Petrychenko, S. V., &Oleksiyenko, V. O. (2019). Vyznachennyatryvalostipidsushuvannyakovbasnyxvyrobiv. PraciTavrijskogoderzhavnogoagrotexnologichnogouniversytetu.19(2). 18-24 DOI: 10.31388/2078-0877-19-2-18-24.
  11. Prudnikov, V. (2001). M’yasnasyrovynadlyavyrobnycztvaproduktivdytyachogoxarchuvannya. TvarynnycztvoUkrayiny, 3.5-11.
  12. Sukmanov, V., Kirik, I., &Palash, A. (2019). Vlastyvostivarenyxkovbas, vyroblenyxizvykorystannyamvysokogotyskuRestorannyj i gotelnyjkonsaltyng. Innovaciyi, 2(1).59-80 DOI: http://doi.org/10/31866/2616-7468.2.1.2019.170412.
  13. Ushakov, F. O., Yakubchak, O. M., Tyutyun, A. I., &Kos’yanchuk, N. I. (2016). Organoleptychna i degustacijnaocinkakovbasnyxvyrobiv. NaukovidopovidiNacionalnogouniversytetubioresursivtapryrodokorystuvannya, 4(61). 2-9.

 

Y. Kravchenko. Implementation of scientific approaches in a soil conservation agriculture and an agrarian policy for north-eastern Chinese chernozems fertility reproduction

UDC 631.452 (459): 631.6.02

 

Y. Kravchenko

 

The chernozem region in the North-east China is distributed in Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia provinces. It covers about 1,030,000 km2 of land. Approximately 213,000 km2or 20% of the regionis cultivated as farmland.The annual growth rate of grain yield in North-east China reaches 3.99%, and the proportion to the whole country accounts – 19.27%, making North-east China become a major contributor for maize (74.26 million t), japonica rice (33.939 million t) and beans (6.157 milliont) production.   
Sustainable land management implementation in China was resulted due its long-time development and adjustment in history. The manuscript highlights a development of an agrarian policy of the Chinese government to conserve the chernozems from their intensive use. China has long recognized the importance of land sustainability and carried out a number of soil conservation programmes/projects to control the land degradation, such as: – the “Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA) guidelines”; – a pilot project to prevent and control soil and water loss in the black soil region of North-east China granted by the State Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Water Resources of China; – “Investigation on Soil Erosion and Ecological Security in China”, – “Integrated Soil and Water Conservation in North-east China”; – the “National Soil and Water Conservation law”; – the “Three-North Shelter belt Project (TNSP) (1979–2050)”; – the “Grain for Green Project (GGP)”; – the “Straw Checker boards Barrier” measures; – the “National Plan for Sustainable Development of Agriculture (2015–2030)”; – the “National Land Use Master plan(2006–2020)”; – the “Land Management Law”; – the “Sloping Farmland Conversion”Programme; – the “National Soil Testingand Fertiliser Programme (STFR)”; – the “Environment Law”; – the “National Soil Pollution Action Plan”; – “Integrated nutrient management” concept; – “Integrated soil-crop system management” program, etc.
Above mentioned state policies have influenced into adoption: conservation and contour tillage, slitting and furrowing, terracing, interrow/mixed and after harvesting cropping, integrated crop rotations, mulching and smart fertilizing in current Chinese agriculture. Using basin tillage for millet production on 20-27° slopes has reduced runoff up to 83% and 47%, respectively. Changing the up and down tillage on a 4.8° slope to a contour tillage has reduced the amount of runoff by71% and the annual loss of top soil by 0.26–0.01 cm. Rat tunnel tillage has reduced soil bulk density in a strip 0.9–1.0 m wide, enhancing in filtration capacity and soil water storage. Annual average water runoff under no-till were 92.4% less than under conventional till and 0.2% greater under reduced till. Terracing has reduced bulk density by0.12 g cm-3, increased total porosity by 2.0–2.9%, and had a soil in filtration rate of 0.4 mm/min. The transfer of conventional tillage into conversational in province Jilin has reduced both runoff and soil organic carbon content from 8.28 mln ton and 200 thousands ton to 0.6 mln ton and 15 thousands ton respectively. Strip intercropping, within cereal-bean rotation system, has increased by 100-; 17- і 45 % of soybean, millet and potato yield respectively. It’s became widely used the placement of grasses in 2-3 m wide strip interchanging with 5 m strip with cereals and beans in sloped landscapes. A crop rotation made up of sweet clover and wheat has increased on 7.5 % a soil organic carbon content in comparison with wheat-soybean rotation. Mulching application for 5 years has increased wheat yield from 2900 kg ha-1to 3750-5250 kg ha-1. Integrated nutrient management has increased cereals yield by 2-12 %, reduced nitrogen and phosphorus rates by 26- and 20 % respectively.

