The production of high-quality goods enables Ukrainian products to enter European and international markets, which in turn stimulates national producers to produce competitive products along with high-quality foreign counterparts. Promoting competitive high-quality products on European and world markets will strengthen the national currency, which in turn will contribute to the growth of Ukraine’s economy, create favorable conditions for business development, fair competition, and improve the life and health of the population.
Leaders of the world economy have proved that to achieve high goals in the field of quality requires a constant process of evaluation, research and management. Objects of qualimetry have a different nature, and it is not always possible to measure their quality indicators, they have to be evaluated by various existing methods . Even measuring the quality index using the measured technique is an assessment. Objects of different nature can include products, services, products, processes, systems or anything that is subject to evaluation in order to manage its quality.
To maintain a high level of product quality, there should be a single approach to evaluation that will be applied at all stages of the production cycle. A typical production cycle includes the stages of its creation from raw materials to finished products. Each of these stages has its own quality indicators set in regulations of different levels and periods of publication with different units of measurement.
It is not always advisable to increase all product quality indicators. Products must be competitive, that is ratio of quality and price must meet the requirements of consumers. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the requirements for product quality indicators. It consists in defining and establishing such values of quality indicators, at which the set goal in the field of quality is most economically and quickly achieved without violating the current restrictions, that is laws or regulations.
As a method of optimization, a method based on the use of generalized quality indicators is proposed. This approach achieves a number of advantages, including increasing the methodological reliability of quality assessment, reducing the list of controlled indicators, the possibility of unification of diagnosis, etc.
Key words: generalized quality indicator, qualimetry objects, form parameter, quality indicators assessment.
- Versan, V.G., Chajka I. I. (2012). Sistemy upravlenija kachestvom produkcii. M. : Izdatelstvo standartov, 104.
- Stadnyk B.I., Motalo V.P., Motalo A.V. (2009). Systema ocinyuvannya yakosti produkciyi z vykorystannyam virtualnoyi miry yakosti. Standartyzaciya, sertyfikaciya, yakist, 2, 48 -55.
- Bajczar R. I. Skolozdra M. M. (2013). Ocinyuvannya priorytetnosti koeficiyentiv vagomosti dlya vyznachennya kompleksnoyi ocinky kompetentnosti personalu. Visnyk Nacionalnogo universytetu “Lvivska politexnika”. Ser. : Avtomatyka, vymiryuvannya ta keruvannya, 753, 100-104.
- Bajczar R.I., Kruglova O.A. (2006). Mizhnarodna standartyzaciya yakosti vody. Medychna gidrologiya ta reabilitaciya, T. 4, № 3б, 103-106.
- Mykyjchuk M., Stolyarchuk P., Bubela T. (2013). Osnovni zavdannya ta oznaky metrologichnogo zabezpechennya yakosti produkciyi. Vymiryuvalna texnika ta metrologiya, 74, 92-97.
- Novickij N.I., Oleksjuk V.M. (2001). Upravlenie kachestvom produkcii: Uchebnoe posobie. M : Novoe znanie, 366.
- Azgaldov G. G., Rajhman Je. P. (1973). O kvalimetrii. M. : Izd-vo standartov, 172.
- Fletcher C. (1996). Total Quality Management: A Pratctical Guide. PM Network, February.
- Struckenbruck L.C. (1992). The Implementation of Project Management: The Professional’s Handbook. Addison – Wesley P.C. PMI. Drexel Hill.
- Uajt P., Skott D., Shulc R. (1963). POED – novyj metod ocenki effektivnosti sistem. Trudy amerikanskogo instituta radioinzhenerov po rukovodstvu inzhenernymi razrabotkami, № 10.
- Barkovskyj V.V., Barkovska N.V., Lopatin O.K. (2010). Teoriya jmovirnostej ta matematychna statystyka. 5-te vydannya. Kyiv: Centr uchbovoyi literatury, 424.
- Ventcel E. S. (1999). Teorija verojatnostej i matematicheskaja statistika. M. : Vysshaja shkola, 576.
- Gmurman V. E. (2004). Teorija verojatnostej i matematicheskaja statistika. M. : Vysshaja shkola, 479.
This paper presents an overview of the prospects for the use of agricultural wood residues, specific to the climatic zone adjacent to the Prut River and the qualitative characteristics of densified solid biofuels in the form of pellets produced from the main types of the agricultural wood biomass, taken from agricultural plantations in the Republic of Moldova and Botosani, Iasi, Vaslui and Galați counties in Romania. The aim of the paper is to establish the energy potential of the main indigenous agricultural wood residues and to analyze the quality of the pellets produced from these residues.
The research results showed that the pellets produced from the studied agricultural residues mainly meet ENPlus 3 requirements for most qualitative parameters, except for those produced from blackberry and currant residues. Residues from the prunning of some types of fruit shrubs can be used to produce pellets by creating mixtures of different proportions, and their qualitative characteristics can be significantly improved by thermo-chemical pre-treatment of the raw material.
Keywords: plant biomass, densified solid biofuels, pellets, biofuel, energy potential, agricultural wood residues.
- Hăbășescu, I and Cerempei, V. Potențialul energetic al masei vegetale din agricultura Republicii Moldova. Mater. conf. „ENERGY OF MOLDOVA – 2012”. 2012, pp. 355-359.
- Marian, G, et al. Estimarea capacității calorifice a biomasei lignocelulozice provenite din diferite zone ale Republicii Moldova în conceptul de producere de combustibili solizi. Știința agricolă. UASM, 2013, Vol. 1, pp. 56-62.
- Scarlat, N, Blujdea, V and Dallemand, J.F. Assessment of the availability of agricultural and forest residues for bioenergy production in Romania. În: Biomass and Bioenergy. 2011, Vol. 35, pp. 1995-2005.
