O. V. Boichuk
O. V. Tsepurit
I. I. Hilko
S. I. Bohdanov
The paper shows the main approaches to the method of calculating the strength, reliability and stability of the frame elements of metal structural arches of variable cross section. The calculation is performed in the design of optimal arched structures, which consists in designing the structure so that in all sections of the structural element of the arch the reliability was specified, and the mass of the arch structure was as minimal as possible.
The use of light arches with a given reliability provides savings of metal and reducing the cost of construction and determines the prospects of the use of such structures in buildings and agricultural structures.
The maximum reduction in the cost of prefabricated light metal structures and work related to their construction is a priority at the current stage of development of the construction industry in Ukraine. Simultaneously with the reduction in the cost of construction during the design, it is necessary to remember about ensuring their sufficient durability and reliability. One of the effective means of solving this problem is the introduction of methods of the theory of reliability, which allow more reasonably normalize the design parameters of the structure and loads on a probabilistic basis. More important is the transition to a probabilistic calculation and estimation of the supporting capacity of structures according to the main technical criterion – the probability of failure of the structure.
Issues related to optimal design are of particular interest, when the probabilistic nature of the work of the structure is taken into account. In this case, one of the most important characteristics is the reliability of the structure, as well as the strains and deformation that occur in the structure under various external influences. The result of the calculation should be the answer to the question of whether the structure will be able to serve reliably enough during the service life. Knowledge of the values of strains and deformations is ultimately necessary only in order to make a judgment about the reliability and durability of the design of the arches. Therefore, the task is set: to design the structure in such a way that in all sections of the structural element of the arch the reliability is given, and the mass of the structure of the arch is minimal. The article deals with the problem of finding the law of distribution of material along the axis of the arch design. By analogy with the fact that in the deterministic formulation of the problem, the case of equal tension is considered the most suitable case of strains distribution over the flight of the arch, we assume that in the probabilistic statement the optimal case of stress distribution over the span is also the case of equal tension.
Keywords: flexible wall, steel frame, cross-sectional area of the frame, length of the intersection of the frame, safety factor, reliability of the steel structure, stability of the.
- Shebanin, V.S., Shebanina, L.P. & Bohza, V.H. (2013). Rozrakhunok stalevykh karkasiv z universalnykh elementiv zminnoho pererizu z hnuchkoiu stinkoiu. Ukrainian Black Sea region agrarian science, 3, 180-185 [in Ukrainian].
- Konstruktsii budynkiv i sporud. Stalevi konstruktsii. Normy proektuvannia, vyhotovlennia i montazh. (2011). DBN V.2.6-163:2010. Kyiv: Minrehionbud Ukrainy, 202 [in Ukrainian].
- EC3, Eurocode No 3. (1990). Common Unified Rules for Steel Structures. Commision of the European Communities.
- Rudnev, V.O. (1990). Racionalnoj forme sploshnoj uprugoj arki v svjazi s sovremennymi metodami vozvedenija. Warszaw.
- Shebanin, V. S., Khylko, I. I., Bohdanov, S. I. & Bohza V. H. (2013). Аnаlyтісаl аnd nuмеrical метноds definitions ztress-strain state and critical loads loss of stability of arches. MOTROL. Commission of Motorization and Energetics in Agriculture Polish Academy of Sciences University of Engineering and Economics in Rzeszow. Lublin-Rzeszow, 15, 2, 129-132, Retrieved from: http://dspace.mnau.edu.ua/jspui/handle/123456789/927 [in Russian].
- Shebanin, V. S., Khylko, I. I., Bohdanov, S. I. & Bohza V. H. (2014). The facilitated arches of the curvilinear contour. MOTROL. Commission of Motorization and Energetics in Agriculture an International Journal on Operation of Farm and Agri-Food Industry Machinery Polish Academy of Sciences University of Engineering and Economics in Rzeszow. Lublin-Rzeszow, 2014. Vol. 16, No. 2. Р. 5-8. Retrieved from:http://dspace.mnau.edu.ua/jspui/handle/123456789/1916 [in Russian].
- Shebanin, V. S., Khylko, I. I., Bohdanov, S. I. & Bohza V. H. (2015). Calculation cage ac section with a flexible wall. MOTROL. Commission of Motorization and Energetics in Agriculture. An International Journal on Operation of Farm and Agri-Food Industry Machinery. Polish Academy of Sciences University of Engineering and Economics in Rzeszow. Lublin-Rzeszow,17, 2, 35-39. Retrieved from: http://dspace.mnau.edu.ua/jspui/handle/123456789/1919 [in Russian].
- Hnitko O. (1998). Rozrakhunok nadiinosti stalevykh statychno nevyznachenykh konstruktsii. Academic Journal Series: Industrial Machine Building, Civil Engineering. Poltava: PDTU im. Yuriia Kondratiuka, 1 [in Ukrainian].
- Bohza, V. H. & Bohdanov, S. I. (2005). Novi typy silskohospodarskykh sporud. Sovremennыe stroytelnыe konstruktsyy yz metalla y drevesynы. Odessa: Vneshreklamaservys, 4-8, [in Ukrainian].
- Bohza, V. H. (1998). Printsipy sozdaniya konstruktivnykh form stal’nykh karkasov oblegchennogo tipa iz universal’nykh elementov. Металлические конструкции,1, 61-64, [in Russian].
