The article discusses the wear patterns of interchangeable five-sided non-turning inserts during continuous turning of corrosion-resistant, heat-resistant martensitic steel grade 20X13, as well as the influence of the geometric parameters of the cutting edges of the inserts on the resistance to brittle fracture of the cutter. Experimental studies of the influence of replaceable inserts with a nitride-titanium coating (TiN) on the durability of turning tools with mechanical fastening of inserts in a wide range of speeds were made, as a result of which it was proved that the performance of cutting inserts on which a wear-resistant coating was applied increased by more than 1, 5 times. On the basis of theoretical and experimental-statistical data, the optimal cutting conditions were selected for carbide non-milling inserts for finishing machining of 20X13 chrome steel.
The nature of wear and the influence of cutting modes on the stability of the lathe tool in turning conditions are analyzed. The characters of the destruction of hard-alloy plates and their causes are considered, as well as methods that contribute to reducing the intensity of the flow of abrasive-mechanical wear in the conditions of adhesive interaction of tool material with chips. Laboratory resistance tests have proved that the use of a coolant leads to an improvement in the quality of the processed material and contributes to uniform wear of the cutting parts of the tool. The study of hard-alloy plates allowed us to determine with high accuracy the period of resistance of the cutting edges of replaceable hard-alloy plates and make a comparative analysis of them.
The relationship between changes in the physical and mechanical characteristics of tool hard alloys under the influence of temperature and force with the strength and performance of replaceable polyhedral plates of prefabricated tools is established. A complex method of improving the performance and reliability of the cutting tool by applying lubricants and wear-resistant coatings on the cutting tool to ensure maximum durability of turning tools and improve the quality of the processed layers of the part surface is considered.
Keywords: cutting tool, pentagonal plates, lubricating and cooling liquids, stability characteristics, wear resistance of the cutter, wear-resistant coatings, hard-to-process materials.
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The most time-consuming operation in the process of obtaining melon seeds is the operation of extracting seeds from seed fruits. In the article it is presented the classification scheme of crushing and separating machines. In the study, attention is paid to the separator of the vibrating type, when comparing it to the the rotary, both cylindrical and conical types that are more labor intensive in maintenance and require complex adjustments in the transition from processing of one cropp to another.
The technological process was experimentally investigated only for separators with constant particle pressure on the surface of the sieve in isolation from the real separated mass (shredded seed floors). No studies of the dependence of seed injury at different magnitudes of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of the screen were performed and the effect of the specific feed on the seed loss and its purity was not revealed. This has led to the fact that the optimal design of machines for the production of melon seeds, adapted to the technology of seed processing in large specialized farms. The dependencies used in the design of the equipment may not always be used properly because of differences in the percentage of seeds and impurities in the mass to be processed. Also, the technological regimes of the separator affecting the purity of the seeds, their losses and trauma were not optimized.
The analysis of mathematical models was performed for cucumber “Concurent“, as with the same kinematic modes of the experimental setup, the qualitative performance of the technological process on the seeds of the cucumber is worse than on the seeds of watermelon. The main factors affecting the quality of the process of the screen separator are revealed: the angle of inclination of the lattice surface, the frequency of oscillations of the sieve, the amplitude of its oscillations, the angle of application of forced oscillations and the length of the sieve. The optimization criteria were selected: seed purity, magnitude of their injury and the level of seed loss.
The factors that have the greatest influence on the quality of the technological process are determined: the frequency of vibration of the screen, the amplitude of oscillations and the length of the working surface of the sieve. The ranges of variation of independent factors allowed to provide modes of both inertial separation and vibration separation. There are found the ranges of the optimal combination of independent factors. In the case of trauma of seeds of 4-6%, purity of 70-75% and losses lie in the range of 6-7%, it is necessary for the frequency of oscillations to be 9.0-42.0 (1 / s), the amplitude of oscillations can be at the level of 24-32 (mm), and the length of the working part of the sieve is 1.2-1.6 (m). In vibration separation mode (oscillation frequency greater than 30 (1 / s); amplitude greater than 35 mm (at the angle of application of oscillation force 100) seed injury does not exceed 5% and their frequency is within 70 … 71%. Inertial separator mode achieves seed loss of 5-6%, so that the research will improve the quality of separation of melon seeds and cucumber, reduce its injury by developing and optimizing the process of cleaning seeds from pulp and pulverized bark separators.
