Effect of vitamin and feed supplement for the maintenance of reduced glutathione and sulfhydryl groups in the organs and tissues of rabbits

UDC 636.92:612.015

N. Rol,
S. Tsekhmistrenko

The purpose of the study is to study the effect of feed additive vitamin on the processes of lipid peroxidation in the body of rabbits. The main objectives of the study are the following: determination of reduced glutathione and sulfhydryl groups in heart, brain and in the longest muscle of the New Zealand rabbits breed after the use of vitamin and feed additive «Tekro». The SH-groups are chemically active groups that play an important role in cellular respiration, reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, regulation of membrane permeability. The SH-groups are part of the active centers of many enzymes and coenzymes, determine their catalytic activity, and are actively involved in maintaining tertiary structure of proteins. It is established that the use of vitamin and feed additive «Tekro» increases the glutathione content by 10.6% in brain tissues (probability value of p ≤ 0,05). In the heart of rabbits of 90-days age, the content of protein and total HS-groups is certainly increased by 7.9% and 2.5% respectively (probability value of p ≤ 0,01). The study of the longest back muscle showed that during the research period, the protein and total HS-groups content at the age of 90-days was 156,96 micromole/g and 169,44 micromole/g respectively. The obtained data of glutathione and sulfhydryl groups content in the body of rabbits is an important marker of oxidative stress. Determination of the dynamics of the antioxidant defense system can be used to detect oxidative stress in animals and to prevent its harmful impact on the body. The use of vitamin and feed additive «Tekro» in production of rabbits of New Zealand breed has a positive effect on the content of reduced glutathione and sulfhydryl groups in the brain, heart and longest back muscle

Effect of vitamin and feed supplement for the maintenance of reduced glutathione and sulfhydryl groups in the organs and tissues of rabbits.

Issue 1(88). 2016

Frequency estimation of the outer surface of milking and dairy equipment

UDC 631.3.636

A. Paliy

Production of dairy, driving in heavy industry, requires knowledge of the different technologies’ features. The acquisition of these issues is associated with the discovery and studies the factors that significantly affect the process of obtaining high quality and energy efficient development of innovative technologies that provide specific organizational form of production of high quality milk. Sanitary quality of produced milk occupies a leading position in the management of dairy farms to improve the health of cows, their productivity and product’s grade.
To determine the quality of cleaning the outside of milking and dairy systems in DPDH “Kutuzivka” Institute of Animal Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine Kharkiv region using the Herringbone milking machine the device and method that provide information about getting clean by receiving swabs from surfaces of equipment and subsequent scoring purity: I – perfectly well, II – well; III – good; IV – passably; V – unsatisfactory were developed.
Analysis of contamination filters through which passed wipes the surface of different parts milking systems, illustrates that with increasing contamination of certain areas on a 5-point scale is an increase in mechanical pollution washings.
Thus, according to the purity of surface equipment in I ball contamination on the area of the filter element missing. Plot surface, measured in II ball has mechanical impurities on the filter for 5 – 10% of the area; the assessment in the III ball – to 11 – 30 % of the area; IV ball – 31 – 50 %, and the V ball – more than 50 % of the area.
Point scale is an ordered set of numbers and quality characteristics that are brought into line with the estimated object under a certain sign. Ball scale is used for quantitative assessment, which expresses the quality of the signs, that purity (contamination). The scale range is characterized ball which refers to the number of quality levels included in the scale.

Key words: milking equipment, method, apparatus, pollution, filter element, flush, ball.

Frequency estimation of the outer surface of milking and dairy equipment.