- Pavlenco, A, Marian, G and Gudîma, A. Calitatea potențialului energetic al reziduurilor agricole: studiu de caz pentru Regiunea de Dezvoltare Nord, Republica Moldova. Știința Agricolă. 2018, Vol. 2, pp. 141-148.
- Gudîma, A. Evaluarea utilizării reziduurilor agricole pentru scopuri energetice. Studiu de caz pentru raionul Soroca, Republica Moldova. În: Meridian ingineresc. 2017, Vol. 1, pg. 26-29.
- Cimpoieș, G and Popa, S. Cătina Albă. Chișinău : UASM, 2018. p. 148. ISBN 978-9975-56-601-8.
- Balan, V, et al. Cultura arbuștilor fructifieri și căpșunului. Chișinău : s.n., 2017.
- Marian, G, et al. Caracterizarea reziduurilor provenite din lanțul tehnologic de producere a cătinii albe. Știința agricolă. 2020, Vol. 2, pp. 91-96. https://www.sa.uasm.md/.
- Marian, Gr. Biocombustibili solizi, producere și proprietăți. Ch : Bons Offices, 2016. p. 172. ISBN 978-9975-87-166-2.
- Iftikhar, M, et al. Biomass densiﬁcation: Eﬀect of cow dung on the physicochemical properties of wheat straw and rice husk based biomass pellets. Biomass and Bioenergy. pp. 1-6.
- Miranda, T, et al. Review of Pellets from Different Sources. Materials. 2015, Vol. 8, pp. 1413-1427.
- Jewiars, M, et al. Parameters Aﬀecting RDF-Based Pellet Quality. Energies. 2020, Vol. 13, 910, pp. 1-17.
- Beretta, Claudio, et al. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland. Waste Management. ELSEVIER, 2013, Vol. 33.
- Gudîma, A. Stadiul actual cu privire la utilizarea deșeurilor agricole și silvice pentru obținerea energiei termice în condițiile Republicii Moldova. [ed.] Gh. Cimpoieș. 2011, Vol. 28, pg. 249 – 252.
- Alakangas, Eija. Biomass and agricultural residues for energy generation. În: Fuel Flexible Energy Generation. 2016, pp. 59-96.
- Portugal-Pereira, Joana, et al. Agricultural and agro-industrial residues-to-energy: Technoeconomic and environmental assessment in Brazil. In: Biomass and Bioenergy. ELSEVIER, 2015, Vol. 81, pp. 521-533.
- Gudîma, A, Marian, G and Pavlenco, A. Stadiul actual al cercetărilor cu privire la influența variabilelor de producție asupra calității biocombustibililor densificați în formă de peleți. În: Meridian ingineresc. 2017, Vol. 1, pp. 51-60.
- Niedziółka, I, et al. Assessment of the energetic and mechanical properties of pellets produced from agricultural biomass. În: Renewable Energy. 2015, Vol. 76, pp. 312 – 317.
- Paiano, A and Laqioia, G. Energy potential from residual biomass towards meeting the EU renewable energy and climate targets. The Italian case. Energy Pol. 2016, Vol. 91, pp. 161-173.
- Stenbing, B, și alții. Bioenergy in Switzerland: assessing the domestic sustainable biomass potential. În: Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2010, Vol. 14, 8, pg. 2256-2265.
- Toklu, E.. Biomass energy potential and utilization in Turkey. În: Renewable Energy. 2017, Vol. 107, pp. 235-244.
- Tumuluru, J. S, et al. Impact of process conditions on the density and durability. Bioenerg. Res. 2015, pp. 388-401.
- Tumuluru, J.S, și alții. A review on biomass torrefaction process and product properties for energy applications, Industrial. În: Biotechnology. 2011, Vol. 7, pg. 384-401.
- Albashabsheh, N.T and Stamm, J.L. Optimization of lignocellulosic biomass-to-biofuel supply chains with densification: Literature review. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2021, Vol. 144.
- Serrano, C, et al. Effect of moisture content, particle size and pine addition on quality parameters of barley straw pellets. În: Fuel Processing Technology. 2011, Vol. 92, pp. 699-706.
- Stelte, W, et al. A study of bonding and failure mechanisms in fuel pellets from different biomass resources. Biomass and Bioenergy. Elsevier, 2011, Vol. 35, p. 2011.
- Samuelsson, R, Thyrel, M and Sjӧstrӧm, M. Effect of biomaterial characteristics on pelletizing properties and biofuel pellet quality. Fuel Processing technology. 2009, Vol. 90, pp. 1129-1134.
- Samuelsson, R, et al. Moisture content and storage time influence the binding mechanisms in biofuel wood pellets. Applied energy. 2012, pp. 109-115.
- Stelte, W, et al. Fuel pellets from biomass: the importance of the pelletizing pressure and its dependency on the processing conditions. În: Fuel. 2011, Vol. 90, pp. 3285-3290.
- Nielsen, N, Holm, J.K și Felby, C. Effect of fiber orientation on compression and frictional properties of sawdust particles in fuel pellet production. În: Energy Fuels. 2009, Vol. 23, pg. 3211-3216.
- Holm, J.K, et.al. Toward an understanding of controlling parameters in softwood and hardwood pellets production. În: Energy Fuels. 2006, Vol. 20, pg. 2446-2449.
- Nielsen, N, et al. Effect of extractives and storage on the pelletizing process of sawdust. Fuel. 2010, Vol. 89, 1.
