In the article it was considered the influence of two factors on the quality of winter wheat grain – the characteristics of the variety and the weather conditions of the year. The results of 4 year-research during 2016-2019 were presented. The influence of genetic characteristics of winter wheat variety was greater than the weather conditions on nitrogen accumulation in wheat grain. The dependence of high quality of wheat grain on arid weather conditions was confirmed. Varieties such as Arctis and Panonikus showed more stable nitrogen.
The purpose of our research was to study the features of the formation of winter wheat grain quality indicators and its nitrogen consumption depending on the variety and weather conditions.
The methodology and the output. There were chosen 4 varieties of winter wheat of foreign selection that were characterized by high productivity potential. Research was conducted on the territory of Kharkiv and Cherkasy regions with different soil cover. The nitrogen content of the final crop products and the quality indicators of winter wheat Arctis, Panonikus, Matrix and Bodicek were determined.
Discussion of the results. As a result of our research, the dependence of protein and gluten content on weather conditions was confirmed. Under dry conditions of the year, the Arktis variety showed itself well, and by moderate temperature and humidity – Panonicus. Varieties Matrix and Bodicek had the worst quality indicators for all 4 years, but there was also a tendency to improve quality in arid conditions.
The nitrogen content in the grain of winter wheat varied depending on the variety and the conditions of the vegetation period. Arktis varieties contained more nitrogen – from 2.32 to 2.58% (depending on the year of cultivation) and Panonicus – from 2.24 to 2.61%. A lower nitrogen content in the grain was observed in the variety Matrix and Bodicek. The nitrogen content in the grain of Matrix wheat in 2016-2018 amounted to – 2.05%; 2.21%; 2.03%, Bodychek – 2.06%; 2.11%; 2.02 %.
Under more arid conditions of the year, the growth dilution of nitrogen in the aerial mass of winter wheat was not occurred intensively. The average nitrogen content over the years ranged from 2.16 ± 0.24% in 2018 to 2.32 ± 0.11% in 2017. The winter wheat grain was least provided with nitrogen (2.06 %) in 2019.
The variability of nitrogen content in winter wheat grain was more due to varietal specificity than the conditions of the study year. The Bodicek variety was the most sensitive to changes in weather conditions. The risk of getting substandard seeds was high.
Keywords: nitrogen content, winter wheat, varietal features, protein content, weather conditions.
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