N. P. Shevchuk
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5845-2582
One of the most important features about improving Ukrainian Red Dairy Breeds of cattle is the productive longevity of animals. The efficiency of lifetime use of families of Ukrainian red dairy cows has been analyzed. High life expectancy was attributed to the families of Bistra 1988, Luna 610, and Purga 5842, which were measured during 3021 days, 3123 days and 3131 days respectively. The cows of the Bistra 1988 family showed the highest lifetime tiredness, which was 28073,3 kg of milk. Among the studied livestock, the cows of the Luna 610 family (5,7 lactations) were used the longest, but life expectancy was only 27838,6 kg of milk. Prolonged productive use and high lifelong productivity were established in cows for Purga 5842 family (5.6 lactation and 27211.1 kg milk, respectively). The biggest longtime fat indicators in milk (3.90-4,07%) is characterized by the Purga 5842 families, Voloshka 1496, Liana 02900 and Bustra 1988. Compared to the Luna610 familydifference was 0.37 %; 0.39 %; 0.45% (P> 0.95) and 0.54 % (P> 0,99) respectively. By the lifetime of milk fat the most productive families were the Bistra1988, Purga 5842 and Zmiyka 266, their indexes were 1096.4 kg; 1065.9 kg and 1018.7 kg, according to the names.
For the milk yield for one day of life the families of Rozetka 2888 are the best productive families (8.3 kg of milk); Purga 5842 (8.4 kg of milk); Kukla 248 (8.4 kg of milk); Luna 610 (8.5 kg of milk) and Bistra 1988 (8.8 kg of milk). Their advantage over the family of Liana 02900 was 1.1 kg (P>0.95); 1.2 kg; 1.2 kg; 1.3 kg and 1.6 kg of milk, respectively. The families of Malina 22, Kukla 248, Zmiyka 266, Volga 840, Bistra 1988, Tsarivna 968, Rozetka 2888 and Kukla 226 prevailed over one day of economic use for milk yield. In comparison with the family of Liana 02900, their yield for one day of economic use was bigger by 1.2 kg; 1.2 kg (P>0.95); 1.3 kg; 1.3 kg; 1.3 kg; 1.4 kg (P>0.95); 1.7 kg (P>0.95) and 1.7 kg (P> 0.95), respectively.
In order to extend the duration of economic use and increasing the lifetime productivity of animals,during improving dairy cattle, domestic family breeding should be applied.
Keywords: breed, selection, family, cows, sign, lifetime productivity, longevity.
- Babik, N. P. (2017). Vplyv henotypovykh chynnykiv na tryvalist i efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv holshtynskoi porody. Animal Breeding and Genetics,53, 61–69 [in Ukrainian].
- Plokhinskiy, N.A. (1969). Rukovodstvo po biometrii dlya zootekhnikov. Moskva: Kolos, [in Russian].
- Polupan, Yu. P. (2010). Metodyka otsinky selektsiinoi efektyvnosti dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv molochnykh porid. Metodolohiia naukovykh doslidzhen z pytan selektsii, henetyky ta biotekhnolohii u tvarynnytstvi: proceedings of the conference t Chubynske. Kyiv: Ahrarna nauka, 93– 95 [in Ukrainian].
- Polupan, Yu. P. & Koval, T. P. (200). Formuvannia zavodskykh rodyn stvoriuvanoi chervonoi molochnoi porody. Animal Breeding and Genetics. Kyiv: Ahrarna nauka, 33, 105–110 [in Ukrainian].
- Pochukalin, A. Ye. (2016). Znachymist rodyn dlia henealohichnoi struktury volynskoi miasnoi porody velykoi rohatoi khudoby. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 52, 82-94 [in Ukrainian].
- Pidpala, T. V. (Ed.) (2012). Selektsiia molochnoi khudoby i svynei. Mykolaiv: MNAU [in Ukrainian].
- Skliarenko, Yu. I. (2018). Efektyvnist dovichnoho vykorystannia koriv zalezhno vid henotypovykh faktoriv. Visnyk Poltavskoi derzhavnoi ahrarnoi akademii, 2, 103-105 [in Ukrainian].
- Surovtsev, V. N. & Nikulina, Yu. N. (2012). Povyshenie effektivnosti molochnogo skotovodstva putem uvelicheniya sroka produktivnogo ispol’zovaniya korov. Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo, 3, 14-16 [in Russian].
- Surovtsev, V. N. & Nikulina, Yu. N. (2014). Ekonomicheskie aspekty produktivnogo dolgoletiya molochnykh korov. Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo, 8, 2-5 [in Russian].
- Khmelnychyi, L. M. & Vechorka, V. V. (2016). Efektyvnist vplyvu henealohichnykh formuvan na pokaznyky dovholittia ta dovichnoi produktyvnosti koriv ukrainskoi chervono-riaboi molochnoi porody. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytet,5 (29), 3-10 [in Ukrainian].
- Khmelnychyi, L. M., Salohub, A. M. & Shevchenko A. P. et al. (2012). Minlyvist dovichnoi produktyvnosti koriv ukrainskoi chorno-riaboi molochnoi porody zalezhno vid henealohichnykh formuvan. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytet , 10 (20), 12-17 [in Ukrainian].
- Van Raden, P. M. & Wiggans, G. R. (1995). Productive life evaluations: Calculation, accuracy, and economic. Dairy Sci,78, 3, 631–638.
- Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., & Lawlor, T. J. (2005). Changing definition of productive life in US Holsteins: Effect on genetic correlations. Dairy Sci, 88, 3, 1156–1165.
UDC 636.087.74 : 636.087.73
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-8696-8810
One of the main prerequisites for improving the productivity of farm animals is their full feeding. The absence or lack of individual feed components or biologically active substances, as well as the violation of their ratio in rations leads to a decrease in the efficiency of the use of nutrients in feed and, consequently, to reduce the productivity of animals.
As a feed additive for increasing protein in feeding pigs, along with traditional protein foods, microscopic aqueous chlorella can be used. The use of chlorella is due to the content of a large amount of protein, a complete set of essential amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and many other biologically active substances (Bogdanov N., 2001; 2002) [1, 2].