Key words: chernozem, soil conservation technologies, fertility, agrarian policy.

References:

  1. USDA (2014). Northeast China: Prospects for U.S. Agricultural Exports. In Hui Jiang, International Agricultural Trade Reports (ed.). Retrievedfromhttps://www.fas.usda.gov/data /northeast-china-prospects-us-agricultural-exports.
  2. Zhang, S., Xu, Z. (2009). Cropping system reform and its impact on the development of agricultural technology. Crops, 1, 1–3.
  3. Armonk, N., Sharpe, M., Selden, M., Lippit, V. (1982). The Transition to socialism in China, London : Croom Helm, 326 pp.
  4. Nolan, P. (1988). The Political Economy of Collective Farms. In An Analysis o. Rural Reforms, Cambridge: Polity Press, 259 pp.
  5. Selden, M., Lippit V. (1982). On the politics of rural transformation: Cooperative and collective formation in China’s countryside. The Transition to socialism in China, London : Croom Helm, 32–97.
  6. Lin, J. (1990). Collectivization and China’s agricultural crisis in 1959–1961. Journal of Political Economy, 98(6), 1228–1252.
  7. Perkins, D. (1969). Agricultural Development in China, 1368–1968. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, 426 pp.
  8. Jin, S., Huang, J., Hu, R., Rozelle, S. (2002). The creation and spread of technology and total factor productivity in China’s agriculture. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 84 (4), 916–930.
  9. Tang, T., Blecher, M., Meisner M. (1982). The Responsibility System in Agriculture. Modern China, 8 (1), 41–103.
  10. Kvasha, (2015). Osobly`vostisy`stemy` ty`tulivnakory`stuvannyazemleyu v KNR [Elektronny`jresurs].Naukovy`jvisny`kUzhgorods`kogonacional`nogouniversy`tetu. Seriya : Pravo, 34(2), 45–48.
  11. Cao, L., Tian,W., Jimin, W., Malcolm, B., Liu, H., Zhou, Z. (2014). Recent food consumption trends in China and trade implications to 2020. Australasian Agribusiness Review, 21, 15–44.
  12. Huang, J., Rozelle, S. (2009). Agricultural Development, Nutrition, and the Policies Behind China’s Succes. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development, 7 (1), 93–126.
  13. Jiao, X., Lyu, Y., Wu, X., Li, H., Cheng, L., Zhang, C., Yuan, L…Shen, J.(2016). Grain production versus resource and environmental costs: Towards increasing sustainability of nutrient use in China. Journal of Experimental Botany, 67, 4935–4949.
  14. Huang, J., Wang, X., Zhi, H., Huang, Z.,Rozelle, S. (2011). Subsidiesand distortions in China’s agriculture: Evidence fromproducer-level data. Australian Journal of Agricultural andResource Economics, 55, 53–71.
  15. Huang, J., Wang, , Rozelle, S.(2013). The subsidization of farming households in China’s agriculture. Food Policy, 41, 124–132.
  16. Jiao, X., NyamdavaaM., Zhang, F. (2018). The transformation of agriculture in China: Looking back and looking forward. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17(4), 755–764.
  17. MLR. (2008).Ministry of Land and Resources. National Land Use Masterplan (2006–2020), Beijing, [国土资源部, 2008年.全国土地利用总体规划纲要(2006–2020年]. – Retrieved from: http://www.gov.cn/zxft/ft149/content_1144625.htm.
  18. МA (Ministry of Agriculture) (2007). Opinion of the Ministry of Agriculture on Greatly Developing Conservation Agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, [农业部,2007年. 农业部关于大力发展保护性耕作的意见]. –Retrievedfrom: http://big5.www.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gov.cn/fwxx/sh/2007-04/13/content_581333.htm.
  19. Li, H., He,J., Bharucha,Z., Lal,R., Pretty, J. (2016). Improving China’sfoodandEnvironmentalsecuritywithconservationagriculture. International JournalofAgriculturalSustainability, 14, 337–391.
  20. Hu, J. (2012). Report at the Eighteenth Congress of the Communist Party of China (8th November 2012).People.cn, [胡锦涛.2012年11月8日. 胡锦涛在中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会上的报告]. –Retrievedfrom: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2012/1118/c64094-19612151.html.
  21. CCP and SC [Chinese Communist Party and State Council]. (2015). Opinions on Hastening Construction of Ecological Civilization. Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, [中共中央、国务院, 2015 年.]. –Retrievedfrom: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2015-05/05/content_2857363.htm.
  22. MA (Ministry of Agriculture). (2015). National Plan for Sustainable Development of Agriculture (2015–2030). Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, [农业部,2015年。全国农业可持续发展规划(2015–2030年).北京]. –Retrievedfrom: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2015-05/28/content_2869902.htm.
  23. MEP (Ministry of Environmental Protection). (2015). China Environment Report 2014. Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing, [环境保护部, 2015年.中国环境状况公报2014年]. – Retrieved from: http://www.mee.gov.cn/hjzl/zghjzkgb/lnzghjzkgb/201605/P020160526564730573906.pdf.
