Influence of sowing terms on the level of pre-harvesting seed moisture of corn hybrids

UDC 633.15: 631.53.04

V. Palamarchuk, Ph.D. Sciences, Associate Professor
Vinnytsia National Agrarian University
O. Kovalenko, Ph.D. Sciences, Associate Professor
Mykolayiv National Agrarian University

The article presents the results of studying the level of pre-harvest humidity of grain of maize hybrids at the application of early, medium and late sowing dates on the experimental fields of the Department of Plant Production at Vinnytsa NAU in condition of the Pravoberezhnyy Forestry Steppe Zone, and also reviewed the influence of weather conditions in different years of observation on these data. The given analysis of the pre-harvest humidity of the crop’s grain makes it possible to ascertain the influence on it not only different groups of mature hybrids, meteorological conditions, but also the terms of sowing which are due to different levels of temperature regime of the soil at the depth of seeding. It has been proved that the use of earlier sowing dates led to a better moisture transfer of grain and a lower moisture index at the time of harvesting the crop. The level of these factors was influenced not only by the climatic conditions of the year and the elements of agrotechnics, but also by such features as the number of wings on the swinging and linear grain sizes. It has been established that delaying with the terms of sowing leads to an increase in the number of wings of cabbage in hybrids of all groups of maturation. It has also been noted that the level of pre-harvest humidity, of the same maize hybrid, can change substantially depending on the meteorological conditions which occur during the second period of vegetation, namely from flowering to complete grain ripeness.
The use of early sowing terms for corn hybrids will not only optimize the linear seed sizes, but also will reduce the number of grain shells, which is positively reflected in reducing the pre-harvest moisture content of the grain by 2.1-6.8% compared with the late sowing terms.

Keyword: corn, hybrids, terms of sawing, moisture content of grain, grain size, wrappers of cobs.

Influence of sowing terms on the level of pre-harvesting seed moisture of corn hybrids.

Issue 4 (96), 2017

The influence of seed rates on the formation of density of sweet sorghum varieties in the conditions of the South steppe of Ukraine

UDC 631.53.048:633.17(477.7)

A. Chernova,
O. Kovalenko

The article contains the indicators of standing sweet sorghum varieties plants which depend on different rates of seed sowing in the conditions of the south Steppe of Ukraine. It was established that the density of standing of sweet sorghum varieties plants in the studies was different in all varieties in the variants of seed sowing norms and was the highest in the Silo 700 D.
The purpose of the article is to investigate the effect of seed sowing norms on the formation of the density in sugar sorghum varieties in the conditions of the South Steppe of Ukraine. Also aim is to establish the dependence of density in sweet sorghum varieties from the influence of these factors.
The highest plant density of sweet sorghum varieties in the phase of full ripeness (134.9 thousand pcs. / ha) was with the Silo 700 D variety with the seeding rate over 160 thousand pcs. grown up seeds / ha, the lowest was with the Silosne 42 (57 thousand pcs. / ha) with sowing rate over 70 thousand pcs. grown up seeds / ha. At the plot of land with the Favorit variety, in comparison with the standard the Silo 700 D, was formed 0.5 thousand pieces / ha of plants which is less than 70 thousand pcs. grown up seeds / ha, with the norm of sowing 100 and 130 thousand – by 0.5 thousand pieces / ha more, and at 160 – by 1.4 thousand pieces / ha less.
Conclusions. The density of standing sweet sorghum plants in the conducted studies varied according to the varieties and seeding rates and was the highest at the standard variety the Silo 700 D. The seed rates influenced on the formation of the density of sweet sorghum plants and the percentage of their survival, which reviled the indicators of the crop at the end.

Keyword: sweet sorghum, seeding rate, plant density, the Favorit, the Silo 700 D, the Sylosnoe 42.

The influence of seed rates on the formation of density of sweet sorghum varieties in the conditions of the South steppe of Ukraine.

References:
1. Storozhyk L. I. Perspektyvy vyroshchuvannia sorho tsukrovoho, yak alternatyvnoho dzherela enerhii / L.I. Storozhyk // Tsukrovi buriaky. – 2011. − #2. – S. 20 − 21.
2. Produktyvnist sorho tsukrovoho (Sorghum sacchartum (L.) Pers.) zalezhno vid sortovykh osoblyvostei ta riznoi hustoty stoiannia roslyn / V. L. Kurylo, N. O. Hryhorenko, O.O. Marchuk, I. R. Funina // Sortovyvchennia ta okhorona prav na sorty roslyn. – 2013. – #3. – S.8-12.
3. Sorhovi kultury : tekhnolohiia, vykorystannia, hibrydy ta sorty: [rekomendatsii] / A. V. Cherenkov, M. S. Shevchenko, B. V. Dziubetskyi [ta in.]. – Dnipropetrovsk : Roial Prynt, 2011. – 63 s.
4. Boldyrieva L. L. Tekhnolohiia vyroshchuvannia sorho / L. L. Boldyrieva, V. P. Bondarenko // Krymskyi ahrotekhnolohichnyi universytet. – 2007. – # 6 (953). – S. 2.
5. Boldyreva L.L. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po vyrashhivaniju sorgovyh kul’tur / L. L. Boldyreva, V. P. Bondarenko. Simferopol’, 2007. – 28 s.
6. Karakal’chev A. S. Sorgo v pustyne / A. S. Karakal’chev, T. S. Rahimbekov, V. M. Makarov, P. S. Rusakov // Kukuruza i sorgo. – 1985. – № 4. – S. 24-25.
7. Gvindzhilija S. T. Podbor i sravnitel’naja ocenka produktivnosti sortoobrazcov saharnogo sorgo v uslovijah Nizhnego Povolzh’ja : avtoreferat dis. … kandidata sel’skohozjajstvennyh nauk : 06.01.09, 06.01.05 / Sarat. gos. agrar. un-t im. N.I. Vavilova. Saratov, 2006.

