R.Sadridinov, post-graduate student
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University
The article deals with the highly topical issue of foreign trade of agrarian enterprises at the regional level. Indeed, in the context of European integration the vector of public policy problems facing the effective mechanism of interaction of the domestic economy with the world economy. Therefore, one of the priorities of the state policy is determined by the development of foreign trade of Ukraine’s regions, in order to expand beneficial relations with other countries and equitable entry of the national economy into the world economic space, which proves the relevance of the research.
The article analyzes the trends of foreign trade of agrarian enterprises in Mykolayiv region and discovers its characteristics, including: an important place in the regional foreign trade takes external trade with agricultural products. In 2014 its share in total regional exports of goods was 50.7%; the foreign trade indicators of agricultural products. It suggests that Mykolayiv region has a positive surplus; the main countries where agrarian enterprises are exported products from Mykolayiv region are the countries of FSU and Asia. In 2014 almost all the exports of agricultural products had been defined by the plant products; the bulk of crop production export were grains, seeds and oleaginous fruits, vegetables, edible fruits and nuts. In 2014 the bulk of exports (76.7%) were live animals (cattle Azerbaijan), 19% were for export of dairy products (condensed milk, yogurt, cream, butter), which was exported to 23 countries (mostly in Moldova, Georgia and Pakistan), 3.8% – other animal products to Belarus, Georgia, Hong Kong, the rest – meat and edible offal to China, Panama, Hong Kong and Malta Marshall Islands; the basis of agricultural imports in 2014 had been identified by plant products, which accounted for about 82.8% (in 2013 – 16.6%). In the import structure of crop products 48.9% were on edible fruits and nuts (citrus, bananas, peaches and apples) from Turkey, Ecuador, Greece and Poland, 26.7% on vegetables from Turkey, the US, India and the Netherlands, 12 3% on seeds and oleaginous fruits (sunflower seeds for sowing) from the US and Turkey, 12.1% on cereals (maize and sorghum seed) from Romania, Hungary, Chile and France; imports of animal products by 82.1% had consisted of supplies of meat and edible offal of the United States, Brazil and Canada, 12.7% on other products of animal origin from Brazil and the Netherlands, 5.1% on milk products from France and Russia, the rest on live animals from Russia and Estonia.
The study had revealed the following problems of foreign trade of agrarian enterprises in Mykolayiv region: low competitiveness of products’ quality; the need to expand markets and promotion of goods and services to foreign markets; lack of financial resources, which has a bad influence on the possibility of practical implementation of the most activities aimed at the development of foreign economic activity; insufficient development and modernization of the infrastructure to ensure the development of foreign economic activity; lack of developing experience in the sphere of specific projects of international cooperation; lack of coordination of cooperation between local authorities, businesses and the public.
The article offers the solutions to these problems, including: conducting the systematic work on the study and analysis of export potential in agriculture, as well as the dynamics of their competitive advantages, trends of the trade development and political situation of the world market in order to set priorities for export development for the next year; monitoring and analysis of export enterprises to timely identifying and eliminating of problems and obstacles in the development of this activity through the effective support from the public authorities; coordinating of measures to stimulate exports, provided for regional and national programs of economic development; supporting the enterprises with information management, marketing, exhibitions and fair activities, finding reliable partners for foreign operations; promoting the agrarian enterprises to create their export business groups, trade offices, warehouses, exhibition centers and other institutions abroad that will provide marketing and advertising support for exports of goods and services; promoting the training of foreign trade with the help of scientific and practical conferences and seminars on the development of foreign trade; increasing the investment attractiveness of the agrarian sector in the region; elaborating the strategy to increase the competitiveness of products and output it to the internal and external markets to import; developing the marketing strategies of enterprises in different regional segments of foreign markets; diversifying the exports and increasing the products’ portfolio.
Key words: agrarian enterprises, foreign trade, exports, imports, agricultural products.