  24. МАa (Ministry of Agriculture).(2000). National Ecological Agriculture Demonstration County Management Method. Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, [农业部, 2000年.全国生态农业示范县建设管理办法].
  25. МАb Ministry of Agriculture. Report on the National Arable Land Quality Grade Situation. (2014). Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, [农业部, 2014年.全国耕地质量等级情况公报]. – Retrievedfrom: http://jiuban.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/zwdt/201412/t20141217_4298677.htm.
  26. MWR (MinistryofWaterResources, People’sRepublicofChina). (2016). Soil and Water Conservation in China.China Water Resources & Hydropower Press, Beijing, 2016. – 12 pp. – Retrievedfrom: http://www.tnmc-is.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/6.SOIL%20AND%20WATER%20CONSERVATION%20IN%20CHINA.pdf
  27. Lal, R. (2015). A system approach to conservation agriculture. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 70 (4), 82A–88A.
  28. Zhang, F., Cui, Z., Fan, M., Zhang, W., Chen, X., Jiang,R. (2011). Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China. Journal of Environmental Quality, 40, 1051–1057.
  29. Shen, C., Ren J. (1995). Basin tillage research. Scientific and Technical Information of Soil and Water Conservation, 2, 62–64 (in Chinese).
  30. Yang, A., Shen, M., Liu, F. (1994). Soil and water conservation benefit of basintillage in sloping farmland. Science of Soil and Water Conservation, 8 (3), 52–58 (inChinese).
  31. Liu, X., Zhang, S., Zhang, X., Ding, G., Cruse, R. (2011). Soil erosion control practices in Northeast China: A mini-review. Soil & Tillage Research, 117, 44–48.
  32. Zhang, S., Zhang,, Huffman, T., Liu, X., Yang, J. (2011). Soil loss, crop growth,and economic margins under different management systems on a sloping fieldin the Black soil area of Northeast China.Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35 (3), 293–311.
  33. Liu, F., Zhao, D., Hong, F., Jia, H. (1989). The drainage of rat tunnel tillage. Soils, 21 (1), 35–37 (in Chinese).
  34. Xu, Y., Wang, X. (1996). Application of rat tunnel tillage on the control of lower wet land. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research, 2, 63–65 (in Chinese).
  35. Zhang,S., Zhang,, Huffman, T., Liu, X., Yang, J. (2011).Soil loss, crop growth, and economic margins under different management systems on a sloping fieldin the Black soil area of Northeast China. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 35(3), 293–311.
  36. Zhang, S. (2010). Processes of runoff/soil loss and efficacy evaluation as affected bywater and soil conservation in Chinese Mollisols. PhD Dissertation, GraduateUniversity of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 165 (in Chinese).
  37. Yang, X., Zhang,X., Deng,W.,Fang, H. (2003). Black soildegradation by rainfall erosion in JilinChina. LandDegradation & Development, 2003, 14, 409–420.
  38. Liu, J., Zhang C. (2007). Study on the measures to increase crop yield under terrace. Heilongjiang Science and Technology of Water Conservation, 2007, 35 (5), 16 (inChinese).
  39. Liu, X., Yan, B. (2009). Soil erosion and food security in Northeast China. Chinese Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 1, 17–19 (in Chinese).
  40. Zhang, X., Shao,M., Li,S., Peng, K. (2004). A review of soil andwater conservation in China. Journal of GeographicalScience, 14 (3), 259–274.
  41. Knörzer, H.,Graeff-Hönninger, S., Guo, B., Wang, Pu., Claupein, W. (2009). Therediscovery of intercropping in China: a traditional cropping system for future Chinese agriculture – a review. In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Climate change, intercropping, pest control and beneficial microorganisms. Springer, Netherlands, 13–44.
  42. Li,Y. (1983).A discussion on terrace construction in hilly area of HeilongjiangProvince.Mountain Research, 1(4), 86–91 (in Chinese).
  43. Li,L., Sun,, Zhang, F., Li, X., Yang, S., Rengel, X. (2001). Wheat/maize or wheat/soybean strip intercropping I. Yield advantage and interspecific interactions on nutrients. Field Crops Res, 71, 123–137.
  44. Liu, Y., Li, X., Liu, Q. (2016).Soil nematode communities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) rhizosphere soil under monoculture and jujube/wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) intercropping systems a case study in Xinjiang arid region, northwest of China. European Journal Soil Biology, 74, 52–59.
  45. Xu, B., Li, F., Shan, L. (2008). Switchgrass and milkvetch intercropping under 2:1 row-replacement in semiarid region, northwest China: Aboveground biomass and water use efficiency. European Journal Agronomy, 28, 485–492.
  46. Wen, D., Tang, Y., Zheng, X., He, Y. (1992). Sustainable and productive agricultural development in China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 39, 55–70.