It contains an antibiotic chlorella. If you compare the nutritional value of chlorella with other feeds in the content of digestible protein and carotene equal to it, no feed. Calcium in chlorella is approximately the same as in cereal sown, and phosphorus is much larger [4,5,11].
Introduction of compound feed of young pigs on fattening of a natural forage additive Chlorella in the form of a suspension and in the form of granulated feed at a rate of 40-60 ml / head improves the growth dynamics of experimental animals compared with animals of the control group, which Chlorella was not introduced into the diet. The third test group showed the best result. They received a suspension of Chlorella with granulated feed at a rate of 40-60 ml / head. At such doses, the live weight of animals reached 121 kg and became higher by 18.6% compared with the same indicator of animals in the control group. The results of the second experimental group surpassed this figure by 6.9%.
Key words: fattening pigs, live weight, suspension of Chlorella, granulated feed with Chlorella, average daily gain, growth dynamics.
- Bogdanov, N. I. (2004). Khlorella: zelenyy korm kruglyy god. Kombikorma, 3, 66 [in Russian].
- Bogdanov, N. I. (2007). Suspenziya khlorelly v ratsione sel’skokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh. Penza [in Russian].
- Pokhodnya, G. S., Fedorchuk, E. G. & Dudina, N. P. (2009). Chlorellavulgaris ИФР № С-111 i ispol’zovanie ee suspenzii v zhivotnovodstve. Belgorod [in Russian].
- (1988). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 6-th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Press. Washington, DC.
- (1984). The Nutrient Requirements of Ruminant Livestock. Suppl. №1, Commenwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.
- Kashif, M., Shaikh, Asha A., Nesamma, Malik Z. Abdin & Pavan P. Jutur. (2017).Evaluation of Growth and Lipid Profiles in Six Different Microalgal Strains for Biofuel Production. Conference Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Recent Advances in Bioenergy Research, 10.1007/978-981-10-6107-3_1, 3-16.
- Lam, G.P. , Postma P.R., Fernandes D. A. & Timmermans R. A. H. (2017). Pulsed Electric Field for protein release of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Neochloris oleoabundans, Algal Research, 10.1016/j.algal.2017.03.024, 24,(181-187), (2017).
- Lakatos, & Strieth, D. (2017). Terrestrial Microalgae: Novel Concepts for Biotechnology and Applications, 10.1007/124.2017.10.
- Han, G., Kang, G. G., Kim, J. K. & Kim, S. H. (2002).The present status and future of Chlorella. Food Sci Ind, 6, 64–69.
- Hasegawa, T., Noda, K., Kumamoto, S. & Ando Y. (2000). Chlorella vulgaris culture supernatant (CVS) reduces psychological stressinduced apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Int J Immunopharmacol, 22, 877–885.
- Keijiro, U. (2011). Method for producing Chlorella fermented food. United States Patent. Patent No.: US 7,914,832 B2.
- He, M. L., Hollwich, W. & Rambeck, W. A. (2002). Supplementation of algae to the diet of pigs: a new possibility to improve the iodine content in the meat. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl), 86, 97-104. 10.1046/j.1439-0396.2002.00363.x.
According to the results of the implementation of the innovative pattern for the reproduction of the experimental group, during the three-month monitoring more fertilized heifers compared to the control were received. In the group of experimental recipients, where the previous normo florization of the mucous membranes of animals was carried out, the healing of the thawed embryos was 50.00%, and in the control, according to the traditional scheme of preparation – 33.33%.
We monitored the Ukrainian red dairy breed in the conditions of the industrial complex for three years and found that the improved reproduction scheme (embryo transplantation + prophylactic normoflorization of the mucous membranes) allowed to increase the reproductive potential of repair heifers in the experiment: the total fertility is higher by 20.36% , the safety of first lactation cows – by 14.62%, the decrease in prenatal losses by 3.69%, and the service period by 8.9 days.
Differential palpatory diagnostics highlighted the dynamics of the spread of degenerative changes in the layer of ovarian follicular tissue, namely, the presence of large follicular cysts and multiple polycystosis in both groups, which confirms the already established tendency for optimization of ovary ovogenesis and morphogenesis in the experimental group.
The prolonged positive effect of the probiotic scheme of mucosal normoflorization with the help of the drug “Multibacterin veterinary suspension” on the reduction of the service period of the first-born in the experiment (for 8.90 days) and reduction of cystic pathologies of the ovaries was studied. The mechanisms of them require a more detailed study to optimize the schemes of preparation of recipients to procedures ET.
The introduction of breeding programs for the herd, including intensive reproductive hemorrhage patterns and embryo transplant biotechnology, requires an additional stage of biosecurity of the livestock through prophylactic normoflorizationof the mucous membranes of the digestive and genital tract.
Keywords: repair heifers, industrial technology, reproductive biotechnology, embryo transplantation, normoflorization.
- Sharapa, H. S. & Boiko, O. V. (2017). Rozvytok i zaplidnenist telyts za riznykh skhem vypoiuvannia nezbyranoho moloka. Animal Breeding and Genetics. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 53, 272-277 [in Ukrainian].
- Milostiviy, R. V. et al. (2017).Problematic issues of adaptation of cows of Holstein breed in conditions of industrial technology of milk production. Scintific Messenger LNUVMBT named after S. Z. Gzhytskyj,. 19 (73), 28-32.
- Pereira, R. V., Caixeta, L. S., Giordano, J. O. & Guard, C. L. (2013). Reproductive performance of dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4353590/
- Dairy cow synchronization Protocоls. Retrieved from: selectsres.com/programs/docs/Dairy_Synch_Protocols.pdfversion20170404.