Issue 1(88). 2016

Influence ecological safe preparations and fertilizers on the content of the main nutrients in the grain of spring triticale

UDC 631.95:631:87:633.19

Lviv National Agrarian University

During the evolutionary process environment and plants are in direct contact, adapting to each other and form a stable ecosystem. Human activity has been deformating elements of the ecosystem and making worth the conditions of their existence. The inclusion of ecological elements to the traditional agricultural actions of growing crops will make it possible not only to predict the possible impact these actions on the components of nature, but also will have a positive impact on the regeme of plants nutrition, will increase their crop capacity and will change the content of basic elements in them.
The studies results of the influence of the microbiological preparation Azoter and humic fertilizer on the nutrient content in grain of spring triticale varieties Oberig Kharkiv and Losynivske.
The content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the plant not only the influence on its photosynthetic activity, but their further content of the original products, namely corn.
An important aspect of grain production complex is the using of agricultural actions which not only minimize but under optimal conditions excluding the impact of agrochemicals on the environment. Those are the very measures which are the usage of microbiological preparations and humic fertilizer not only for the optimization of the biological activity of the soil, but also improve the quality and chemical compositions of the crop.
The results showed that the investigated varieties equally react to the action of microbial preparation Azoter and humic fertilizer. The results of the analysis of spring triticale grain have indicated the increasing of the nutrients, especially of nitrogen, under the conditions of using the researched amount of fertilizers. Both verieties have showed the identical tendency of the amount changes dynamics of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium under the influence of fertilizers and microbiological preparation Azoter. The highest results are fixed in the variants with microbiological preparations (increase over 2,25-2,35%). Probably this is due to feature the components of the preparation to fix and to restore atmospheric nitrogen.
The usage of mineral fertilizers hasn’t showed the results of the increasing of such elements as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in spring triticale grain, which indicates the inexpediency of their application. The results indicate the expediency of exclusion of mineral fertilization of spring triticale that reduces the human influence on farmland of Western Woodlands of Ukraine.

Key words: spring triticale, fertilizer, agroenvironmental measures, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, grain.

Influence ecological safe preparations and fertilizers on the content of the main nutrients in the grain of spring triticale.

Зміст випуску 1 (88), 2016

Conditions and perspectives of spring false flax growth in the Southern Steppe of Ukraine

UDC 633.85(477.7)

I. Moskva, Ph. D. candidate
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

The article highlights conditions and perspectives of spring false flax growth in Ukraine. It is presented a review of classical and contemporary literature sources concerning this culture.
False flax is a culture of multidimensional use. Camelina oil is a valuable product of technical and daily use and of healthy meals; also it can be used as a raw material for biodiesel production.
Due to invention of the new areas of application the popularity of spring false flax and its products in other countries is growing rapidly, especially in the USA and Western Europe. So it is necessary to examine in depth the cultivation features and the value of this culture and to extend its use in Ukraine.
The research aim is to highlight the economic importance, natural area and biological characteristics to introduce in the plant introduction and to increase the growth area of this valuable and important crop, which can and should take a leading place among oilseed crops in our country, particularly in the southern zone.
Ukraine’s oil market is one of the most promising spheres of agricultural production. At the world market the demand on oil products are increasing and they take leading positions in the economy of producer States.
The solving of these issues can help to increase supply & demand of false flax seeds, to increase the agricultural production of this crop, to reboot the processing capacities and to increase exports.
The scientific researches about improving the growth techniques under the soil and climatic conditions of Ukraine can increase the seed production of Camelina sativa.
So there are objective reasons to believe that the spring false flax in Ukraine, as an ancient but forgotten oil plant, in the very near future will take an important place in the oil production for biodiesel and high-protein feed in the form of oil-meal and oil-cake. And the guarantee of this is the extremely adaptability to the agro-ecological conditions of cultivation and high production profitability.

Key words: spring false flax, growth techniques, oil, oil cake.

Issue 1(88). 2016

Study of the effect of irrigation on anti-deflation stability of Steppe soils in Ukraine

UDC 631.425.5(477.7)