Keywords: vegetable and melon crops, separator, kinematic and design parameters.
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Within three years of winter wheat vegetation (2017-2019), species composition of entomofauna during the spring and summer crop development in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine was determined. During the growing season, every 7-19 days, mowing was carried out with an entomological net. The collection of insects was determined under laboratory conditions. Entomological traps were also used to catch insects.
In wheat agrocenoses, the presence of phytophages, migrant species and entomophages of harmful insects of the crop was noted. 32 species from 17 families were identified among phytophages. Harmful insect species were included in 7 orders of insects. 6 species were classified as migrants.
The study of the frequency of occurrence of species by years showed that vegetation conditions affected the distribution of species during the spring and summer growing season. In 2017, thrips (85%) and aphids (50%) were most often isolated in samples. Swedish flies and Lygus pratensis L. had a high percentage of occurrence (40%). In 2018, aphids were common (64%), thrips came in second (54%). A total of 30 species were identified – the maximum number for a running period of 3 years. In 2019, only one species turned out to be massive – Eurygaster integriceps Put. with a frequency of occurrence of 51%. Thrips and aphids with one dominant species had a significant frequency of occurrence as in previous years. Among cereal flies, Swedish flies dominated with a frequency of occurrence of 45%. In the winter wheat entomofauna during the spring and summer growing season, three species turned out to be the most common over the three years of research: Sitobion avenae F., Haplothrips tritici Kurd. and E. integriceps.
The identified entomophages of the wheat field related to 6 orders of insects. Most of their species belonged to beetles. The most numerous were representatives of the families Melyridae, Coccinellidae and subfamily Aphidiinae. For the first time in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine the high frequency of occurrence of the species Malachius bipustulatus L. and Charopus concolor Fab was noted on wheat.
In the entomofauna of the agrocenosis of winter wheat during the spring and summer growing season of 2017–2019, 46 species belonging to 8 orders of insects were identified. The greatest species diversity was in the order Coleoptera – 18 species. The second place (17.4%) in the structure of the entomocomplex was taken by the order Hemiptera, which was represented by 8 species from 4 families. 6 species were included in the order Diptera (13.1%). The share of Homoptera in the entomofauna was 10.9% (5 species). Three species were isolated from the orders of Thysanoptera and Hymenoptera, and two species were isolated from the order Orthoptera. Only one species was represented in the order Neuroptera.
Keywords: entomofauna, species composition, winter wheat, phytophages, entomophages.
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In the article it was considered the influence of two factors on the quality of winter wheat grain – the characteristics of the variety and the weather conditions of the year. The results of 4 year-research during 2016-2019 were presented. The influence of genetic characteristics of winter wheat variety was greater than the weather conditions on nitrogen accumulation in wheat grain. The dependence of high quality of wheat grain on arid weather conditions was confirmed. Varieties such as Arctis and Panonikus showed more stable nitrogen.
The purpose of our research was to study the features of the formation of winter wheat grain quality indicators and its nitrogen consumption depending on the variety and weather conditions.
The methodology and the output. There were chosen 4 varieties of winter wheat of foreign selection that were characterized by high productivity potential. Research was conducted on the territory of Kharkiv and Cherkasy regions with different soil cover. The nitrogen content of the final crop products and the quality indicators of winter wheat Arctis, Panonikus, Matrix and Bodicek were determined.
Discussion of the results. As a result of our research, the dependence of protein and gluten content on weather conditions was confirmed. Under dry conditions of the year, the Arktis variety showed itself well, and by moderate temperature and humidity – Panonicus. Varieties Matrix and Bodicek had the worst quality indicators for all 4 years, but there was also a tendency to improve quality in arid conditions.