- Lucy, M. C., Stevenson, J. S. & Call, E. P. (1986). Controlling first service and calving interval by prostaglandin F2 a gonadotropin-releasing hormones and timed insemination. Dairy Sci, 69,
- Liuta, I. M., Ziuziun, A. B. & Sidashova S. O. (2017). Analiz efektyvnosti transplantatsii kriokonservovanykh embrioniv velykoi rohatoi khudoby. Biolohichni aspekty tekhnolohii tvarynnytstva i vyrobnytstva produktsii: proceedings of the 4rd international conference, Retrieved from: http://mnau.edu.ua/schedules.hml [in Ukrainian].
- Betteridge, K. J. (2006). Farm animal embryo technologies achievements and perspectives. Theriogenology, 65, 905-13.
- Huziev, I. V. (Ed.) (2009). Prohrama zberezhennia henofondu osnovnykh vydiv silskohospodarskykh tvaryn v Ukraini na period do 2015 roku. Kyiv: Aristei [in Ukrainian].
- Buhrov, O. D. & Shakhova, Yu. Yu. (2009). Udoskonalennia metodu synkhronizatsii statevoi okhoty u koriv i telyts. Kharkiv [in Ukrainian].
- Melnyk, V. O. & Sidashova, S. O. (2013). Akusherstvo, hinekolohiia i biotekhnolohiia vidtvorennia tvaryn. Mykolaiv: MNAU [in Ukrainian].
- Sidashova, S. O., Kovtun, S. I., Stakhovskyi, V. F. & Ziuziun, A. B. (2017).Do pytannia udoskonalennia tekhnolohii transplantatsii kriokonservovanykh embrioniv velykoi rohatoi khudoby. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 53, 292-302 [in Ukrainian].
- Sidashova, S. O. (2017). Povnotsinnist statevoi tsyklichnosti remontnykh telyts v umovakh promyslovoho vyrobnytstva. Naukovo-informatsiinyi visnyk KhDAU, 9, 54-58 [in Ukrainian].
- Sidashova, S. O., Avdosieva, I. K. & Hrihorasheva, I. M. (2018). Normofloryzatsiia slyzovykh reproduktyvnoho traktu koriv i telyts ta profilaktyka prenatalnykh vtrat pryplodu. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biulleten DNDKI veterynarnykh preparativ ta kormovykh dobavok, 19, 1, 116-127 [in Ukrainian].
- Selk, G. (2014). Embryo transfer in cattle. Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Oklahoma Cooperation Service, 3158,
- Baruseli, P. S. [et al.] (2011). Timed embryo transfer programs for management of donor and recipient cattle. Theriogenology, 76, 1583-93.
- Pener, P. (2012). The International Transfer School. Retrieved from: mhtm:file//G:schooltransfer.mht.
- Haster, J. F. (2003). The current status and future of commercial embryo transfer in cattle. Animal Reproduction Sceіnce, 79, 245-64.
To ensure the process of milking cows on the farms of Ukraine with innovative technologies for milk production, high-performance milking machines such as “Carousel” and “Parallel” are spreading, which differ in both the design and technology of preparing cows for milking and the milking technology.
Studies conducted to assess the impact of the technology of preparation of cows for milking at these facilities have established that the total time for preparing of cows for milking in a “Carousel” type installation (17.4 s) is insufficient for the full realization of the reflex of milk yield. This is evidenced by the intensity of milk excretion during the first minute of milking, which is at 1.93 kg/min against 3.75 kg/ min in «Parallel». During the first three minutes of milking the milk yield at the «Parallel» plant is 8.46 kg compared to 7.11 kg in the «Carousel» installation. High intensity of the implementation of the milk yield reflex in a Parallel plant ensures the production of high-fat milk (4.0% vs. 3.6%).
It has been established that both types of milking plants provide extremely high-quality milk, both for bacterial insemination and for the number of somatic cells, which belongs to the “extra” brand. The technology of preparing cows for milking in a “Carousel” installation needs to be adjusted.
Keywords: innovative technologies, high-performance milking plants, milk yield process, milk quality.
- Ministerstvo ahrarnoi polityky Ukrainy. (2011). Vidrodzhene skotarstvo. Natsionalnyi proekt. [in Ukrainian]
- Kudlai, I. M. (2011). Naukove obgruntuvannia ta zootekhnichna otsinka enerhetychno zbalansovanoho i ekolohichno bezpechnoho biotekhnolohichnoho kompleksu z vyrobnytstva moloka. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
- Kudlai, I. (2010). Tekhnolohichne udoskonalennia molochnykh ferm. Tvarynnytstvo Ukrainy,9, 14-18 [in Ukrainian].
- Kuyan, A. (2010). Sovremennye tekhnologii v zhivotnovodstve i ikh adaptatsiya k mirovym trebovaniyam. Efektyvne tvarynnytstvo,5, 7-10 [in Ukrainian].
- Kovalchuk, I.V., Pasichnyk, O.L. & Rybii, N.V. (2010). Orhanizatsiia doinnia molochnykh koriv u doilnomu zali «Paralel». Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho NAU,3, 42-65 [in Ukrainian].
- Lutsenko, M. & Zvoleiko, D. (2012). Doslidzhennia protsesu doinnia koriv u spetsializovanykh doilnykh zalakh. Tekhnika i tekhnolohii APK, 9 (36), 31-34 [in Ukrainian].
- Meshcheryakov, V.P. & Meshcheryakov, D.V. (2014). Vliyanie polnotsennoy preddoil’noy podgotovki vymeni korov na ego krovosnabzhenie i pokazateli molokovyvedeniya. Izvestiya Temiryazevskoy SKhA, 6, 90-99 [in Russian].
- Bondarenko, P.H. (2002). Vplyv rezhymu mashynnoho doinnia na povnotu viddachi moloka, zhyru, bilka u koriv pivnichno-skhidnoho molochnoho typu. Visnyk Sumskoho NAU, 6, 257-259 [in Ukrainian].