O. Pismenniy

Due to the fact that Mykolaiv region, especially its southern part belongs to the zone of risky agriculture in dry conditions, the production of agricultural products is completely dependent on solving the problem of irrigation at the farmland. The aim of this research was, in the conditions of this situation to determine the impact of irrigation on anti-deflation stability (the wind resistant soil) southern black soil and dark chestnut soils. By analyzing the works of local and foreign authors it was found that the essential factors forming anti-deflation stability of soils are indicators of their structure, mechanical strength of soil aggregates, soil moisture, and content in soil humus and fractions <0.001 mm (according to particle size analysis) and the presence of cations: Na+, Ca2+ і Mg2+. Our research cause of irrigation the content of aggregates increased > 1mm in dark chestnut soils and anti-deflation stability southern black soils. The content of exchange Na 4% contributes to the anti-deflation stability dark chestnut soils. Increasing positive temperatures in winter-spring period influences on the increasing of content-dangerous deflationary fraction < 0,25 mm in the researched soils, what can lead to more rapid collapse and blowing by strong winds.
Irrigation (uncontrolled) Ukraine steppe soils with high water salinity can lead to negative consequences: increased groundwater, alkalinity secondary structure and deterioration of irrigated soils.

Key words: structure, soil, anti-deflation stability, irrigation.

Studies of the effect of irrigation on anti-deflation stability of soils Steppe in Ukraine.

Issue 1(88). 2016

Intensity of peroxide oxidation of lipids during winter wheat seed germination (Triticum Aestivum L.) under effect of seed treaters and growth regulators


Yu. Klipakova

It was studied that treatment of infected seeds separately by seed treaters and AKM growth regulator led to the decrease in peroxide oxidation of lipids in the seed by 17-28% compared to control. Combination of seed treater and AKM in tank mix had a controversial effect on malondialdehyde content. In case of sole application of fungicide treaters it increased nearly by 7% while decreasing by 5% in case of application of fungicide-insecticide treater. This data testifies for advisability of timely seed treatment by fungicide treaters in order to avoid the development of oxidation damage during storage of infected seeds.
It was determined that root growth is accompanied by increase in peroxide oxidation of lipids intensity, especially under the effect of Raksil Ultra, AKM, and their combination. In root tissues of etiolated plants, malondialdehyde content under the effect of said preparations exceeded control by 16-39 %, testifying to significant amount of oxidative stress. Mixtures that have Lamardor in their content, induce the system of antioxidative protection and malondialdehyde content was 8-33 % less relative to control. During the transition to autotrophic nutrition(ВВСН 09)malondialdehyde content decreased across all variants, but the most it was observed under effect of Raksil Ultra (2.4 times). In case of use of other seed treaters and their mixtures with AKM malondialdehyde content in plant roots decreased and during the stage of first leaf unfolding (ВВСН 11) had barely any difference with control, testifying to adaptation of root system to growth conditions. Peroxide oxidation of lipids intensity in sprouts depends on the stage of development of winter wheat plants and effect of chemical stressor. In etiolatedcoleoptile(ВВСН 07) the highest intensity of peroxide oxidation of lipids was observed under the effect of AKM, Raksil Ultra, and, especially, their combination, where malondialdehyde content exceeded control by 9-39 %. Other studied seed treaters and their combinations with growth regulator decreaseperoxide oxidation of lipids intensity by 14-44 %, and the mostinhibition of peroxide processes was caused by Lamardor, that correlates well with germination delay done by said treater.
During transition toautotrophic nutrition type (ВВСН 09)peroxide oxidation of lipids intensity decreased in sprouts treated with Raksil Ultra and its combination with AKM while sharply increasing in other variants. Together with it, seed treaters that contained Lamardor, increased malondialdehyde content by 1.6-1.9 times. With first leaf through coleoptile emergence (ВВСН 10) and in first leaf unfolded stage (ВВСН 11)peroxide oxidation of lipids intensity increased regardless of treater type and growth regulator, testifying to oxidative stress development, antioxidative protection system exhaustion and possible negative impact and further growth and development of the sprout. It should be noted that all studied seed treaters except for Lamardor-Gaucho mixture, induce antioxidative protection system in sprout’s tissues, proven by 6 – 35 % lower malondialdehyde content compared to variant without seed treatment.
So, peroxide oxidation of lipids intensity, and thus growth and development of winter wheat root system is determined by the nature of the seed treater and growth regulator, while for the sprout thetreater and its interaction with the growth regulator are essential.

Key words: peroxide oxidation of lipids, caryopsis, roots, wheat seedlings, seed treaters, growth regulator.

