Zaskaleta Svitlana, Candidate of Pedagogic Scinces
Matveyeva Kateryna, Candidate of Pedagogic Scinces
Mykolaiv National Agrarian University
Implementing the professional training of specialists for agrarian industry is on the agenda in the strategic plans of social and economic development of Western Europe. Research experience of Western European countries which are members of the European Union and its adaptation to national conditions allow to offer its own model of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry in the nearest future, which will take into account the realities of social and economic processes and solve tasks aimed at increasing the competitiveness of the agricultural sector professionals and overcoming the economic and food crisis that swept the world.
The Ukrainian scientists mention the necessity of appropriate changes in the professional training of spesialists for agrarian industry, focusing on the following issues: reforming of higher education (V. Andruschenko) , professional training (M.Yevtuh, O. Serdyuk) , creating a model based on the theory of educational innovation (O.Matviyenko) , lifelong learning (M. Stepko, B. Klymenko, L.Tovazhnyanskyy) .
A significant contribution to the development of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry belongs to Western European countries, as these countries have made significant progress in economic development due to high quality professional training of specialists for agrarian industry.
Implementing the professional training of specialists for agrarian industry is on the agenda in the strategic plans of social and economic development of Western Europe. The experience of Western European countries in this field and its adaptation to national conditions allow to offer own model of professional training of spesialists for agrarian industry in the nearest future.
A sagnificant contribution to the development of professional training of agrarian branch belongs to scientiests of Western European countries.
German experience shows that the country has built an effective four-level system of professional training of the agrarian sector. The typical feature of professional education in Germany is duality training.
The features of the German system of professional training in agricultural sector are:
– The concentration and integration of educational resources;
– Development of training programs in English;
– The existence of flexible tuition and encourage talented young people to teaching and learning and research activities;
– A close relationship with the practice of the learning process;
– Cooperation of universities with international corporations and foreign research institutes;
– Providing the distance learning;
– Providing expanded educational services for farmers. They are enclosed in providing agricultural knowledge and information tools for decision-making for business and life. Enhanced services focused on specific situations requiring impartiality, neutrality and independence from the interests of external parties. The main suppliers of advanced services are official service, extended service for federal states (lander), for private sector (individuals, partnerships, companies).
Analysis of dual system of agricultural education in Germany suggests that the organization of professional training helps to reduce the term of training for bachelors, raising the level of their practical training, formation and development of their competencies, which improves efficiency of further profession activity.
Analysis of the problem of professional training of specialists for agrarian branch in France shows that the country has a national approach to professional training of specialists of agrarian branch, which proves the importance of its role in economic and social progress as an objective pattern.
Modern French system of professional training of specialists of agrarian branch meets the requirements of social needs of economic development, technology and agriculture.
One of the features of professional training of specialists for agrarian branch in the country is focusing on practical training. The combination of the scientific basis with the quality training, which is closely connected with agricultural production, allows graduates of higher agricultural schools and institutions to realize it in its academic and professional career.
The effectiveness of the system of professional training of specialists is provided by the development of the following trends:
- modern response to market demand and production;
- advantages in curriculum are given to subjects of science, economic and social units;
- development of innovative forms in the system of continuous education for adults.
These trends are specific for professional training of specialists for agrarian branch in France.
The general trends in the development of higher education in France are democratization, individualization, the variety of education, pluralism of educational approaches, educational internationalization process integration in the global educational community, usage of IT technologies in the educational process.
Professional training of specialists of agricultural sector in Holland is represented by a number of higher agricultural institutions (top level) as well as regional centers of agricultural vocational training (middle and higher level). Most students of agricultural education institutions choose one of the schemes: short, medium or long-term period of study. Others get under the scheme which works on the environment, as well as training courses in comprehensive universities. Each diploma implies receiving five certificates, which consist of two or three modules, divided into five priority subjects. The proposed education and training is carried out by both public and private institutions. Vocational training in agriculture is very popular and it offers centers that are under the management of an autonomous organization formed by representatives of employers’ organizations. Special determined departments also delegate representatives from trade unions and local administration. The fund of preparation of workers in the agricultural sector covers the cost of the courses; the employer performs payment of salaries for running the courses.
The system of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry is represented by Wageningen Agricultural University. Wageningen Agricultural University offers a scientific academic background in agriculture, available for 4 – 5 years. It includes specialized university department of organic agriculture. Professional training of specialists for agricultural sector includes conducting research for organic farming.
An important part of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry in the country is environmental education. Environmental education in the Netherlands starts at the stage of secondary education (agricultural / professional education –16 year-olds). Higher education includes an alternative education (from 18 year-olds).
Basic principles of the environmental education are:
– full-time education (BD agriculture, BD gardening, BD fruit production);
– interaction between students and teachers from different schools, courses and international activities;
– development of biodynamic agriculture.
High School for agricultural vocational education provide:
– standard education to the level engineer;
– courses for environmental education and organic farming;
– fully engaged in study and work probationary period, consultancy / research / training on a contract basis.
Defining the optimal ways to solve the problem of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry we consider that it is necessary:
- to support the subsystem of generation of knowledge (institutions of agrarian education) with the aim of increasing the quantity of scientific research and work;
- to implement the complex of balanced development of all subsystems of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry, support of the innovative activity of educational institutions;
- to stimulate the agrarian companies for results of scientific research and innovations, hiring of qualified staff, creation of favorable conditions for producing of innovating output with high level of added value.
It’s necessary to underline that solving the problem of modernization of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry demands definition of its general trends. They include:
- creation of native competitive sector of scientific research and work in the branch of agriculture and providing the conditions for its spread reproduction:
- increasing the level of computerization of higher educational institutions;
- activization of the scientific and technical innovative activity of higher educational institutions and increasing its financing;
- forming the innovative structures in the system of education;
- reforming of the system of education in accordance with demands of European standards and keeping to cultural and intellectual traditions.
Analyzing the professional education of specialists for agrarian industry in EU countries we can do the following conclusions:
- Professional education of specialists of agrarian industry is one of the priorities of the state policy of employment in EU. The strategic goal of professional education is to define of state requirements to professional agricultural sector and individual educational needs of individuals in the professional self-realizing. Specific learning objectives are determined by the characteristics of social and economic situation and are reflected in the legal documents of the European Union.
- An effective mechanism of social partnership is established, in particular, on the following issues: definition and planning the needs in the training of specialists for agriculture; identifying the required level of professional competence and social specialists for agriculture; certification of future specialists of agricultural sector, permanent monitoring of the effectiveness of professional training in agricultural sector.
- State authorities are responsible and control the quality of educational services provided for vocational training of specialists for agricultural sector, promote the expansion of their range, provide up to date learning content together with the social partners according to the socio-economic processes taking place in the EU.
- EU countries provide integration of national systems of professional training of specialists for agrarian industry in a comprehensive European space.