There has been an increase in the demand for corn in the world. Its production requires the use of high-performance agricultural machinery, including combines. Modern corn harvesters have high grain losses and, therefore, their main apparatuses must be improved. Known methods for the separation of corn cobs have been analyzed. Designing corn harvesters requires specific knowledge, including the mechanical properties of the crop itself. For this reason, a literary analysis was carried out to study the physical and mechanical properties of corn stalks and cobs. The impact of a number of factors such as mechanical and physical properties of stalks, the mechanical forces exerted through the harvester combine, plant curvature, and pick-up cobs, etc. on the cutting process have been found from previous researches. The aim of this article is the theoretical justification of forces for corn cobs separation. To achieve this aim, a mathematical model which takes into account the complex combination of several forces has been developed. The technological process of corn-cobs separation is considered as the combination of different forces, and the valuation of the resulting tension was done. The results of the simulation were compared to experimental data to verify this model. The wave theory has proved to be more accurate compared to the static model. The results of the theoretical research for corn-cobs separation from stems are given. The experimental results made it possible to refine the mathematical model. Further research will be focused on the intensification of this process by the integration of stretching the stalk together with its twisting.
Key words: corn, cob, separation, cob separation system, mathematical model.
- Sobukola, O. P., Kajihausa, O. E. Onwuka, V. I. and Esan T. A. (2013). Physical properties of high quality maize (Swam 1 variety) seeds (Zea mays) as affected by moisture levels. African Journal of Food Science, 7(1): 1–8.
- Демко А., Демко О. Чому втрати урожаю – не збитки, а статистика? Пропозиція. № 9. С. 100-104.
- George H. Robertson; Melvin E. Lazar; John M. Krochta; Daniel F. Farkas; John L. Bomben. Method of removing corn from the cob. 1976-04-27 Publication of US4107340A. URL: https://patents.google.com/patent/US4107340A/en.
- Jonathan E. Ricketts. Dual action corn cob separation and corn cob separator. 2008-04-22. Publication of US20090264169A1. URL: https://patents.google.com/patent/US20090264169A1/en.
- Redekop Leo, Mayerle Dean. Harvesting corn cobs. 2007-10-15. Publication of US20100193411A1. URL: https://patents.google.com/patent/US20100193411.
- Кукурузоуборочные машины / К.В. Шатилов, Б.Д. Козачок, А.П. Орехов и др. М.: Машиностроение, 1981. 224 с.
- Li, X. P. and Gao, L. X. (2007). Experimental study on breaking mechanism of kernel stem of corn seed. Transactions of the CSAE, 23: 47-51.
- X, J., Li, X. F., Sun, L., Du, X. and Gao, L. X. (2009). Experiment on optimal forcing method for seed corn thresher, Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Mach. 40 71-75, 29.
- Gao, L. X., Li, F., Zhang, X. W., Zhang, Y. L., Liu, X. and Jiao, W. P. (2012). Mechanism of moisture content affect on corn seed threshing, Trans. Chinese Soc. Agric. Mach. 42 92-96, 42
- Dominguez, H. D. A, Suhendro, E. L. and Rooney, L.W. (1997). Factors affecting rapid visco analyser curves for the determination of maize kernel hardness. Journal of Cereal Science, 25: 93-102
- Szymanek, M. (2011). Effects of blanching on some physical properties and processing recovery of sweet corn cobs. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(7): 1164–1171.
- Akritidis, C. B. 1974. The mechanical characteristics of maize stalks in relation to the characteristics of cutting blade. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 19(1): 1–12.
- Esehaghbeygi, A., B. Hoseinzadeh, and A. A. Masoumi. (2009). Effects of moisture content and urea fertilizer on bending and shearing properties of canola stem. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 25(6): 947–951.
- Prasad, J., and C. P. Gupta. (1975). Mechanical properties of maize stalk as related to harvesting. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 20(1): 79–87.
- Miu, P. 2016. Combine Harvesters Theory, Modeling, and Design. 1st ed. New York, USA: Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
- Сагомонян А.Я. Волны напряжения в силовых средах: учебное пособие. М., 1985. 416 с.
- Al-Zube, L., Sun, W., Robertson, D., Cool, D. The elastic modulus for maize stems. Plant Methods,14, 11 (2018). URL: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13007-018-0279-6
- Ерофеев В.И., Кажаев В.В., Семерикові Н.П. . Волны в стержнях. Дисперсия. Диссипация. Нелинейность. М.: Физматлит, 2002. 208 с.
- Szymanek, M. 2011. Effects of blanching on some physical properties and processing recovery of sweet corn cobs. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 4(7): 1164–1171.
- Kaliyan, N., Morey, R. V. Densification characteristics of corn cobs. Fuel Processing Technology. 2010, 91, 559–565. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2010.01.001
- Al-Mitewty, M. I., A. Yahya, M. Razif, and N. Mat. 2019. Physical and mechanical properties of sweet corn plant. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 21(4): 152–160.
The growth and development of young animals and the efficiency of crossing ewes the Ascanian Fine-Fleeced breed (AFF) with ram-sires of Texel (AFFxT) and Merinolandschaf (AFFxM) were studied. It was found that hybrid lambs AFF × T have a significantly higher live weight at birth – 5.8 kg against 4.7 kg in purebred peers. The revealed difference for these lambs remained in the following ontogenesis periods. In general, from birth to 6 months of age, the average daily gain increase in ram-lambs AFF × T was higher compared to purebreds and crossbreeds AFF × M by 16.6 and 6.4%, respectively. When estimating the growth rate of livestock during the rearing period, it was shown that AFFxT youngling probably prevailed in the average daily gains of AFF analogues by 26.1 g, and AFFxM by 9.6 g. over lambs the other two groups on such parameters, as height in buttocks, breast width, breast depth, oblique length of a trunk, a breast girth, which are completely confirmed by body structure indices. In particular, at birth and at the age of two, four and six months, these youngling had higher thoracic and massiveness indices. The uniformity index showed that these crossbreeds grew more evenly and had the highest value of this indicator, compared with animals of other experimental groups. In contrast to purebred Merino peers in the early postembryonic period, they are characterized by significantly higher parameters of live weight gain, growth intensity, growth stress, as well as the young mutton meat qualities better characteristics. In contrast to purebred Merino peers in the early postembryonic period, they are characterized by significantly higher parameters of live weight gain, growth intensity, growth stress, as well as the young mutton meat qualities better characteristics. In general, it was found that crossbreeding had a positive effect on the young animals’ meat parameters in the early post-embryonic period. The ram-lambs obtained from crossing Ascanian Fine-Fleeced ewes with Texel and Merinolandschaf are characterized by a high rate of growth and development, a better level of live weight gain compared to purebred peers. Nevertheless, the most effective combination is observed with the Texel breed, so it is advisable to use these ram-sires to increase the young animals live weight of sheep new created genotype and getting the youngling with better quality mutton.
