This paper analyzes zoo hygienic, technological and alimentary factors which decreases milk productivity of cows and resistance of the calves born by them. Among numerous factors determining highly-productive cows’ and calves’ health, the crucial ones are temperature and humidity, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and aliphatic amines concentration in a barn. The secret to success is in high yields, low food converse, which is genetics, particular breed, strict abidance by microclimate, special food ration for each production and group, and management. One of the key factors of calves’ health provision is the time of the first colostrums ingestion. Preclinical and hidden mastitis, obstetric and gynecological diseases damage the dairy industry greatly. To prevent acetonemia, propylene glycol glycerin and propionate should be used. A high-productive cow must be always be provided with necessary quantities of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals and to use them sparingly for physiological and productive needs. Obtaining of sanitary qualitative milk and disease prevention depends on the service staff, i. e. milking machine operators. Inadequate feeding, space, violation of sanitary conditions (insufficient air exchange, high concentration of harmful gases and microorganisms, sudden changes of temperature and humidity), lack of space and relocation causes stresses in the organisms of cows and calves, and becomes the major reason of metabolic diseases and resistance decreases. Ketosis, i. e. metabolic disease, is manifested most often in the first weeks after calving assisting by glucose deficiency in food ration.
Cows’ and calves’ non-contagious etymology diseases were analyzed. The reasons for cows’ mastitis, limb diseases, rickets were due to the influence of environmental factors (hypoxia, weakness, insolation, cut feeding) which were demonstrated. The analysis of the literature and our own research data allows us to conclude that non-contagious etymology diseases which account 80-85% cases of sick animals are widely registered at cattle farms.
Key words: cows, calves, milk production, hygiene, sanitation, factors ketoses, diarrhea, disease of hooves, atony proventriculus.