  47. Feike, T., Doluschitz, R., Chen, Q., Graeff-Honninger, S., Claupein, W. (2012). How to overcome the slow death of intercropping in the North China Plain. Sustainability, 4, 2550–2565.
  48. Qian, X., Zang,, Xu, H., Hu, Y., Ren, C., Guo, L., Wang, G., Zeng, Z. (2018).Relay strip intercropping of oat with maize, sunflower and mung bean insemi-arid regions of Northeast China: Yield advantages and economicbenefits. Field Crops Research, 223, 33–40.
  49. Liu, W., He, H. (2018). Current Situation and Countermeasure of Modern Agriculture Development in Northeast China. Open Access Library Journal, 5 (e4922), 1–12.– Retrievedfrom: https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104922.
  50. Yin, X., Olesen, J., Wang, M., Öztürk, I., Chen, F. (2016). Climate effects on crop yields in the Northeast Farming Region of China during 1961 – 2010. Journal of Agricultural Science, 154, 1190–1208.
  51. Yin,W., Yu,, Chai, Q., Hu, F., Feng, Y. (2015). Wheatandmaizerelay-plantingwithstrawcoveringincreaseswateruseefficiency upto46% / W. Yin, Gan //AgronomyforSustainableDevelopment, 35, 815–825.
  52. Liu, X., Han, X., Herbert, S., Xing, B. (2003). Dynamics of soilorganic carbon under different agricultural management systemin the black soil of China. Communications in Soil Science andPlant Analysis, 34, 973–984.
  53. Fang,H., Yang, X., Zhang, X., Liang, A. (2005).Using 137 Cs tracer technique to evaluate soil erosion and deposition ofa black soil in northeast China. Journal of Applied Ecology, 16, 464–468 (In Chinese).
  54. Liu,Z., Liu, J., Yu, Z.(etal.) (2020).Long-termcontinuouscroppingofsoybeaniscomparabletocroprotationinmediatingmicrobialabundance, Soil and Tillage Research, 197. – (in press).
  55. Du, X., Hu,Y., Zhang, W. (et al.) (2007). Effects of plastic-film mulching on forage maize in an agro-pastoral ecotone in North China. Proceedings paper. Principles and Practices of Desertification Control, 1, 297–305.
  56. Li, Z., Zhang,R., Wang,X., Wang,J., Zhang, C., Tian, C. (2011). Carbon dioxide fluxes and concentration Sina cotton field in Northwestern China : Effects of plastic mulching and drip irrigation, Pedosphere, 21(2), 178–185.
  57. Komarek, A., Li, L., Bellotti, W. (2015). Whole-farm economic and risk effects ofconservation agriculture in a crop-livestock system in western ChinaAgri-CulturalSystems, 137, 220–226.
  58. Xu, F., Liang,Y., Kang,S., Davies,B., Shan, L., Cai, H. (2004). Effects of no-till straw mulch on wheat yields and soil environment in semi-humid dry area. Water – Saving Agriculture and Sustainable Use of Water and Land Resources, Proceedings, 1 and 2, 282–287.
  59. Ma, L., Velthof, G., Wang F. (et al.). (2012).Nitrogen andphosphorus use efficiencies and losses in the food chain in China at regionalscales in 1980 and 2005. Science Total Environmental, 434, 51–61.
  60. 2010. FAOSTAT. – Retrieved from – http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx (accessed 1June 2011).
  61. 2019. FAOSTAT. – Retrieved from – http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/RFN/visualize (accessed 24November 2019).
  62. Zhu, Z., Chen, D. (2002). Nitrogen fertilizer use in China: Contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosystem, 63, 117–127.
  63. Fan, M., Cui,Z., Chen,X., Jiang,R., Zhang, F. (2008). Integrated nutrient management for improving crop yields and nutrient utilization efficiencies in China. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 63, 126A–128A.
  64. Chen,X., Zhang,F., Cui,Z., Li,F., Li, J. (2010).Optimizing soil nitrogen supply in the root zone to improve maize management. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 74, 1367–1373.
  65. Zhang, W., Gao, L., Ma, J., Ma, W., Xu, X., Zhang, F. (2007). Evaluation on the reform effectiveness of fertilizer industry policy in China. Phosphate & Compound Fertilizer, 22(1), 5–9 (in Chinese).
  66. Zhang, F., Cui,Z., Fan,M., Zhang,W., Chen,X., Jiang, R. (2011). Integrated soil-crop system management: Reducing environmental riskwhile increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency inChina. J. Environ. Qual., 40, 1051–1057.
  67. Wang, Y. (2011). The implementation effect and the optimization strategy of soil testing programs and fertilizer recommendations in the main crops of China. College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing.
  68. Bryan, B., Gao,L., Ye, Y. (et al.). (2018). China’s response to a national land-system sustainability emergency. Nature, 559, 193–204.
  69. NBSa (National Bureau of Statistics of China). (2019). Resident Population and Output of Grain Crops. – Retrieved from:http://data.stats.gov.cn/english/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103.
  70. NBSb (National Bureau of Statistics of China). (2019). Volume of Effective Component of Nitrogenous, Phosphate and Potash Fertilizers. – Retrieved from: http://data.stats.gov.cn/english/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103.