Key words: sheep, genotype, live weight, linear parameters, growth rate.
- Aboneev, V.V., & Surov, A.I. (2007). Myasnaya produktivnost’ molodnyaka ovets v zavisimosti ot ego proiskhozhdeniya i vozrasta ot”ema ot matok [Meat productivity of young sheep, depending on its origin and age of weaning from ewes]. Ovtsy, kozy, sherstyanoe delo – Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 4, 39–43 [in Russian].
- Buylov, S. V. (1964). Nekotorye morfologicheskie osobennosti stroeniya pyasnykh kostey u tonkorunnykh ovets i ikh pomesey [Some morphological features of the metatarsal bones structure in Fine-Fleeced sheep and their hybrids]. S. V. Buylov, & M. Epshteyn (Eds.), Doklady TSKhA – Scientific Reports of the Timiryazev Agricultural Academy. (Vols. 104), (pp. 353-361). Moscow: TSKhA [in Russian].
- Gochiyaev, Kh. N. (2014) Myasnaya produktivnost’ baranchikov sovetskoy m’yaso-sherstnoy porodі, materi kotorykh imeli raznuyu zhivuyu massu [Meat productivity of the Soviet Meat-and-Wool breed ram-lambs, whose mothers had different live weight]. Ovtsy, kozy, sherstyanoe delo – Sheep, Goats, Wool Business, 1, 31–32 [in Russian].
- Erokhin, A. I., Magomadov, T. A., & Karasev E. A. (2010). Sootnoshenie myshechnoy zhirovoy y kostnoy tkaney v tushakh ovets raznogo napravleniya produktivnosti i vozrasta [The ratio of muscle, adipose and bone tissue in sheep carcasses of different productivity directions and age]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 4, 29–33 [in Russian].
- Zabelina, M. V., Levina, T. Yu., Skrіnnikova , A. P., & Babochkina, P. S.( 2017). Lineynyy i vesovoy rost molodnyaka ovets raznogo proiskhozhdeniya. [Linear and weight growth of different origins young sheep]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 2, 12–13 [in Russian].
- Ismailov, I. S. & Gogaev, O. K. (2003). Myasnaya produktivnost’ pomesey raznogo proiskhozhdeniya [Meat productivity of different origins hybrids]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 1, 19–20 [in Russian].
- Kovalenko, T. I. & Nezhlukchenko, T.I. (2008). Vplyv liniino-porodnoi hibrydyzatsii na intensyvnist rostu svynei [Influence of linear-breed hybridization on pig growth intensity]. V.O.Ushkarenko (Eds.), Tavriiskyi naukovyi visnyk – Tavrian Scientific Herald. (Issue58), (Part II), (pp. 26–29). Kherson: KhDAU “Ailant” [in Ukrainian].
- Kovalenko, V. P., & Bolelaya, S. Yu. (1998). Selektsionnaya model’ prognozirovaniya myasnoy produktivnosti ptitsy [Breeding model for predicting poultry meat productivity]. Tsitologiya i genetika – Cytology and Genetics, Vol. 32, No. 4, 55-59 [in Russian].
- Kotarev, V.I., & Ramazanov, A.G. “et al.”( 2007). Rost i myasnaya produktivnost’ molodnyaka ovets russkoy dlinnosherstnoy porody i ee pomesey s baranami teksel’ [Growth and meat productivity of young sheep of the Russian Longhaired breed and its crossbreeds with Texel rams]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 1, 39–41 [in Russian].
- Krylova, O., & Zaruba, K. (2012). Askaniiska tonkorunna poroda, tavriiskyi vnutriporodnyi typ [Ascanian Fine-Fleeced breed, Tavrian intrabreed type]. Tvarynnytstvo Ukrainy – Animal Breeding of Ukraine, 8, 42–45 [in Ukrainian].
- Kulikova, A. Ya., & Pavlov, T. B. (2003). Nekotorye rezul’taty skreshchivaniya matok stavropol’skoy porody s baranami porody teksel’ i poll-dorset [Some results of crossing of Stavropol breed ewes with Texel and Poll-Dorset rams]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 1, 25–26 [in Russian].
- Molchanov, A. V., & Kozin, A. N. (2017). Lineynyy rost i nekotorye inter’ernye pokazateli baranchikov volgogradskoy porody s raznoy toninoy shersti [Linear growth and some exterior indicators of Volgograd ram-lambs with different wool fineness]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 2, 10–11 [in Russian].
- Omarov, A. A. (2012). Dinamika rosta i razvitiya molodnyaka severo-severokavkazskoy myaso-sherstnoy porody i pomesey raznykh genotipov [Dynamics of the North Caucasian Meat-and-Wool breed young stock growth and development and crossbreeds of different genotypes]. V.V. Aboneev (Eds.). nauch. tr. – Collection of scientific works of the Stavropol’ State Scientific Institution SNIEZeK . (Vols. 1), (No 5), (pp. 27-29). Stavropol’: GNU SNIIZhK [in Russian].
- Petryshak, O. K. & Kyryliv, Ya. I. (2005). Otsinka miasnoi produktyvnosti ovets zalezhno vid yikh viku i stati [Evaluation of the sheep meat productivity depending on their age and sex]. Naukovyi Visnyk LNUVMB imeni S.Z.Hzhytskoho – Scientific Herald of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine named after S.Z.Gzhytsky, (Vol.7), (Part 1), (No. 1), 44–47 [in Ukrainian].
