Formation of productivity of maize under the application of the herbicide Lumax.

UDC 633.15:632.954:631.811.98

А.  Zabolotnyi, Candidate of Agrarian Sciences
А. V. Zabolotnaya, Candidate of Agrarian Sciences
B. Leontyuk, Candidate of Agrarian Sciences
V. Rozborskaya, Candidate of Agrarian Sciences
V. Golodriha, Candidate of Agrarian Sciences
Uman National University of Horticulture

Corn as a wide-row cropper is one of the weakest competitors to weeds in agrophytocenoses. Sensitivity of cropper to weeds is not the same in all phases. Thus, to the phase of 2-3 leaves a corn is insensitive to weeds. From the phase of 3 leaves and to appearance of 8 leaves weediness of crops is the cause of a sharp decline in productivity. During this period the corn crops should be free of weeds. Taking this into account growing corn without the use of herbicides is usually impossible. But herbicides as substances of high physiological activity can significantly influence the processes in most agricultural crops that underlie the formation of the harvest. Therefore, when studying the effect of herbicides it is important to investigate their effects on the processes that directly affect the formation of yield of a grown crop.
In determining the leaf surface of corn plants in the phase of 8-10 leaves we found that using hand weeding the leaf surface of corn plants increased compared with control I by 21%, due to the complete absence of competition from weeds concerning corn plants for plant food compounds and moisture.
With using 3.0 and 3.5 l/ha of herbicide Lumax leaf surface size exceeded control I by 6 and 12% respectively. The largest corn assimilation surface among variants of experiment using herbicide was by the action of 4.0 l/ha Lumax and exceeded control I by 18%. The use of the maximum norm of the herbicide of 4.5 l/ha caused some phytotoxic effect of the drug on corn plants reflected in slowing the formation of plant leaf surface in comparison with the previous norm of Lumax. However, in this variant of the experiment leave surface was greater than control I by 15%.
In the phase of appearing panicle dependence of forming leaf surface of corn plants on herbicide application rates remained the same as in the previous phase of development.
In determining the content of pigments in corn leaves in 2013 we found that in the phase of 8-10 leaves chlorophyll amount (a+b) under the action of 3.0 l/ha of Lumax exceeded control I by 9%, whereas using 3.5 l/ha of the drug – already by 12%.
Under the action of 4.0 l/ha of the herbicide chlorophyll content increased compared to control I by 17%, only 3% was lower compared to control II. Further increasing the herbicide rate had relatively inhibitory effect on corn plants, as evidenced by the decrease of this indicator compared to the previous rate of the drug.
In determining dynamics of chlorophyll amount (a+b) in 2014 we found that the dependence of pigment content on the norm of applying herbicide remained similar to 2013, although the absolute values were slightly higher due to more favorable conditions of the growing season in 2014.
As a result of the conducted analysis of corn yield level we found that in 2013 the yield of control I was 60.2 kg/ha, while in 2014 it was higher by 9.0 kg/ha and was 69.2 kg/ha. Yield increase over the years of research in different variants of the experiment also was various and depended on the norms of drug application and the extent of reduction in weediness. On average over the years of research it showed that the dependence between formation of yield increase and rates of drug application was the same as during years of research and it was the largest in the variant with hand weeding and somewhat lower – when using 4.0 l/ha of Lumax.
Thus, using herbicide and hand weeding by eliminating the overwhelming share of weed component in corn crops contributes to more active formation of leaf surface of plants and content of chlorophyll amount in leaves (a+b) compared with control I. The best results were observed in variants of the experiment with hand weeding and using Lumax in norm of 4.0 l/ha. However, hand weeding, application of which showed slightly better results in yield is unlikely to be used in production scale under modern conditions and requirements as it cannot provide a quick and timely removal of weeds from corn crops and too costly and unproductive.

А. Zabolotnyi, А. Zabolotnaya, I. Leontyuk, L. Rozborskaya, O. Golodriha. Formation of productivity of maize under the application of the herbicide Lumax.


А. И. Заболотный, А. В. Заболотная, И. Б. Леонтюк, Л. В. Розборская, О. В. Голодрига. Формирование урожайности посевов кукурузы при применении гербицида Люмакс.

В статье приведены результаты исследования влияния разных норм страхового гербицида Люмакс и ручных прополок на формирование площади листьев кукурузы, содержание в листьях суммы хлорофиллов (а+b) и уровень урожайности культуры, поскольку эти показатели находятся в тесной прямой зависимости.  Установлено, что наибольшие значения указанных показателей получены в вариантах опыта с ручными прополками и внесением Люмакса в норме 4,0 л/га. Но ручные прополки, применение которых дало несколько лучшие результаты по урожайности, являются маловероятными для применения в производственных масштабах при современных условиях и требованиях, поскольку очень затратные и малопродуктивные.

О.І. Заболотний, А.В. Заболотна, І.Б. Леонтюк, Л.В. Розборська, О.В. Голодрига. Формування врожайності посівів кукурудзи на зерно при застосуванні гербіциду Люмакс.

У статті наведено результати дослідження впливу різних норм страхового гербіциду Люмакс та ручного прополювання на формування площі листків рослин кукурудзи, вміст у листках суми хлорофілів (а+b) та рівень урожайності культури, адже ці показники знаходяться у тісній прямій залежності. Встановлено, що найвищі значення вказаних показників мають місце у варіантах досліду із ручними прополюваннями та внесенням Люмаксу у нормі 4,0 л/га. Однак ручне прополювання, застосування якого показало дещо кращі результати врожайності, є малоймовірним для використання у виробничих масштабах за сучасних умов і вимог, оскільки може не забезпечити швидкого і вчасного видалення бур’янів з посівів кукурудзи, а також є надто затратним і малопродуктивним.