 

V. Gamayunova, V. Kudrina. Formation of aboveground mass and sunflower yield under the influence of certain elements of cultivation technology

UDC 631.51:633.82(477.7)

 

V. Gamayunova

V. Kudrina

 

Abstract. The article substantiates the question of the influence of leaf fertilizers by modern regregulating substances on the realization of the potential of formation of aboveground biomass and the yield of sunflower plants. The results of researches of the main tendencies and regional peculiarities of cultivation of the most widespread sunflower oil cultivation in the area of the Southern Steppe of Ukraine during the last years are analyzed and presented. The results of studies conducted with this culture (Dragan hybrid) during the 2016-2018 biennium on the black soil southern in the experimental farm “Green Koshary”, located in the Pervomaisk region of Mykolaiv region. On the basis of the conducted research and their analysis, the ways of more intensive growth of sunflower plants in height, accumulation of aboveground biomass and increase of seed productivity have been substantiated. Improvement of some of the most important elements of technology of cultivation, in particular optimization of nutrition of plants of sunflower, is offered. Sunflower plant nutrition optimization was developed on the basis of resource conservation. There is a close relationship between the improvement of sunflower nutrition, the growth processes of plants, the accumulation of aboveground biomass and the level of productivity of sunflower seeds.
Under the action of growth-regulating substances the crude above-ground biomass increased as relating to the biomass after the treatment of seeding of sunflower plants with water, it grew in the range of 23.0 up to 37.8%.
Over 2016-2018yrs in the control the yield of sunflower seeds was as average as 2.52 t / ha, and when processing the crops with growth-regulators, depending on their type, dose and phase of fertilizing, it increased from 2.76 t/ha up to 3.56 t/ha, or 41.3%. In our studies obtaining the maximum yield levels of sunflower seeds it was provided by two foliar nutritions in the phase of 3-4 leaves with FreshEnergy and FreshFlorid in the budding period as much as 0.5 kg / ha, while the increase in yield to control on average for 2016-2018yrs amounted to 1.04 t / ha (41.3%)
Yield levels varied significantly over the years. The lowest one was formed in unfavorable climatic conditions in 2017yr as in the control of 1.76 t / ha, the average one for nutrition variants was 2.50 t / ha, and in the most optimal variant (for a combination of two nutritions by FreshEnergy and FreshFlorid) it was received a seed yield of 2.80 t / ha, which was more than the control by 1.04 t / ha or 59.1%. In the most favorable 2018yr those indicators were formed at the levels of 3.34, 4.04, 4.33 and 29.6%, respectively.
The obtained research data give grounds to assert that regardless of weather conditions of years of cultivation growth-regulating preparations can significantly increase the productivity of plants, in particular the productivity of sunflower. However, their effectiveness is more pronounced under less favorable growing conditions.

Key words: sunflower, aboveground biomass, plant height, nutrition optimization, reregulating preparations, seed yield.