- Plokhinskiy, N. A. (1969). Rukovodstvo po biometrii dlya zootekhnikov [Guide of biometrics for zootechnicians]. Moscow: Kolos [in Russian].
- Polska, P. I., & Kalashchuk, H. P. (2006). Efektyvnist selektsii za period vyvedennia ta udoskonalennia intensyvnykh typiv askaniiskykh m’iaso-vovnovykh ovets [Selection efficiency during the period of breeding and improvement of intensive types the Ascanian Meat-and-Wool sheep]. I. Voronenko (Eds.), Vivcharstvo – Sheep Breeding. (Issue 33), (pp. 132–138). Nova Kakhovka: “PYEL” [in Ukrainian].
- Protasov, A. Yu., & Sel’kin, I. I. (2012). Intevsivnost’ rosta molodnyaka ovets severokavkazskoy myaso-sherstnoy porody s raznoy zhivoy massoy pri rozhdenii [The intensity of the North Caucasian Meat-and-Wool breed young sheep growth with different live weight at birth]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 1, 18–20 [in Russian].
- Svechin, K.B. (1976). Individual’noe razvitie sel’skokhozyaystvennykh zhivotnykh [Individual development of farm animals]. Kyiv: Urozhay [in Russian].
- Svechin, Yu. K. (1985). Prognozirovanie produktivnosti zhivotnykh v rannem vozraste [Predicting the performance of animals at an early age]. Vestnik sel’skokhozyaystvennoy nauki – Herald of Agrarian Science, 4, 36–108 [in Russian].
- Skorykh, L. N., Vol’nyy, D. N., & Aboneev, D. V. (2009). Rost i razvitie molodnyaka ovets, poluchennykh v rezul’tate promyshlennogo skreshchivaniya [Growth and development of young sheep obtained because of commercial crossing]. Zootekhniya – Zootechnics, 11, 26-28 [in Russian].
- Traiso,v B. B., Yuldashbaev, Yu. A., Esengaliev, K. G., & Smagulov, D. B. (2017). Rost krossbrednogo molodnyaka za molochnyy period [Growth of crossbred young animals during the dairy period]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 1, 11–23 [in Russian].
- Ul’yanov, A. N., & Kulikova, A. Ya. (2014). Vvodnoe skreshchivanie ovets yuzhnoy myasnoy porody s ottsovskoy porodoy teksel’ [Introductory crossing of Southern Meat sheep with the Texel parent]. Sheep, Goats, and Wool Business, 4, 18–20 [in Russian].
- Chernomyz, T. O., Lesyk, O.B., Pokhyvka, M. V., Tymofiishyn, I. I., & Hurskis, L.L. (2014). Chernomyz Pokaznyky produktyvnosti ovets m’iaso-vovnovoi porody merynolandshaf nimetskoi selektsii v umovakh zakhidnoho rehionu [Performance indicators of the German selection Merinolandschaf Meat-and-Wool sheep breed under the western region conditions]. nauk. prats PDATU. Ser. Silskohospodarski nauky -Collection of scientific works of PDATU. Agricultural Sciences Series. (Vol. 22), (pp. 108-113). Kam’ianets-Podilskyi: PDATU [in Ukrainian].
- Shuvaiev, V. T., & Kalynychenko, O. O. (2001). Miasna produktyvnist baraniv riznykh henotypiv [Meat productivity of different genotypes rams]. Zb. nauk. prats – Collection of scientific works of KhZVI: Problemy zooinzhenerii ta veterynarnoi medytsyny Problems of zooengineering and veterinary medicine. (Vol. 8), (Part I), (pp.99 – 102). Kharkiv: KhZVI [in Ukrainian].
In the eastern part of the Forest-Steppe of Ukraine, according to the research of 2016– 18 in the crops of sunflower after spring cereals as forecrops placed in the last place in a stationary, nine-course, steam-grain-row rotation field 42 species of weeds and contaminants were found. Setaria glauсa (L.) Beauv., Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Roem. et Schult., Chenopodium album L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Solanum nigrum L., Portulaca oleracea L., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Polygonum lapathifolium L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L. were the basic species of weeds in crops. Besides these weeds, Fallopia convolvulus (L.) A. Love, Panicum miliaceum var. ruderale Kitag., Xanthium strumarium L., Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen., Malva neglecta Wallr., Thlaspi arvense L., Vicia villosa Roth., Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv., Avena fatua L., Stachys annua L., Polygonum aviculare L., Orobanche cumana Wallr., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Senecio vernalis Waldst. et Kit., Erigeron canadensis L., Sisymbrium Loeselii L., Viola arvensis Murr., Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Melandrium album (Mill.) Garcke, Conium maculatum L., Sonchus arvensis L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Cichorium intybus L., Lappa major Gaertn., Taraxacum officinale Web. et Wigg, Trifolium pratense L., Linaria vulgaris Mill., Rumex crispus L., Lactuca tatarica (L.) С. А. Мey. were basic species in the crops. Triticosecale Witt., Hordeum vulgare L. and Triticum L. were fall from the seeds of field crops.
The use of herbicides in sunflower crops has significantly affected on dominance and subdominance indices of certain weed species over the years of research. Thus, in 2016 and 2018, dicotyledonous perennial species were the largest according to the total mass of weeds, in 2017 annual cereals were.
In sunflower crops the most weeds and contaminants were found in the variants without fertilizers at plowing (control) and using intensive organic-mineral background at chiseling. Thus, in the variants with plowing in the control, organic background (application of manure 30 t / ha for corn and black steam field), organic background + N15P15K15 and organic background + N30P30K30, 29, 23, 21 and 23 species of weeds and contaminants were found respectively, and 27 species were found by chiseling (organic background + N30P30K30 ). For the most part, the type of weediness of sunflower crops in the control variants differed from the type of weediness in the fertilized variants. In general the level of weediness of sunflower crops by plowing was from medium to strong and by chiseling was from strong to very strong.