- Lutsenko, M.M. & Halai, O.Iu. (2017). Doslidzhennia resursooshchadnoi tekhnolohii vyrobnytstva moloka za vykorystannia doilnoi ustanovky typu «Karusel». Agricultural Science and Food Technology, 5/99, 1, 88-94 [in Ukrainian].
- Ganaev, A.A. (2010). Novoe v tekhnologii mashinnogo doeniya zhivotnykh. Molochnoe i myasnoe skotovodstvo,4,30-33 [in Russian].
О. I. Ulevich
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-1594-0700
The results of the dependence of the milk productivity of cows on the use in the rations of sunflower and rapeseed meals are given. An introduction to the composition of diets for feeding cows of a dairy herd of sunflower and rapeseed meals has been proposed, which makes it possible to increase the protein content and improve the nutritional value of the rations. The use of rapeseed meal leads to an increase in poorly soluble protein, which positively affects the performance of milk production of cows. The use of sunflower and rapeseed meals in the amount of 0.5 kg provides an increase in the milk yield of basic (3.4%) fat content by 13.3% and 17.1%, respectively, compared to the control. Inclusion in the rations of cows feeding dairy herd of rapeseed meal containing more, compared to sunflower meal, the amount of protein protected from splitting in the rumen, contributes to an increase in milk yield and fat content in milk of cows.
Key words: milk productivity, ration, rapeseed meal, sunflower meal, insoluble protein.
- Yaroshko, M. (2013). Rol proteinu v ratsioni molochnoi khudoby. Moloko i ferma, 3, 25-26 [in Ukrainian].
- Ibatulin, I., Kryvenok, M. Ya. & Panasenko Yu. O. (2011). Porivnialna kharakterystyka typiv hodivli khudoby molochnoho napriamku produktyvnosti. Naukovi dopovidi NUBiP, 2, 24 [in Ukrainian].
- Avylov, B. T., Musabaev, B. Y. & Tsybulskyi, N. V. (2015). Zashchyshchennыi belok – osnova povыshenyia produktyvnosty y zdorovia zhyvotnыkh. Novosty nauky Kazakhstana, 1-2 (111-112), 79-87 [in Russian].
- Aysner, I. (2016). Zashchishchennye aminokisloty v kormlenii korov. Kombikorma, 3, 73-75 [in Russian].
- Nevostruieva, I. V. (2010). Molochna produktyvnist ta khimichnyi sklad moloka koriv za riznoi kilkosti nerozshchepliuvanoho v rubtsi proteinu ratsionu. Naukovyi visnyk LNUVMBT imeni S.Z. Gzhytskoho,12, 2 (44), 144-149 [in Ukrainian].
- Sinclair, K. D., Homer, M.&Wilson, S. et al. Report Effect of dietary crude protein and starch concentration on milk production, health and reproduction in early lactation dairy cows prepared by University of Nottingham and Harper Adams University on behalf of AHDB Dairy. June 2016. 4 р.
- Chigrin, A. I. (2013). Effektivnost’ balansirovaniya kombikormov dlya korov po rubtsovo-stabil’nomu proteinu. Al’manakh sovremennoy nauki i obrazovaniya, 12 (79), 176-179 [in Russian].
- Davidson, S., Hopkins, B., Odle J. & Brownie, C. et al. (2008). Supplementation of diets with limited methionine content with rumen-protected forms of methionine, choline, and betaine in early lactation Holstein cows. Dairy Sci, 89, 1, 142.
- Rodney, M., HallJ, K., Westwood, C. T.& LeanI. J. (2016). Precalving and early lactation factors that predict milk casein and fertility in the transition dairy cow. Journal of Dairy Science, 99, 9, 7554-7567.
- Lakiza, O. V., Yermakova, V. O. & Chursinov, Yu. O. (2012). Produkty pererobky nasinnia ripaku u vyrobnytstvi kombikormiv. Zernovi produkty i kombikormy,3 (47), 38-43 [in Ukrainian].
- Strusińska, D., Minakowski,D., Pysera, B. & Kaliniewicz, J. (2006). Effects of fat-protein supplementation of diets for cows in early lactation on milk yield and composition.Czech J. Anim. Sci,51 (5), 196-204.
- Kot, A. N., Radchikova, G. N. & Yaroshevich, S. A. (2016). Vliyanie ratsionov s raznym sootnosheniem rasshcheplyaemogo i nerasshcheplyaemogo proteina na pokazateli rubtsovogo pishchevareniya u molodnyaka krupnogo rogatogo skota v vozraste 12-18 mesyatsev. Aktual’nye problemy intensivnogo razvitiya zhivotnovodstva, 4, 64-71 [in Russian].
- (2017). Gruber Tabelle zur Fütterung der Milchkühe Zuchtrinder Schafe Ziegen. LfL-Information, 42. 1.
- Resch, R. (2009). Aufbau, Struktur und Bedeutung der Futterwerttabellen für das Grundfutter im Alpenraum.Lehr- und Forschungszentrum für Landwirtschaft ehr- und Forschungszentrum für Landwirtschaft Raumberg-Gumpenstein aumberg-Gumpenstein, 15, 11-20.
- Stopp,,Schüler, I., Krutzinna, C.&Heß, J. (2012). Alternativen zu importierter Soja in der Milchviehfütterung. WWF Deutschland. Berlin.
- Polishchuk, A. A. & Bulavkina,T. P. (2014). Ripak: za i proty. Visnyk Poltavskoi derzhavnoi ahrarnoi akademii, 3, 67-70 [in Ukrainian].