The nitrogen content in the grain of winter wheat varied depending on the variety and the conditions of the vegetation period. Arktis varieties contained more nitrogen – from 2.32 to 2.58% (depending on the year of cultivation) and Panonicus – from 2.24 to 2.61%. A lower nitrogen content in the grain was observed in the variety Matrix and Bodicek. The nitrogen content in the grain of Matrix wheat in 2016-2018 amounted to – 2.05%; 2.21%; 2.03%, Bodychek – 2.06%; 2.11%; 2.02 %.
Under more arid conditions of the year, the growth dilution of nitrogen in the aerial mass of winter wheat was not occurred intensively. The average nitrogen content over the years ranged from 2.16 ± 0.24% in 2018 to 2.32 ± 0.11% in 2017. The winter wheat grain was least provided with nitrogen (2.06 %) in 2019.
The variability of nitrogen content in winter wheat grain was more due to varietal specificity than the conditions of the study year. The Bodicek variety was the most sensitive to changes in weather conditions. The risk of getting substandard seeds was high.
Keywords: nitrogen content, winter wheat, varietal features, protein content, weather conditions.
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In modern agricultural production fungicides and insecticides are used for protecting winter wheat seeds from fungal infections, differing in the amount and nature of active ingredients. Our study has been aimed at assessing the influence of multicomponent protectants on various growth parameters of winter wheat seedlings. The studies have been conducted in the laboratory using the roll method. Laboratory germination of seeds, the length, the raw and dry mass of seedlings and radicles, and seedling strength indices have been determined. Maxim XL, Insure Perform, Rancona I Mix, Lamardor Pro, Cantharis and Vibrance Integral have been used as protectants. Water treatment has served as a control measure. As a result of using all these protectants, there has been a decrease in laboratory germination of seeds and partial inhibition of their growth and accumulation of the dry matter by seedlings and radicles. It has been established that with the increase of the active substance amount in the tank mixture for the presowing seed treatment the seedling length decreases and its raw and dry mass decreases. Maxim XL, Insure Perform and Rancona I Mix have had the least harmful effect on these indices. The length of the root and its raw mass have been weakly dependent on the component composition of the protectants. With an increase in the amount of protectant active ingredients, there has been a tendency to reduce the dry mass of the roots (r = -0.73). As the amount of active ingredients in the protectant increased, the seedling strength indices decreased from 2054.36 to 907.50 for SVⅠ and from 2.12 to 0.77 for SVⅡ. The maximum positive effect from the presowing treatment of winter wheat seeds has been observed with the use of Maxim XL – the root length has increased by 4%, and the raw and dry mass of seedlings have increased by 9 and 11% respectively, compared to the control version. The seed treatment with Cantharis has reduced the laboratory germination index by 28% (rel.); the length of the seedling has been reduced by 64%, and the roots – by 20%; the raw and dry mass of seedlings have been reduced by 61 and 44%, and roots – by 16 and 50%, respectively, compared with the control. Based on this study, it has been concluded that increasing the number of active ingredients for the presowing treatment of seeds to 3 or more, it enhances the phytotoxical effect, which negatively affects the primary growth of plants.
Keywords: soft winter wheat, multicomponent protectants, presowing treatment, germination, seedlings, radicles.
