In the same natural and economic conditions of the southern region, each of the relatively young breeds of domestic breeding: Ukrainian red dairy, Ukrainian black -motley diary , Ukrainian red-motley diary implements and exhibits its productive characteristics in different ways. One of the main economically useful features of dairy cattle is their milk productivity, the formation of which is caused by a large number of genetic loci.Protein polymorphism is very useful for studying and controlling the genetic differentiation of groups of animals in relation to their reproduction in different ecological and geographical conditions.The high productivity of dairy cows is conditioned and inextricably linked to the intense flow ofmetabolism in organs and systems and the functional activity of these organs.Therefore, it became necessary to study the genetic and biochemical features that, in the aggregate, determine the productive characteristics of the breeds with a view to further improve theimplementation of the results obtained in breeding. The group of genetic-biochemicalsystems under study included transport proteins: hemoglobin (HB), ceruloplasmin (CP), transferrin(Tf), posttransferrin (pTf), amylase (Am-1), and vitamin D (calcitriol) receptor(GС).The experiments were performed on red blood cells and blood plasma. The polymorphism of proteins and enzymes was evaluated using the method of electrophoretic separation of proteins in13% starch gel in horizontal chambers with subsequent histochemicalstaining.
Keywords: allele, genetic structure, genetic markers, genetically determined trait, amylase,hemoglobin, transferrin, posttransferrin, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D. receptor.