- Lazarevych, P. (2015). Vykorystannia nasinnia ripaku v ratsionakh koriv. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky,5, 29-32 [in Ukrainian].
- Lazarevych, A. (2012). Efektyvnist vykorystannia ripaku v ratsionakh molochnoi khudoby. Tvarynnytstvo Ukrainy, 5, 19-24 [in Ukrainian].
- Koval, S. S., Mandryk, M. O. & Bihas, O. V. (2014). Zghodovuvannia shrotu ripaku ta ekstrudatu vyky diinym korovam v zalezhnosti vid kratnosti doinnia i dobovoi dachi. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho derzhavnoho ahrarnoho universytetu, 38, 276-281 [in Ukrainian].
UDC 636.2.034 / 57.087
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-2635-526Х
ORCID ID: 0000-0001-5658-1244
ORCID ID: 0000-0002-5806-3851
The relationships among growth traits in different ages of 232 heifers Southern Meat Cattle (SMC) breed and genotype and environmental factors were studied using a multifactorial ANOVA, and additionally with a entropy and information analysis (EIA).
The traits evaluated were birth weight (BW), weaning weight (WW), weight at year (YW) and weight at 15 (М15), 18 (М18) and 24 months of age (M24). The 21-year period studied (year of heifer’s birth from 1986 to 2006) was classified into three periods as follows: Gen1 – 1986-1992, Gen2 – 1993-1999, Gen3 – 2000-2006. Experimental heifers originated from four sire lines – Ideal 133, Sanil 8, Loksher 302 and Signal 475.
Firstly, we tested the hypotheses that weight traits were influenced by the sire line (factor ‘Origin’) and by of heifer’s year of born (factor ‘Generation’). Differences between groups were evaluated with a three-factorial ANOVA (with ages as a repeated measures factor). All statistical analyses were performed using STATISTICA (StatSoft Inc., USA).
A repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant main effects for generation, F2; 218 = 15.50; p < 0.001, and age of heifers, F5; 1090 = 2064.91; p < 0.001. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between generation and age of heifers, F10; 1090 = 15.55; p < 0.001 and between generation, origin and age of heifers, F30; 1090 = 1.94; p = 0.002.
The lowest entropy values were associated with BW, which did not depend on heifer’s origin and generation (in both cases: p > 0.05). This may be due to the long period (near 20 years) of successful breeding program with the SMC breed.
Key words: entropy and information analysis (EIA), growth traits, heifers, beef cattle.
- Kramarenko, S. S. (2005). Osobennosti ispol’zovaniya entropiyno-informatsionnogo analiza dlya kolichestvennykh priznakov biologicheskikh ob”ektov. zvestiya Samarskogo nauchnogo tsentra Rossiyskoy akademii nauk, 7,1, 242-247 [in Russian].
- Kramarenko, A. S., Kuz’micheva, N. I. & Kramarenko, S. S. (2018). Analiz glavnykh komponent rostovykh priznakov yuzhnoy myasnoy porody skota. Stiinta agricola, 1, 126-131 [in Russian].
- Kramarenko, S. S., & Lugovoy, S. I. (2013). Ispol’zovanie entropiyno-informatsionnogo analiza dlya otsenki vosproizvoditel’nykh kachestv svinomatok. Vestnik Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta, 9, 107, 58-62 [in Russian].
- Lykhach, V. Ya., Kramarenko, S. S. & Shebanin, P. O. (2015). Vykorystannia entropiino-informatsiinoho analizu dlia otsinky vidtvoriuvalnykh yakostei pomisnykh svynomatok. Ukrainian Black Sea region agrarian science, 1 (82), 187-194 [in Ukrainian].
- Vdovychenko, Yu. V., Voronenko, V. I. & Naidonova, V. O. et al.(2012). Miasne skotarstvo v stepovii zoni Ukrainy. Nova Kakhovka: PYEL [in Ukrainian].
- Khalafyan, A. A. (2007). STATISTICA 6: Statisticheskiy analiz dannykh. Moskva [in Russian].
- Patrieva, L. S. & Kramarenko, S. S. (2007). Entropiinyi analiz kilkisnykh oznak dlia selektsiinoi otsinky batkivskoho stada miasnykh kurei. Animal Breeding and Genetics, 41, 149-154 [in Ukrainian].
- Pidpala, T. V., Kramarenko, O. S. & Zaitsev Ye. M. (2018). Vykorystannia entropiinoho analizu dlia otsinky rozvytku oznak molochnoi khudoby holshtynskoi porody. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S. Z. Hzhytskoho, 20, 84, 3-8 [in Ukrainian].
- Pidpala, T. V., Kramarenko, S. S. & Bondar S. O. (2016). Zastosuvannia entropiinoho analizu dlia otsinky selektsiinykh oznak molochnoi khudoby. Visnyk Sumskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu, 7, 89-93 [in Ukrainian].
- Khvostyk, V. P. (2011). Entropiinyi analiz yakisnykh pokaznykiv yaiets husei stvoriuvanoi dymorfnoi populiatsii / В. П. Хвостик. Naukovyi visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho universytetu veterynarnoi medytsyny ta biotekhnolohii imeni S. Z. Gzhytskoho, 13, 4(50), Ч. 3, 324-327 [in Ukrainian].
- Borowska, A., Reyer, H. & Wimmers K. et al. (2016). Detection of SNP effects on feed conversion ratio in pigs based on entropy approach . Acta Fytotechnica et Zootechnica, 19 (3), 103-105.
- Borowska, A., Reyer, H. & Wimmers K. et al. (2017). Detection of pig genome regions determining production traits using an information theory approach. Livestock Science, 205, 31-35.
- Bourdon, R. M. & Brinks, J. S. (1982). Genetic, environmental and phenotypic relationships among gestation length, birth weight, growth traits and age at first calving in beef cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 55 (3), 543-553.