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In recent years, due to the shortage of traditional organic fertilizers (cattle manure), due to the destruction of the livestock industry, the idea of using sewage sludge and / or compost based on them in agriculture has become increasingly popular. In most cases, the fertilizing value of ERUs is not inferior to traditional organic fertilizers (or exceed it). Proper use of sewage sludges will increase soil fertility and crop yields, ensure environmental protection. The purpose of research – to determine the effectiveness of new biofertilizers based on sewage sludge treatment plants in Odesa in the technology of growing corn. Research methods: field, microbiological, statistical. The effectiveness of biofertilizers based on sewage sludge was studied in the field experiment on ordinary humus black soil, which is characterized by the following agrochemical parameters: humus content – 3.67 %; mobile forms of nitrogen – 14.2 mg/kg; phosphorus – 52.4 mg/kg; potassium – 601.2 mg/kg; pH (aq) – 7.4. The culture in the experiment: corn for grain (medium-ripe hybrid FAO 400). The experiment studied the effectiveness of direct action of experimental composts obtained using the biotechnological method (composting sewage sludges with fillers and bacterization of the composted mass to enhance the mobilization of phosphorus from hard-to-reach ERUs in readily available). Doses of application of native sewage sludges and composts based on them in the soil were equalized by their content of total nitrogen. Tillage – common (plowing to a depth of 20-25 cm, early spring harrowing). Maize was sown in the first decade of May at a stable temperature (over 10 ºC). The scheme of placement of plants – 40-45 thousand pieces/hectare. According to the results of field research it is established that the use of new biofertilizers based on sewage sludge of biological treatment plants “Southern” and “Northern” of Odesa in corn cultivation technologies increases the quantitative characteristics of microorganisms of different ecological and trophic groups, which, in turn, helps to increase soil fertility and corn yield for grain.
Keywords: biological treatment plants, bioorganic fertilizers, efficiency, ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms, rhizosphere, soil fertility.
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Wood mushroom species are able to grow on lingo-cellulose materials like sawdust, wood chips, and agricultural postharvest residues because of having high saprophyte characters. Therefore, industrial mushroom producers tried to find the optimal substrate ingredients from local agriculture wastes for the production of edible xylotrophic species with high efficiency. The costumer’s attractiveness of mushrooms is because they are widely used as a source of biologically active substances such as unique β-glucans, amino acids, proteins, and so on. In recent years, scientists have been writing about improving techniques for the cultivation of species new to the European market: poplar mushroom (Cyclocybe aegerita), gold oyster mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus) and enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes). The species are cultivating in the Asia countries with success but we don’t have adapted technology of industrial production to local conditions still. The purpose of this research was to check the opportunity to grow 3 species (4 strains) in one time using local agricultural residues and plant components.
The optimal substrate formula was found in this investigation: barley straw, powder from sunflower husk, rape grain, and residues from corn processing. The technic parameters were: humidity – 66,3±1,4%; total nitrogen – 2,55±0,27%; ash content – 4,9±0,6; C/N ratio – 19,4±1,8/1; density – 325±23 kg/m³. The biological efficiency was obtained from a minimum in 43% (white enoki) to a maximum of 66% (gold enoki) with using this formula. The time of the first flush crop was noted from 32 days (gold oyster mushroom) to 47 days (white enoki).
In fact, the result of this research proved the possibility of successful mushrooms growing with using local agricultural and grain processing wastes. The technical conditions were described what could be the base of technology for industrial production of species with high medicinal and nutritional properties.
Keywords: poplar mushroom (Cyclocybe aegerita), gold oyster mushroom (Pleurotus citrinopileatus), enoki mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes), biological efficiency, technological cycle.
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The effect of aqueous extracts of plants of the genus Allium on the mycoflora of winter wheat was studied. The seeds of the Bogdana variety were grown in the north-eastern forest-steppe of Ukraine (Sumy region) (yields 2017-2019). Onion and garlic plants were also grown under these conditions. Analysis of the mycoflora was carried out on a nutrient medium (potato glucose agar).
The effect of aqueous extracts of plants of the genus Allium on the development of fungus colonies of the mycoflora of winter wheat seeds was investigated. The dominant fungi of genus Alternaria (A. arborescens and A. avenicola), the most harmful Bipolaris sorokiniana, Nigrospora oryzae, Fusarium poae and Fusarium sporotrichioides were selected for the study. The aqueous extracts had a different response to the growth of the fungus colonies: from the complete suppression to the absence of any effect. On the fifth day, the percentage of inhibition was higher than on the seventh day. The use of 20% solutions was more effective than 10%, with the exception of the inhibition of one species (A. arborescens). A. cepa had almost no inhibitory effect on the studied fungi. A. sativum had a significant percentage of the decrease in the growth of A. arborescens colonies (31.2–47.4%). The most effective was the use of garlic extracts against the growth of colonies of F. poae, especially 20% solution (the percentage of the inhibition – 100%).