References:

  1. Ieshchenko V.O. Mistse naukovo obhruntovanykh sivozmin u suchasnomu zemlerobstvi // Visnyk Umanskoho natsionalnoho universytetu sadivnytstva. – 2014. – №2. – S.3 – 6.
  2. Demuryn Ya.N., Tolmacheva N.N. Ydentyfykatsyia henov эrektoydnosty lysta u podsolnechnyka // Nauchno-tekhnycheskyi biulleten VNYYMK. – 2005. – V. № 2. – S. 7-11.
  3. Suchov Y.E. Yzmenchyvost y nasleduemost kryteryia vzaymovlyianyia rastenyi podsolnechnyka v posevakh razlychnoi hustotu // Selskokhoziaistvennaia byolohyia . – 1984. – № 5. – S. 62 – 65.
  4. Tkalych Y.D., Demydov A.A. Sposoby poseva podsolnechnyka // Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky. – 1999.- № 5. – S. 22-25.
  5. Trotsenko V.I., Zhatov H.O., Zhatova O.H. Zalezhnist produktyvnosti soniashnyku vid tryvalosti vehetatsiinoho periodu // Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. — 2003. — Vyp. 7. — S. 117 — 121.
  6. Bazalii V.V., Domaratskyi Ye.O., Dobrovolskyi A.V. Ahrotekhnichnyi sposib prolonhatsii fotosyntetychnoi diialnosti roslyn soniashnyku // Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomoria. – 2016. – vyp.4 (92) – S. 77 – 84.
  7. Tkalich I.D., Didyk M.Z., Kovalenko O.O. Vplyv strokiv sivby ta hustoty stoiannia roslyn na fotosyntetychnu diialnist hibrydiv soniashnyku // Biuleten instytutu zernovoho hospodarstva. – 2005. – № 26-27. – S. 51–55.
  8. Totskyi V.M. Vodospozhyvannia ta urozhainist hibrydiv soniashnyku / Biuleten Instytutu silskoho hospodarstva stepovoi zony NAAN Ukrainy. – 2012. – №2. – 145 – 147.
  9. Hamaiunova V.V., Kudrina V.S. Vodospozhyvannia soniashnyku zalezhno vid zastosuvannia biopreparativ za vyroshchuvannia v umovakh Pivdennoho Stepu Ukrainy // Naukovi horyzonty «Scientific Horizons» №7 – 8(70), 2018r. – S.27 – 35.
  10. Melnyk A.V., Hovorun S.A. Vodospozhyvannia ta urozhainist soniashnyku zalezhno vid sortovykh osoblyvostei ta poperednykiv v umovakh pivnichno-skhidnoho Livoberezhnoho Lisostepu Ukrainy // Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu – 2014. – Vyp.3 (27). – S. 173-175.
  11. Nychyporovych A. A. Fyzyolohyia fotosynteza y produktyvnost rastenyi // Fyzyolohyia rastenyi. – M.: Nauka, 1982. – S. 7-33.
  12. Hamaiunova V., Panfylova A., Hlushko T., Smyrnova Y., Kuvshynova A. Znachenye optymyzatsyy pytanyia v stabylnosty formyrovanyia urozhainosty zernovыkh kultur v zone yuha Ukraynы // (https://sa.uasm.md/index.php/sa/article/view/611) Stiinta Agricola. Ahrarnaia nauka / Moldova, 2018. – №2. – S.24-29.
  13. Domaratskiy Ye., Berdnikova O., Bazaliy V., Shcherbakov V., Gamaynova V., Larchenko O., Domaratskiy A. and Boychuk I. Dependence of winter Wheat yielding Capacity on mineral Nutrition in irrigation Conditions of Southern Steppe of Ukraine // Indian journal of Ecology (2019)/ 46(3):594-598
  14. Hamaiunova V., Khonenko L., Moskva I., Kudrina V., Hlushko T. Vplyv optymizatsii zhyvlennia na produktyvnist yarykh oliinykh kultur na chornozemi pivdennomu v zoni Stepu Ukrainy pid vplyvom biopreparativ / https:// doi. org/ 10.31734/ agronomy 2019.01. 112. / Visnyk Lvivskoho natsion. ahrarnoho universytetu. Ahronomiia. – №23.2019. – S.112-118.