Key words: sunflower, crop rotation, tillage, fertilizers, weeds, herbicides.
- Peretiatko, I. V. (2013). Ekonomichna efektyvnist vyrobnytstva soniashnyku v silskohospodarskykh pidpryiemstvakh Ukrainy [Economic efficiency of sunflower production in agricultural enterprises of Ukraine]. Visnyk Poltavskoi derzhavnoi ahrarnoi akademii, 2, 175-179 [in Ukrainian].
- Tkalich, I. D., Hyrka, A. D., Bochevar, O. V., & Tkalich, Yu. I. (2018). Ahrotekhnichni zakhody pidvyshchennia urozhainosti nasinnia soniashnyku v umovakh Stepu Ukrainy [Agrotechnical measures to increase the yield of sunflower seeds in the steppe of Ukraine]. Zernovi kultury, 2, 1, 44-52 [in Ukrainian]. doi: /https://doi.org/10.31867/2523-4544/0006.
- Havryliuk, Yu., & Matsai, N. (2019). Shkodochynnist burianiv u posivakh soniashnyku v umovakh Livoberezhnoho Stepu Ukrainy [Harmfulness of weeds in sunflower crops in the conditions of the Left Bank Steppe of Ukraine]. Visnyk Lvivskoho natsionalnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Ahronomiia, 23, 61–66 [in Ukrainian]. doi: /https://doi.org/10.31734/agronomy2019.01.061.
- Kurdiukova, O. M., & Melnyk, N. O. (2010). Urozhainist soniashnyku zalezhno vid rivnia zaburianenosti y tryvalosti rostu malorichnykh burianiv u posivakh [Sunflower yield depends on the level of weeds and the duration of growth of perennial weeds in crops]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho derzhavnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Silskohospodarski nauky, 1, 11-14 [in Ukrainian].
- Babenko, A. I. (2017). Vplyv zaburianenosti na urozhai ta yakist nasinnia soniashnyku [Influence of weeds on yield and quality of sunflower seeds]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats «Naukovyi visnyk NUBiP Ukrainy». Ahronomiia, 269, 90-98 [in Ukrainian].
- Popova, M. M., Bolduiev, V. I., & Borysyk, O. D. (2004). Produktyvnist soniashnyku zalezhno vid terminu povernennia yoho na poperednie mistse [Productivity of sunflower depending on the term of its return to the previous place]. Visnyk ahrarnoi nauky Prychornomoria, 1, 1, 132-134 [in Ukrainian].
- Kurdiukova, O. M., & Tyshchuk, O. P. (2021). Chornoshchyr netrebolystyi (Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen.): zapasy nasinnia, dynamika skhodiv, metody kontroliu [Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen.: seed stocks, seedling dynamics, control methods]. Karantyn i zakhyst roslyn, 1, 40-43 [in Ukrainian]. doi: /https://doi.org/10.36495/2312-0614.2021.1.40-43.
- Zuza, V. S. (2010). Vydovyi sklad burianiv v posivakh soniashnyku i pytannia yoho prohnozuvannia [Species composition of weeds in sunflower crops and issues of its forecasting]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu oliinykh kultur NAAN, 15, 91-94 [in Ukrainian].
- Kovalenko, A. M. (2018). Rozmishchennia soniashnyka v sivozminakh korotkoi rotatsii u Pivdennomu Stepu [Placement of sunflower in short crop rotations in the Southern Steppe]. Novitni tekhnolohii vyroshchuvannia silskohospodarskykh kultur: Tezy dopovidei VI Mizhnarodnoi naukovo-praktychnoi konferentsii molodykh vchenykh (29 bereznia 2018, Kyiv). Vinnytsia: Nilan-LTD, 91-93 [in Ukrainian].
- Shevchenko, M. V. (2014). Vplyv sposobiv obrobitku gruntu ta herbitsydiv na vrozhainist prosapnykh kultur v Livoberezhnomu Lisostepu [The influence of tillage methods and herbicides on crop yields in the Left-Bank Forest-Steppe]. Naukovi pratsi Instytutu bioenerhetychnykh kultur i tsukrovykh buriakiv, 20, 138-142 [in Ukrainian].
- Ivakin, O. V. (2009). Vplyv system osnovnoho obrobitku gruntu na vrozhainist kultur sivozminy skhidnoho Lisostepu [The influence of basic tillage systems on crop yields of the Eastern Forest-Steppe]. Visnyk Dnipropetrovskoho derzhavnoho ahrarnoho universytetu. Silskohospodarski nauky, 1, 36-39 [in Ukrainian].
- Ivakin, O. V. (2012). Vplyv system obrobitku gruntu ta herbitsydiv na zaburianenist i vrozhainist kultur sivozminy [The influence of tillage systems and herbicides on weediness and crop yields]. Visnyk KhNAU. Roslynnytstvo, selektsiia i nasinnytstvo, plodoovochivnytstvo, 2, 209-215 [in Ukrainian]. URL: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Vkhnau_roslyn
- Tanchyk, S. P., & Babenko, A. I. (2018). Protyburianova efektyvnist system osnovnoho obrobitku gruntu za vyroshchuvannia soniashnyku [Anti-weed efficiency of basic tillage systems for sunflower cultivation]. Zbirnyk naukovykh prats «Naukovyi visnyk NUBiP Ukrainy». Ahronomiia, 294, 67-74 [in Ukrainian].
- Tkalich, Yu. I., Shevchenko, O. M., & Matiukha, V. L. (2013). Zaburianenist ta vrozhainist soniashnyku pry riznykh sposobakh obrobitku gruntu i vnesenni herbitsydiv [Weediness and yield of sunflower using different methods of tillage and herbicides]. Biuleten Instytutu silskoho hospodarstva stepovoi zony NAAN Ukrainy, 4, 18–21 [in Ukrainian].