The treatment of winter wheat seeds with aqueous extracts of the genus Allium showed a greater effect of A. sativum on the mycoflora than A. cepa during the three years of the study (2017–2019). The use of the aqueous solutions of the garlic (10%) reduced the number of the fungi of the genus Alternaria, dangerous for the germination of the seeds of the fungi of the genus Penicillium spp. and N. oryzae. However, the increase of the concentration of the aqueous solution to 40% had a negative effect on the mycoflora of the seeds (the increase of the number of the fungi of the genus Penicillium spp. by an average of 10 times) and inhibition of the growth of wheat seedlings. The treatment of wheat seeds with 20% aqueous solution of the garlic even increased the length of the seedlings, especially on the 7th day.
Thus, the treatment of winter wheat seeds with the aqueous extracts of A. sativum (10, 20% solutions) stimulated the development of seedlings, due to the changes in the composition of the mycoflora.
Key words: seed mycoflora, winter wheat, aqueous extracts, Allium sativum Allium cepa, percentage inhibition.
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Problem statement. In Ukraine, the loss of legume crops caused by diseases of various etiologies is on average 15-20%, but the product shortages can reach 50% with epiphytic development. Since the infestation of plants with pathogens and the further development of the pathological process depend entirely on agro-climatic factors, the study of the development of the most common and harmful diseases of soybeans depending on agro-climatic conditions is relevant.
Analysis of recent research and publications. Studies of the leading phytopathologists of Ukraine indicate a further deterioration of the phytosanitary status of soybean crops due to crop damage by diseases [4,5,10]. Extensive management, unjustified chemicalization, impoverishment of crop rotations, climate change and other factors create extremely favorable conditions for pest infestation [1,8]. Agroclimatic conditions are decisive for the development of pathogens of soybean diseases.
Research methodology. The research was conducted according to the methods of research  at Ustymivska research station of crop production in Poltava region from 2016 to 2019.
The aim of the research was to determine the dependence of phytosanitary condition of soybean crops from agro-climatic conditions in order to optimize the use of agrochemicals, which will reduce the pesticide load on agrocenoses, increase their biological efficiency and competitiveness of the products.
Presentation of the main research material. The species composition of pathogens of soybean diseases significantly depended on the agro-climatic conditions of the growing season. The response of the varieties to infections was similar.
Among the crops, fungi of the genera Alternaria, Fusarium, and Septoria, and bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas were predominant.
According to the peculiarities of the biology of the pathogen causing fusarium wilt, the agro-climatic conditions of 2016 and 2019 were the most favorable for its development. The prevalence of the disease by varieties ranged from 2.8% to 5.2% (2016) and from 4.5% to 5.6% (2019). Increased development of fusarium wilt was observed in conditions that cause stress to plants.
The maximum prevalence of bacteriosis associated with warm humid weather was observed in 2019 in the flowering – beginning of the formation of beans phase (4.5-4.7%).
Significant prevalence of Alternaria was observed only in 2019. The infection increased during flowering – beginning of bean formation (13.5-25.5%) and ripening phases (18.5-22.7%); the intensity of the disease development did not exceed 9.5%. Droplet moisture is optimal for the pathogen. It is tolerant to temperature.
During the unfavorable for Septoria years of 2017 and 2018 (low humidity), the spread of infection was 1.9-3.3%, and the intensity of the disease did not exceed 2%. In 2016 and 2019, the prevalence of the disease during the flowering – beginning of formation of beans phase varied from 9.8 to 12.5%, and the maximum level was observed in the maturation phase – 18.7%. The intensity of Septoria development did not actually differ in the phases of ontogenesis.
Conclusions. The connection between the development and spread of diseases and hydrothermal environmental conditions has been identified.
The establishment of a correlation between the biology of pathogens and agro-climatic indicators allows to predict their development and to use pesticides only when necessary, which will reduce the pesticide load on agrocenoses, increase their biological efficiency and competitiveness of the crop products.
Keywords: soybean, alternariosis, septoria, fusarium wilt, bacterial burns, disease development, disease prevalence.
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