 

L. Antipova. Hay yield of alfalfa varieties depending on weather conditions and the application of the growth-regulating drug Emistim C

UDC 633.311: 631.8

 

L. Antipova 

 

The purpose of the research is to determine the influence of the plant growth regulator Emistim C on the hay yield of alfalfa varieties in the dry Black Sea Steppe zone.
Materials and methods of research. The studies were conducted during 2014-2016 at the Mykolayiv National Agrarian University. The following varieties of alfalfa were sown in early spring without applying coverless varieties: Nadezhda (control), Vinnichanka, Regina, Sinyukha. The counts and observations in the experiments were carried out according to generally accepted methods.
Research results. It was established that the duration of the sowing-seedling period was 25-26 days when sowing with untreated seeds, and when treating seeds with Emistim C it decreased to 22-24 days. The duration of interphase periods of plant growth and development was adjusted both by the use of Emistim C and by weather conditions. Field germination also varied depending on the alfalfa variety and the seed treatment with Emistim C. In the control variant (Nadezhda), this indicator was 49.5%, while in the Regina variety, compared to other varieties under study, it was the highest (50.9%). Significant improvement in field germination was observed in crops treated with Emistim C: 58.9-60.8% of plants sprouted. With regard to the reaction of the varieties to the indicated drug, the indicator for the Nadezhda variety increased against the control (the corresponding variety without seed treatment) by 19.0%, Sinyukha by 17.5%, Regina by 18.7%, and Vinnichanka by 20.6%. Alfalfa productivity in the first year of life, on average across varieties, increased as a result of the use of Emistim C for seed treatment from 2.29 to 2.56 t / ha, or by 11.8%. There was no significant difference between the studied varieties in terms of hay yield. Thanks to seed treatment with Emistim C, this indicator increased by 0.27 t / ha, or 11.8% against the control (cultivar Nadezhda), by 9.5% in the cultivar Vinnichanka, and by 14.8% in the cultivar Regina. Among the varieties, the increase in hay yield ranged from 2.23 to 2.50 t / ha for Vinnichanka, from 2.36 to 2.62 t / ha for Regina, and from 2.30 to 2.55 t / ha for Sinyukha.
Conclusions. Weather conditions and seed treatment with Emistim C significantly affect the formation of alfalfa productivity in hay. There was no significant difference in yield between the studied varieties. The duration of the sowing-seedling period during seed treatment with Emistim C, depending on the variety, decreased by 2-3 days. At the same time, stress for alfalfa plants of high temperatures decreased, which extended the growing season by 1-3 days. The field germination of alfalfa varieties increased from 17.5% (Sinyukha) to 20.6% (Vinnichanka). When sowing with untreated seeds, the yield of hay of the grade Nadezhda (control) was 2.28 t / ha. Thanks to seed treatment, this indicator increased by 11.8%. In relation to varieties, the increase in the yield of hay from Vinnichanka was 12.1%, Regina 11.0%, and Sinyukha 10.9%.

Key words: alfalfa, hay, weather conditions, plant growth-regulator Emistim C, variety, yield.

References:

  1. Sil’s’ke hospodarstvo Ukrayiny za 2018 r.: statystychnyy zbirnyk – elektronna versiya. URL : www.ukrstat.gov.ua.
  2. Antypova L. K. (2015) Travy na Pivdni Ukrayiny: problemy i shlyakhy yikh podolannya. Visnyk ahrarnoyi nauky Prychornomor”ya : nauk.-teoretych. fakhovyy zhurnal. Mykolayiv. Vol. 4 (87). pp. 102-110.
  3. Hetman N. Ya., Tsyhans’kyy V. I. (2014) Kormova produktyvnist’ lyutserny posivnoyi (Medicago sativa L.) zalezhno vid elementiv tekhnolohiyi vyroshchuvannya v umovakh pravoberezhnoho Lisostepu Ukrayiny. Black Sea Scientific Journal of Academic Research. Agriculture, Agronomy & Forestry Sciences. Tbilisi, Georgia 2014. September-October. Volume 16. Issue 09. pp. 15-19.
  4. Petrychenko V. F. (2012) Aktual’ni problemy kormovyrobnytstva v Ukrayini. Ahronom. # 3. pp. 196-198.
  5. Arzhanukhyna E. V., Nykyshanov A. N., Ovchynnykov A. B. (2016) Vlyyanye temperaturу y rezhyma oroshenyya na pryrost zelenoy massу lyutsernу v uslovyyakh Saratovskoho Zavolzh’ya. Mater. V mezhd. nauchno-prakt. konf. «Osnovу ratsyonal’noho pryrodopol’zovanyya», Saratovskyy HAU (15-16 april 2016, Saratov). Saratov. pp. 133-137.
  6. Tsurkan N. V., Antypova L. K. (2015) Еkonomyko-еnerhetycheskaya еffektyvnost’ proyzvodstva produktsyy mnoholetnykh trav na oroshaemуkh zemlyakh yuha Ukraynу. Puty povуshenyya еffektyvnosty oroshaemoho zemledelyya: nauchno-prakt. zhurnal. Novocherkassk. Vol. 1(57). pp. 169-173.
  7. Kovtun K. P., Veklenko Yu. A., Kopayhorods’kyy V. M., Bezvuhlyak L. I., Onyshchenko M. A. (2013) Formuvannya produktyvnosti lyutserny posivnoyi pry riznykh sposobakh udobrennya ta inokulyatsiyi v umovakh Lisostepu pravoberezhnoho. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo. Vol. 76. pp. 188-194.
  8. Stepanchenko V. M. (2011) Vplyv bakterial’noho preparatu ta rehulyatora rostu roslyn na produktyvnist’ bahatorichnykh trav. Naukovi dopovidi NUBiP. Vol. 4 (26). URL: http://nd.nubip.edu.ua/2011_4/11svm.pdf.
  9. Maksimov A. M., Polishchuk I. S. (2012) Efektyvnist’ vykorystannya biostymulyatoriv rostu roslyn novoho pokolinnya pry vyroshchuvanni lyutserny posivnoyi. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats’ VNAU. # 63. Vyp.4. p. 28-34.
  10. Anishyn L. I. (2010) Ukrayins’ki biostymulyatory rostu zavoyovuyut’ svitove vyznannya. Ahroperspektyva. # 2. p. 68-69.
  11. Kots’ S. Ya. (2011) Suchasnyy stan doslidzhen’ biolohichnoyi fiksatsiyi azotu. Fyzyolohyya y byokhymyya kul’turnуkh rastenyy. T. 43. # 3. p. 212–225.
  12. Bushulyan O. V., Lutonina M. M., Holub M. A. (2012) Lyutserna v stepu na sukhodoli. Nasinnytstvo. # 3. p. 7-12.
  13. Artyushchenko A. N., Rutor H. A., Horkovenko L. H. [y dr.]. (2006) Zavysymost’ rosta, razvytyya y urozhaynosty lyutsernу vtoroho hoda zhyzny ot prymenenyya byopreparatov y myneral’nуkh udobrenyy pry podpokrovnom poseve. Trudу KubHAU. Vol. 425. pp. 228-234.
  14. Kuznetsov Y. Yu., Samyhullyeva A. S. (2014) Vlyyanye srokov skashyvanyya na kormovuyu tsennost’ zelenoy massу lyutsernу. Mater. mezhd. nauch.-prakt. konf. «Perspektyvу ynnovatsyonnoho razvytyya APK» v ramkakh XKhIV mezhd. spets. vуstavky «Ahrokompleks–2014». 11-13 march 2014. Ufa : Bashkyrskyy HAU. pp. 64-67.
  15. Antypova L. K. (1999) Biostymulyatory dlya lyutserny. Zakhyst roslyn. K. # 1. p. 14.
  16. Ponomarenko S. P. (1998) Shlyakh do ekolohichno chystoyi syrovyny dlya vyhotovlennya produktiv dytyachoho kharchuvannya. Zakhyst roslyn. K. : Ahrarna nauka. # 4. p. 21.
  17. Dospekhov B. A. (1985) Metodyka polevoho opуta, 5-e yzd., dop. y pererab. M. : Ahropromyzdat. 351 p.
  18. Babycha A. O. (1994) Metodyka provedennya doslidiv po kormovyrobnytstvu ; za red. A. O. Babycha. Vinnytsya. 96 p.
  19. Yeshchenko V. O., Kopytko P. H., Opryshko V. P., Kostohryz P. V. (2005) Osnovy naukovykh doslidzhen’ v ahronomiyi / za red. V. O. Yeshchenka. K. : Diya. 288 p.
  20. Demydas H. I. (2013) Bahatorichni bobovi travy yak osnova pryrodnoyi intensyfikatsiyi kormovyrobnytstva / [H. I. Demydas’, H. P. Kvitko, O. P. Tkachuk ta in.]; za red. prof. H. I. Demydasya, H. P. Kvitka. – K. : Nilan-LTD. 322 p.
  21. Antoniv S. F., Kolisnyk S. I, Konoval’chuk V. V., Zapruta O. A., Klochanyuk A. V. Vplyv rehulyatora rostu roslyn Medaks Top na nasinnyevu produktyvnist’ stokolosu bezostoho. Kormy i kormovyrobnytstvo. 2018. Vol. 85. p. 41-48.