Intensity of peroxide oxidation of lipids during winter wheat seed germination (Triticum Aestivum L.) under effect of seed treaters and growth regulators.

Issue 1(88). 2016

Grain productivity of soft winter wheat depending on the influence of the sowing terms and seeding rates

UDC 633.11«324»:631.53.04

А. Rozkov., Doctor of Agrarian Science
М. Bobro., Doctor of Agrarian Science
Т. Ryzhyk., assistant lecturer
Kharkiv National Agrarian University by V. V. Dokuchayev

Poor condition of winter crops causes an urgent need in agrotechnical and selective investigations in the direction of establishing the optimal and acceptable sowing terms. Winter crops which are sown in the optimal terms for each natural and climatic zone show the best indices of productivity and winter resistance. It is necessary to set them considering the peculiarities of the varieties, predecessors, fertilizers, soil moisture reserves and other factors.
In order to manage the processes of crop formation it is necessary to have the clear idea about the interaction of all the factors which affect the crop capacity.
The main factor of winter wheat productivity increase is to improve the sowing structure which is determined by productive stalk density that primarily depends on the seeding rate, sowing terms, field seed germination and survival of plants.
The aim of the research is to determine the impact of different variants of the sowing terms in interaction with the seeding rate on grain productivity of the soft winter wheat of Astet variety for the specific soil and climatic conditions.
The experiments were carried out in 2007-2009, 2014 at the experimental field of KhNAU by V. V. Dokuchayev in the field vapour grain cultivated crop rotation of the Plant Growing chair according to the conventional methods. Three variants of the sowing terms were studied in the experiments: the 5 – 7-th of September (the first control), the 15 – 17-th of September (the second), 25 – 27-th of September (the third) and four variants of the seeding rates: 4,0; 4,5; 5,0 and 5,5 mln. of seeds/ha. Winter wheat with the presented collection of the variants was sown after two predecessors: black vapour and buckwheat.
As the result of the research it was established that the highest grain productivity of the winter wheat of Astet variety on average for four years (2007 – 2009, 2014) – 5,60 t/ha, was achieved after black vapour during sowing on the 15 – 17-th of September with the seeding rate of 5mln. of grains/ha.
After buckwheat the choice of the sowing time to form the highest grain productivity depended from the weather conditions of the first half of the vegetation of the crops. So, the maximum level of grain productivity of plants in 2007 and 2014 on average according to the seeding rates was on the variants of the second sowing term (the 15 – 17-th of September) 5,57 and 4,89 t/ha correspondently. In 2008 and 2009 the maximum grain productivity of winter wheat on average according to the seeding rates was 5,35 and 4,07 t/ha correspondently, was gathered on the variants of sowing on the 5 – 7-th of September.

Grain productivity of soft winter wheat depending on the influence of the sowing terms and seeding rates.

Issue 1(88). 2016

The improvement of credit operations management in commercial banks of Ukraine in the conditions of financial crises

UDC 336.77.01:330.567.22

A. Krychyniuk

The article is devoted to the improvement of credit operations` management in commercial banks of Ukraine in the conditions of financial crises. The estimation of the quality of credit operations, the credit policy and authenticity implementation of norms of credit activity of the most representative banks of Ukraine of four groups in size of assets during 2011-2014 is given. We found out the reasons of appearance of considerable parts of problem with credit operations of commercial banks of Ukraine. We had developed the ways of the perfecting of management of credit operation of commercial banks of Ukraine. We offer to change the heads of financial management in Ukraine. We offer to bring to trial the previous heads of financial management in Ukraine who ruled during 2011-2014 years. We offer to owners of commercial banks and the Regulator to reimburse by their own funds and property the debts to the depositors. We offer to forbid banks to lend their owners and top-managers. We offer to regulator to force commercial banks to carry out economic standards. We offer to change managers of risk management department, the credit committee, department of internal audit, credits department and others. We offer to tighten control on the knowledge and implementation of credits policy of employees of commercial banks of Ukraine. We offer to reveal the lending policies of commercial banks in Ukraine to enable evaluation, correction and improvement specialists.
We offer to develop and implement modern educational programs for professional education and training of specialists of banks. We offer to hire staff in banks only in the specialty for which they were educated. We offer to hire in banks on a competitive basis, and not on personal ties or other reasons.We offer to increase the requirements for the professionals of department of risk management, the credit committee, department of internal audit, credits department and others.
We offer to increase the demands on the creditworthiness of borrowers of commercial banks.
We offer to commercial banks to develop and implement ways to reduce the impact of the financial crisis on the finances of borrowers.We offer to publish internal regulations of banks, which determine the order and procedures of internal control and risk management, credit process for their evaluation and improvement specialists.We offer to increase the number of state-owned banks.
We offer to the organs of state financial management of Ukraine to develop and implement a program of massive public works to reduce the financial crisis in Ukraine.