- Poliakov, O. I., Nikitenko, O. V., & Litoshko, S. V. (2019). Vplyv ahropryiomiv vyroshchuvannia na zaburianenist posiviv ta vrozhainist soniashnyku [Influence of cultivation techniques on weed infestation and sunflower yield]. Naukovo-tekhnichnyi biuleten Instytutu oliinykh kultur NAAN, 27, 107–116 [in Ukrainian]. doi: /https://doi.org/10.36710/ioc-2019-27-12.
- Zuza, V. S., & Hutianskyi, R. A. Herbolohichnyi monitorynh poliv silskohospodarskykh pidpryiemstv [Herbological monitoring of fields of agricultural enterprises]. Kharkiv: Mahda LTD, 2012. p. 22 [in Ukrainian].
10 % of Danish farms are organic. They cultivate 11% of the agricultural land in Denmark. They produce good healthy raw materials with the utmost care for the environment, biodiversity and animal welfare.The Danish consumers are the most pro-organic consumers in the world. In fact, Denmark has the world’s highest organic share and the most well-developed organic market. More than half of the Danes – more specifically 51.4 percent – buy organic food every single week. The unique and governmentally certified Ø-label has been very important for the widespread success that organic food products have achieved in Denmark. A high standard of food safety, healthy quality food and a unique organic control system are the main reasons why exports of organic food products have increased year on year.Denmark has a long tradition of having a public food control system – from “farm to fork” – that is important for the high confidence that consumers have in the organic control system and organic products.Paving the way to success – cooperation, policy development, organic research. More than 20 years of targeted research has contributed to the success of organic production in Denmark.General reasons for buying organic food: safe, healthy and natural food – without synthetic flavorings, colorants and sweeteners; GMOs are prohibited;good animal welfare – natural behavior with access to outdoor areas; protection of the environment and drinking water – chemical pesticides are prohibited; strong focus on sustainability; high consumer confidence in organic food due to state certification system; food trends – local, healthy & natural, and ”easy-to-make”.
Organic Agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems, and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic Agriculture combines tradition, innovation, and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and good quality of life for all involved.
Keywords: organic agriculture, Danish model, regulations, control.
- Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1999. URL: http://www.fao.org/input/download/report/250/nf00_01e.pdf
- What is organic agriculture? URL: http://www.fao.org/organicag/oa-faq/oa-faq1/es/
- Principles of organic agriculture. URL: https://www.ifoam.bio/why-organic/shaping-agriculture/four-principles-organic
- Global organic food market nears €100 billion. URL: https://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/news/global-organic-food-market-nears-100-billion/
- The organic way – the Danish model. URL: https://www.organicdenmark.com/facts-figures-about-danish-organics
- Organic food labels. URL: https://www.organicdenmark.com/the-danish-organic-label
- What is the Organic Cuisine Label? URL: https://oekologisk-spisemaerke.dk
- Organic market share. URL: https://statistics.fibl.org/
- Facts and figures about Danish Organics – Organic Denmark. URL: https://www.organicdenmark.com/facts-figures-about-danish-organics
- World leading organic nation – Organic Denmark. URL: https://www.organicdenmark.com/world-leading-organic-nation
The aim of the article was to expand the range of animal feed. The article presents data on the improvement of the technology of developed feed mixtures from grain and a number of components of fruits and vegetables.
Work was carried out in the laboratories of the Department of Technology of Storage and Processing of Grain and the Department of Biology of Uman National University of Horticulture as well as the Department of Storage and Processing of Grain of National University of Food Technologies.
The technology of extruded feed mixture production has been improved. The technology consists in preliminary preparation of raw materials: cleaned, crushed, its dosage according to the composition, mixing and special processing to improve technological properties and increase feed value with processes: premixing, aging and extrusion of the mixture, cooling and grinding depending on feed purpose.
The production methods of feed additives are different and depend on the enterprises that produce and on the physical and technological properties of raw materials. It has been proven that in feed mills, extruded feed mixtures can be introduced using a meal line if they come to the plant from other producers, and an extrusion line if it is provided at the plant.
The technology of feed additives with the use of fruit and vegetable raw materials has been improved: table beets, carrots, parsnips, potatoes. Engineering in the technology of production of feed additives is the preliminary preparation of cereals and vegetables: cleaning, grinding, dosing, mixing, aging and extrusion of mixtures according to the composition of the recipe, cooling and grinding of the extrudate.
A method for introducing vegetable raw materials into compound feeds has been developed, which includes cleaning vegetable raw materials in washing machines, extracting juice with simultaneous grinding, mixing 5-10% of pomace with grain and wet-heat treatment of the mixture by extrusion.
Keywords: grain, fruit and vegetable raw materials, feed additives, extrusion technology, engineering.
- Kucher, M. І. (2003). Production of compound feeds at the enterprises of SJSC “Bread of Ukraine”: state, problems, prospects. Effective poultry and livestock, 2, 5-7. (Ukrainian).
- Durst, L., Vittman, M. (2003). Feeding farm animals: Translated from German, edited by I. I. Ibatulin, G. V. Provatorov. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha, 384 р. (Russian).
- Ibragimov, А. (2003). Flavoring and aromatic additives in animal feed. Compound feed, 5, 63 р. (Russian).
- Ulyanych, І. F., Kostetska, V., Holubiev, М. І. (2017). Development of compound feed recipes. Collected Works of Uman NUH, 91, 121-129. (Ukrainian).
- Kostetska, V., Ulyanych, І. F., Holubiev, М. І. (2018). Chemical composition of the extruded product of a mixture of corn grain, barley with fruit and vegetable components. Collected Works of Uman NUH, 92, 109-119. (Ukrainian).
- Yegorov, B., Tarahtii, А., Kuznyetsov, N., Tyschenko, Ya.(1999). Production of compound feed and premixes in Ukraine. Compound feed, 2, 10-1 (Russian).