- Dobek, A., Steppa, R. & Molinski, K. et al. (2013). Use of entropy in the analysis of nominal traits in sheep. Journal of applied genetics, 54 (1), 97-102.
- Gregory, K. E., Cundiff, L. V. & Koch R. M. (1991). Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for growth traits in both sexes of beef cattle. Journal of animal science, 69 (8), 3202-3212.
- Holland, M. D. & Odde K. G. (1992). Factors affecting calf birth weight: a review. Theriogenology, 38 (5), 769-798.
- Souza Dantas Muniz, C. A. D., Queiroz, S A. D. &Mascioli D. S. et al. (2014). Análise de componentes principais para características de crescimento em bovinos de corte. Semina: Ciencias Agrarias, 35 (3), 1569-1576.
- Pelykh, V. H & Chernyshov, I. V.(2014). Entropiinyi analiz heterohennosti svynomatok riznykh napriamiv produktyvnosti za pokaznykom vyrivnianosti hnizd pid chas narodzhennia. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, 2, 36-37 [in Ukrainian].
S. S. Prorochenko
Due to the solid turf due to the accumulation of root mass, perennial herbs improve soil fertility, namely, improve its structure, enrich it with nutrients, protect against erosion. In this case, positive changes in the soil occur due to the interaction of the root system with soil microorganisms, which play an important role in the cycle and plant nutrition.
The purpose of the research was to determine the accumulation of root mass and the anti-erosion resistance of the soil under the bright grass fields depending on the fertilization in the conditions of the Right Bank Forest-steppe of Ukraine.
According to the approved methodology and the program of the dissertation work, spring flax seeding in 2014 was followed by a three-factor experiment after one-year cereals, namely maize on green fodder. Repetition of experiments – four times. All grass mixtures were fertilized in accordance with the scheme of experiment with the following types of fertilizers: nitrogen – in the form of ammonium nitrate (34% d. P.), Potassium-calimagnesis (26% d. P.), Phosphorus – superphosphate (18.7% d. ), and also introduced a growth stimulator of Phumar in the normal range of 2 liters per hectare, when cereal grasses were in the buccal phase, and alfalfa sown – branching.
According to our data (1), the accumulation of dry root mass under investigated multi-year herbage for different fertilizers was in the range from 10.80 to 12.14 t / ha, which is 7.1-7.9 times more than in winter wheat in the phase bush The accumulation of root masses was the most significant increase under the influence of nitrogen fertilizers at a dose of N60 on cereal grass. In this case, against the background of N60Р60К90 compared with the background Р60К90, their dry mass in the 0-20 cm layer of soil increased from 11.01 to 12.14 t / ha or 1.13 t / ha. When this dose is applied to alfalfa or alfalfa grass, the dry weight of the roots has increased from 10.55-11.30 tons / ha to 10.66-11.54 tons / ha or by 0.10-0.34 tons / ha, which is not reliable.
With the inclusion of alfalfa sowing to cereals, the mass of dry roots on bezazatnyh backgrounds had only a tendency to increase. It increased in this case by only 0.08-0.47 t / ha with NIR05 0.48 t / ha. On the background of the introduction of N60Р60К90 in alfalfa and alfalfa-cereal grass, compared with cereal herb, the weight of the roots was even lower, but within NIR05.
The coefficient of the productive action of the roots as a ratio of dry overground mass to dry mass of roots, depending on the fertilization on different species of grasses, was different. On sown cereal grass he was the smallest and on different backgrounds the fertilizer fluctuated within 0.47-0.63, meanwhile in alfalfa and alfalfa-cereal herbages – within the range of 0.94-1.04, which is 1.7- 2.0 less Under the influence of fertilizers, in particular nitrogen, the coefficient of productive activity of the roots most increased on cereal grass. In this case, against the background of the introduction of N60Р60К90 compared with the background P60K90 in connection with a significant increase in the productivity of the earth’s mass, the coefficient of productivity of the roots increased from 0,50 to 0,63 or 1,3 times, while on alfalfa and alfalfa -largest herbivores, it has changed little and in most cases only tended to increase. Between alfalfa and cereals, including alfalfa herbs on the same fertilizer background, it did not differ significantly.
In our studies, 20×20 cm soil monolith with different herbage, taken in the first decade of November with a uniform water jet eroded for 8.30-10.38 minutes, while a monolith of winter wheat, selected in the same time in the buccal phase – for 1 , 08 min, or 7.6-9.6 times faster.
The results of the research of Cherkasova V.O.  and Kurgak V.G.  confirmed that when applying nitrogen fertilizers increases not only productivity, but also anti-erosion resistance of meadow grasses. Thus, when nitrogen was introduced in comparison with the variant without nitrogen, the term for which the soil monolith from the studied grasslands was destroyed under the influence of a jet of water, increased from 8.50-9.40 minutes. up to 9,12-10,37 minutes, or in 1,1 times and little depended on the type of grass. Analysis of the research has shown that not only mineral nitrogen increases the anti-erosion resistance of herbs, but also the symbiotic nitrogen of legumes, due to the inclusion of alfalfa seedlings in cereals. In this case, the duration of the erosion of the monolith increased from 8.87 to 10.04 minutes. up to 9.00-10.37 min by 1-3%. The slightest anti-erosive resistance was characterized by alfalfa seed, which is characterized by a root rod.
It is known that herb grass improves soil fertility due to the accumulation of nutrients, in particular nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, in the roots and root residuals. According to the literature data  in the dry mass of the roots of various types of meadow grasses accumulates from 1.26 to 1.71% of nitrogen, from 0.18 to 0.30% of P2O5 and from 0.78 to 1.15% of K2O.