The improvement of credit operations management in commercial banks of Ukraine in the conditions of financial crises.


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Issue 1(88). 2016

Decentralization as a major factor of rural development

UDC 35.071.6

O. Bodnar, postgraduate student
Supervisor: V.V. Lagodienko, Doctor of Economics, professor
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

Decentralization is a complex phenomenon that involves political, administrative, economic and related components to create the possibility of more efficient management development at national, regional and local levels. The success of its implementation depends on the development of the state and its smallest units, so called rural communities.
Creating a self-sufficient community is one of the priorities of rural development. We consider it is appropriate to review the current situation of decentralization in the country and identify the major problems and prospects in this direction.
As a result of the reform and modernization of public administration in the EU the regional governments have been developed, in order to strengthen the position of local governments, which allowed addressing the issues of social and economic areas’ development more effectively.
The Government of Ukraine began to implement a large-scale reform in 2014. The result of this reform will be municipal associations and inter-municipal cooperation aimed at reducing the number of local governments and their consolidation.
During the first stage of reform a number of laws were passed, but the work in this direction is ongoing.
The primary step to implementing administrative and territorial reform is a voluntary association of communities.
The main problems and obstacles of decentralization today are public fear as for the unification; imperfect Constitution, contradictions in the legislation; lack of a clear division of responsibilities at different levels of governance; interregional disparities and the “unwillingness” of depressed regions to self-government.
The further research of this issue requires clarification and detailing of local government services to the territorial communities, their classification and ensuring mechanisms at all levels of local government.
Thus, decentralization offers a lot of prospects for the local governments’ ability to resolve local life problems independently, including increasing the role of rural residents, their influence on decision-making and as for the life conditions, social and economic development of rural areas and in society in general.

Decentralization as a major factor of rural development.

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Issue 1(88). 2016

Bioeconomy as a mechanism for achieving sustainable development goals

UDC 338.24

V. Butenko

In the article there are considered the definition of bio-economy as a mechanism for achieving objectives of sustainable development.
Sustainable development includes three systems: economic, environmental and social. Bioeconomy is a mechanism that ensures the interaction of these systems. Bioeconomy combines economic and social elements such as biotechnologies based production, employment growth, increasing incomes, rural development.
Bioeconomy provides the relationship between economic and environmental elements by using renewable resources, reducing environmental impact, providing recycling.
Bioeconomy combines social and environmental elements through the application of social and environmental responsibility, social partnership, the emergence of new ideology, opportunities of society to influence government and business for  providing of clean living conditions and production of goods and services.
There are considered the bioeconomy development can achieve sustainable development. Bioeconomy uses renewable resources and  waste to produce goods and services, so that the goals of sustainable development are achieved.
Bioeconomy maintains the potential of natural resources and ensure their sustainable using, creates the possibility of rural development, increasing employment, incomes and social capital. That corresponds to such objective of sustainable development as an effective management of assets.
Social partnership as a mechanism of bio-economy interests can agree on interests of main players, reduce social tension in society, form a new eco-directed system of values. That corresponds to such objective of sustainable development as the development of the social system of society.
The creation and development of agribioclusters gets new economic and social opportunities of territories, provides effective implementation of scientific achievements to the production. Bioeconomy can help saving the biodiversity and reproduction natural system.

Bioeconomy as a mechanism for achieving sustainable development goals.

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Issue 1(88). 2016