- Kostetska, V. (2018). The optimal diameter of the hole of the die of the extruder during the production of extruded feed mixtures: materials of the international scientific-practical conference “Innovative technologies in crop production: problems and their solutions”. Zhytomyr, 301-304. (Ukrainian).
- Osokina, N. M., Kostetska, V. (2016). Physical and mechanical properties and quality indicator of barley. Bulletin of Uman NUH, 2, 48-51.
- Martynenko, Ya. F. (1975). Industrial production of compound feed. М.: Кolos, 216 p. (Russian).
- Rules for organizing and maintaining the technological process of production of mixed feed products. К., 1990. 20 p. (Ukrainian).
- Shapovalenko, O. I. Yevtushenko, O. O., Ulyanich, I. F. (2012). Grain extrusion with the addition of vegetable feed components. Grain storage and processing, 11, 62-64. (Russian).
The article is devoted to the study of the use of the nutrients boron and molybdenum in the main phases of vegetable pea development. It is known that the lack of these nutrients in the process of plant growth and development can lead to the formation of agricultural products of poor quality, as well as the formation of deteriorated organoleptic qualities or low productivity. In this regard, special attention should be paid to the pre-sowing treatment of crop seeds when growing agricultural crops, in order to obtain high and stable yields. This article scientifically substantiates and proves the possibility of obtaining high-quality environmentally friendly products of vegetable peas applying certain specific rates of boron and molybdenum fertilizers. The results of our studies show that the tendency to an increase in the number of complex leaves under the influence of seed treatment with boron and molybdenum in different combinations was observed in all the variants of the experiment for both sowing periods. On the basis of the conducted research, the schedule of modeling of the influence of seed treatment with boron and molybdenum on productivity and the achievement of technical ripeness of peas is developed.
In the course of the research it was noticed that in the period of the development of generative organs seed treatment with microelements almost does not affect the length of interphase periods. During the research, we also found that the number of flowers and beans over the years of the research, both in early and late sowing, did not differ significantly, but the influence of the factors under study on them was significant. An increase in the yield in our experiments was due to the number of beans per plant, rather than the number of seeds per bean.
Analysis of the experimental data shows that the treatment of peas with boron and molybdenum, as well as sowing dates significantly affect the timing of the technological phase of the crop maturity, as observed by other researchers.
Keywords: vegetable peas, nutrients, boron and molybdenum fertilizers, physiological processes, plant organ formation, leaf surface index.
- Almashova V.S., Kovshakova T.S. Vpliv klImatichnih zmIn na prostoroviy rozvitok teritorIy ZemlI: naslIdki ta shlyahi virIshennya: ZbIrnik naukovih prats II MIzhnarodnoYi naukovo-praktichnoYi konferentsIYi. Herson, 13-14 chervnya 2019 roku. Herson: DVNZ «HDAU», 2019. 234s.
- Almashova V.S., Semen O.T., Onischenko S.O. AgroekologIchne obGruntuvannya viroschuvannya gorohu ovochevogo Iz zastosuvannyam bIologIchnogo stimulyatoru rostu rizotorfIn. VIsnik Umanskogo natsIonalnogo unIversitetu sadIvnitstva. Uman, 2020. S. 3-6.
- Gamayunova V.V., KokovIhIn S.V, Almashova V.S., Onischenko S.O. AgrobIologIchne obGruntuvannya tehnologIYi viroschuvannya gorohu ovochevogo v umovah pIvdnya UkraYini: monografIya. Herson: Aylant, 2017. 183 s.
- Gamayunova V. V. Vpliv absorbentu ta obrobki nasInnya I roslin uprodovzh vegetatsIYi rIstregulyuyuchimi preparatami na vrozhaynIst gorohu. VIsnik Zhitomirskogo NAU. 2015. # 2 (50), t.1. S. 182-189.
- Derzhavniy reEstr sortIv roslin pridatnih dlya poshirennya v UkraYinI v 2015 rotsI. K., 2015. 324 s.
- MalIEnko M.V. Goroh – lokomotiv rodyuchostI GruntIv. Selo poltavske. 2013. #9. S.12.
- Ogurtsov Yu. E. UrozhaynIst roslin zalezhno vId zastosuvannya regulyatorIv rostu roslin I mIkrodobriva na rIznih fonah zhivlennya. NaukovI dopovIdI NUBIP UkraYini. 2015. # 2 (51). S. 24-28.
- Rozvadovskiy A.M. Intensivna tehnologIya viroschuvannya ovochevogo gorohu. K.: Urozhay, 2000. 40 s.
- Ushkarenko V. O. S. Zroshuvane zemlerobstvo: pIdruchnik (perevidannya). K.: Urozhay, 2016. 326 s.
- Chaykovska L.O. Vpliv bIofosforu na vrozhaynIst roslin v umovah pIvdennogo Stepu. L.O. Chaykovska. OptimIzatsIya strukturi landshaftIv I ratsIonalne vikoristannya Gruntovih resursIv. K., 2010. S. 91-94.
- HuhlaEv I.I., Koblay S. V., SIchkar V. I. UrozhaynIst sortIv gorohu za umov posuhi. ZbIrnik naukovih prats SelektsIyno-genetichnogo Institutu – NatsIonalnogo tsentru nasInnEznavstva ta sortovivchennya. 2015 Vip. 23. S. 65-71.
- Evans J. Response of soybean – Rhizobium symbioses to mineral nitrogen. Plant and Soil. 2002. 66, # 3. P. 439-442.
- Dari P.J. Nitrogen fixation associated with non-legumes in agriculture. Plant and Soil. 2006. 90. P. 303-334.
- PropozitsIya: golovniy zhurnal z pitan agrobIznesu. URL: https://propozitsiya.com/ua/z-gorohom-bida-ale-ne-vidmovlyayemos-i–perehodymo-na-ozymyy.