Issue 3 (95), 2017

Assessment energy effi ciency of soft winter wheat dependence terms of sowing and seeding rate

UDC 633.11″324″:631.53.04

M. Korhova,
O. Kovalenko
A. Shepel
 

The article gives us the analysis of energy efficiency technology elements of Natalka variety soft winter wheat production in the conditions of the southern steppe of Ukraine. The results showed that terms of sowing and seeding rates also influence at the value of the energy accumulation in a grain of winter wheat. The highest level (74,3 GJ/ha) of the reachersed energy indicator was reached in sowing on October 10th with the seeding rate of 5 million similar seeds/ha. The lowest indicator was formed at 49,0 GJ/ha in variants with sowing date on September 10th with the seeding rate of 3 million similar seeds/ha.
By decreasing the seeding rate from 5 to 3 million similar seeds the spending of total energy in soft winter wheat decreased to 1,5 and 3,1 GJ/ha.
Energy increases by growing soft winter wheat of Natalka variety gained its maximum level (42,7 GJ/ha) on October 10th with the seeding rate and norms of sowing similar seeds 5 million/ha, while the power factor was 2,35. Thus, the sowing of soft winter wheat on October 10th in compare with the previously recommended period on September 30th caused the increasing of energy efficiency indicators in average seeding rate from 2,15 to 2,35, or 7,3%.
The highest level (9,8 GJ/t) of grain energy-capacity was reached in the period of sowing on September 10th with the seeding rate of similar seeds 5 million/ha and the lowest level was 6,7 GJ/t for sowing in the period of October 10th and the seeding rate of 3 million similar seeds per ha. Increasing the seeding rate from 3 to 5 million similar seeds per ha caused the increasing of grain energy-capacity in the cultivation of 1 ton of soft winter wheat from 6,7-9,3 to 6,9- 9,8 GJ/t or 3,0 – 5,4%. During the sowing on October 10th this indicator number was minimal and the average seeding rate was 6,8 GJ, and by planting it on September 30th, 20th, 10th we observed its increasing for 9,3 – 26,1%.

Assessment energy effi ciency of soft winter wheat dependence terms of sowing and seeding rate.

References:
1. Metodyka enerhetychnoi otsinky efektyvnosti tekhnolohii vyrobnytstva zerna [Elektronnyi resurs] / V.O. Kompaniiets, O.I. Zheliazkov, A.O. Kulyk // Biul. Inst. silskoho hospodarstva stepovoi zony. – 2014. – # 6. – S. 118-124. – Rezhym dostupu: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/bisg_2014_6_26.
2. Tararyko Yu.A. Formyrovanye ustoichyvыkh ahroэkosystem. – DYA, 2007. – 560 s.
3. Ohinskyi A. Osnovni napriamy optymizatsii enerhospozhyvannia v silskomu hospodarstvi Ukrainy / A. Ohinskyi // Ekonomika Ukrainy. – 1998. − # 4. – S. 72-77.
4. Tarariko Yu.O. Enerhetychna otsinka system zemlerobstva i tekhnolohii vyroshchuvannia silskohospodarskykh kultur: metodychni rekomendatsii / Yu.O. Tarariko, O.Ye. Nesmashna, L.D. Hlushchenko. – K.: Nora-print, 2001. – 59 s.
5. Shevchenko O.O. Produktyvnist ozymoi pshenytsi zalezhno vid poperednykiv, dobryv ta obrobitku gruntu v Stepu Ukrainy: avtoref. na zdobuttia nauk. stupenia kand. s.- h. nauk: spets. 06.01.01 «Zahalne zemlerobstvo» / O.O. Shevchenko – Dnipropetrovsk, 2002. – s. 16.
6. Berdnikova O.H. Produktyvnist sortiv pshenytsi ozymoi zalezhno vid foniv zhyvlennia ta zroshennia v umovakh pivdnia Ukrainy.: avtoref. na zdobuttia nauk. stupenia kand. s.- h. nauk: spets. 06.01.09 «Roslynnytstvo» / O. H. Berdnikova – Kherson, 2012. – s. 16.
7. Yarchuk I.I. Bioenerhetychna efektyvnist zastosuvannia mineralnykh dobryv pid ozymu tverdu pshenytsiu / I.I. Yarchuk // Visnyk Derzhavnoi ahroekolohichnoi akademii Ukrainy. Ahroekolohiia. – 2001. – # 2. – S. 44–48.
8. Zolotukhina Z.V. Otsinka ekonomichnoi ta bioenerhetychnoi efektyvnosti vyroshchuvannia ozymoi pshenytsi z vykorystanniam rehuliatora rostu AKM / Z.V.Zolotukhina, V.V. Kalytka // Visn. ahrar. nauky Prychornomoria. – 2013. – Vyp. 2. – S. 89-94.
9. Hyrka A.D. Ahrobiolohichni osnovy formuvannia produktyvnosti ozymykh ta yarykh zernovykh kultur u pivnichnomu Stepu Ukrainy: dys. dok. s.- h. nauk: 06.01.09 / Hyrka Anatolii Dmytrovych – D., 2015. – 353 s.
10. Medvedovskyi O.K. Enerhetychnyi analiz intensyvnykh tekhnolohii v silskohospodarskomu vyrobnytstvi / O.K. Medvodovskyi, P.I. Ivanenko. – K. : Urozhai, 1988. – 206 s.

Issue 4 (92), 2016