According to our data (Table 2), the nitrogen content in the dry mass of the roots of different types of herbs was accumulated in the range from 1.01 to 1.57%, P2O5 – from 0.19 to 0.25, K2O – from 0.81 to 1.05 . The largest changes in the content of the studied elements in the roots occurred on nitrogen. Its content has increased significantly in the rootstocks of grasses with the dominance of cereals in the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers and the inclusion of alfalfa sowing to cereals, or the use of single-seeded alfalfa crop, especially on bezazatnymi backgrounds.
In alfalfa and alfalfa-cereal grass compared with cereal grass, the content of nitrogen in the dry root mass on bezazatnyh phonons (variants without fertilizers R60K90) increased from 1.01-1.03 to 1.25-1.42% or 1.2 -1.4 times, while the background of the introduction of N60Р60К90 – from 1.25 to 1.35-1.57 or 1.1-1.3 times. His greatest content was in alfalfa herbage.
In the sown cereal grass from the introduction of fertilizer nitrogen, the content of nitrogen in the dry root increased from 1.03 to 1.25% or 0.22%, while at alfalfa and alfalfa-cereal grass from 1.25-1.40 to 1 , 35-1.57% or 0.10-0.17%.
The content of phosphorus and potassium in the roots, depending on the composition of herbs naturally did not change. But the background of the introduction of N60Р60К90 compared to the background Р60К90 observed reduction of these elements at the root. In this case, phosphorus decreased by 0,02-0,03%, and potassium – by 0,08-, 24%.
It is known that legumes and bean-cereal grasses improve the soil fertility due to the accumulation of their symbiotic nitrogen. According to our data (Table 3), the largest amount of symbiotic nitrogen in the aboveground and underground masses, on average, in 2014-2016, was accumulated on the bezazatnyh phonograms of alfalfa and alfalfa grasses. The aforementioned grasslands, on average, accumulated over three years of use in an overground and underground mass within the limits of 122-246 kg / ha. On bezazatnyh backgrounds (variants without fertilizers and background P60K90) of the symbiotic nitrogen accumulated 213-246 kg / ha, while at the background of the introduction of N60Р60К90 – 122-165 kg / ha. On the background with the introduction of nitrogen fertilizers in comparison with the nitrogen background it was accumulated in 1,4-1,7 times less.
In between bean-cereal grasses, the largest amount of symbiotic nitrogen was accumulated in the alfalfa-cereal grass in the composition of alfalfa crop + stoichon cordless + perianth perennial.
According to our data, the bulk of the symbiotic nitrogen indicated in Table 6.3 of the alfalfa and alfalfa-cereal grass fields was accumulated in the overlying mass. Here it was accumulated in the range of 101-207 kg / ha, which makes from 11 to 17%.
Conclusions and perspectives of further searches in this direction.
- Under 10-20 g cm of soil in the roots per hectare, 10,80-12,14 dry mass, 141-173 kg of nitrogen, 21-28 kg of P2O5 and 86-117 kg of K2O are accumulated under the bright grass fields in the 0-20 cm layer of soil. Their mass of roots and anti-erosion resistance is 7.1-9.6 times higher than that of winter wheat in the buckling phase. When adding mineral nitrogen in a dose of N60, the accumulation in the roots of dry matter and nitrogen, as well as the anti-erosion resistance of the meadow and, to a large extent, of cereal grasses, increase.
- Analysis of the research showed that not only mineral nitrogen increases the anti-erosion resistance of herbs, but also the symbiotic nitrogen of legumes, due to the inclusion of alfalfa sowing to cereals. In this case, the duration of the erosion of the monolith increased from 8.87 to 10.04 minutes. up to 9.00-10.37 min by 1-3%.
- Alfalfa and alfalfa grasses with different cereal components of the grass in the aboveground and underground mass on different backgrounds, fertilizers on average, in the first three years of use, accumulate 122-246 kg / ha of symbiotic nitrogen, including 83-89% – in the overweight. In 1,4-1,7 times it is accumulated on bezazatnymi backgrounds compared with the introduction of it at a dose of N60.
Key words: root mass, anti-erosion resistance, soil, meadow breeding, fertilization.
- Kurhak, V. H. & Lukianets,O. P. (2004). Vplyv typu travostoiu, system udobrennia ta vykorystannia na produktyvnist sukhodilnykh luchnykh uhid pivnichnoho Lisostepu Ukrainy. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Vinnytskoho DAU, 17, 9-15 [in Ukrainian].
- Kurhak, V. H. &Tovstoshkur, V. M. (2010). Vplyv vydovoho skladu ta udobrennia bahatorichnykh travostoiv na pokaznyky rodiuchosti gruntiv. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats NNTs «Instytut zemlerobstva UAAN», 3-4, 15-25 [in Ukrainian].
- Kutuzova, A. A. (1986). Nauchnaya osnova ispol’zovaniya biologicheskogo azota v lugovodstve. Vestnik sel’skokhozyaystvennoy nauki, 4, 355, 106-112 [in Russian].
- Sau A. (1983). Intensivnost’ pochvoobrazovatel’nogo protsessa pod mnogoletnimi travami Trudy Estonskoy sel’skokhozyaystvennoy akademii, 140, 27-44 [in Russian].
- Kurhak V. H. (1995). Ekoloho-biolohichni i ahrotekhnichni osnovy stvorennia vysokoproduktyvnykh siianykh luk v Lisostepu Ukrainy. Extended abstract of candidate’s thesis. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
- Cherkasova, V. A. (1976). Osvoenie sklonov pod pastbishcha i senokosy. Moskva: Kolos [in Russian].
- Lukianets, O. P. (2003). Formuvannia luchnykh travostoiv na ornykh zemliakh. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky, 12, 76-79 [in Ukrainian].