Ю. С. Кравченко. Впровадження наукових основ ґрунтозахисного землеробства та аграрної політики у відтворенні родючості чорноземів Північно-Східного Китаю

УДК 631.452 (459): 631.6.02

DOI: 10.31521/2313-092X/2020-1(105)-8

 

Ю. С. Кравченко, кандидат сільськогосподарських наук, доцент
ORCID ID: 0000-0003-4175-9622
Національний університет біоресурсів і природокористування України

 

Досліджено історію становлення ґрунтозахисного землеробства у Китаї. Висвітлено аграрну політику уряду Китаю щодо збереження родючості чорноземів. Досліджено зміни властивостей китайських чорноземів за: ґрунтозахисного та контурного обробітку, щілювання і борознування, терасування, смугового розміщення культур та змішаних і проміжних посівів, сівозмін, мульчування, удобрення, тощо. Установлено визначальну роль чорноземів у виробництві сої, рису японського та кукурудзи на зерно в Китаї.

Ключові слова: чорнозем, ґрунтозахисні технології, родючість, аграрна політика.

 

Впровадження наукових основ ґрунтозахисного землеробства та аграрної політики у відтворенні родючості чорноземів Північно-Східного Китаю 

Implementation of scientific approaches in a soil conservation agriculture and an agrarian policy for north-eastern Chinese chernozems fertility reproduction 

 

Список використаних джерел:

  1. Northeast China: Prospects for U.S. Agricultural Exports / Hui Jiang // International Agricultural Trade Reports, 2014. Retrieved from: https://www.fas.usda.gov/data/northeast-china-prospects-us-agricultural-exports.
  2. Zhang S., Xu Z. Cropping system reform and its impact on the development of agricultural technology. Crops. 2009. № P. 1–3.
  3. The Transition to socialism in China / N.Y. Armonk, M.E. Sharpe; Mark Selden and Victor Lippit, editors. London: Croom Helm, 1982. 326 pp.
  4. Nolan P. The Political Economy of Collective Farms. An Analysis o. Rural Reforms, Cambridge: Polity Press,1988. 259 pp.
  5. On the politics of rural transformation: Cooperative and collective formation in China’s countryside / Mark Selden; Mark Selden and Victor Lippit, editors. The Transition to socialism in China. London: Croom Helm, 1982. P. 32–97.
  6. Lin J. Collectivization and China’s agricultural crisis in 1959–1961. Journal of Political Economy. 1990. № 98(6). P.1228–1252.
  7. Perkins D. Agricultural Development in China, 1368–1968. Aldine Publishing Company, Chicago, 1969. 426 pp.
  8. The creation and spread of technology and total factor productivity in China’s agriculture / Songqing Jin, Jikun Huang, Ruifa Hu, Scott Rozelle. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 2002. № 84 (4). 916–930.
  9. Tang T., Blecher M., Meisner M. The Responsibility System in Agriculture. Modern China. 1982. №8(1). P.41-103.
  10. Кваша В. М. Особливості системи титулів на користування землею в КНР. Науковий вісник Ужгородського національного університету. Серія: Право. 2015. Вип. 34(2). С.45-48.
  11. Recent food consumption trends in China and trade implications to 2020 / L.J. Cao, W.M. Tian, Wang Jimin, Bill Malcolm, Hong-Bo Liu, Zhangyue Zhou. Australasian Agribusiness Review. 2014. № P.15-44.
  12. Huang J., Rozelle S. Agricultural Development, Nutrition, and the Policies Behind China’s Succes. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development. 2009. №7(1). P.93-126.
  13. Grain production versus resource and environmental costs: Towards increasing sustainability of nutrient use in China / X. Jiao, Y. Lyu, X. Wu, H. Li, L. Cheng, C. Zhang, L. Yuan, R. Jiang, B. Jiang, Z. Rengel, F. Zhang, W. Davies, J. Shen. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2016. № P.4935-4949.
  14. Subsidies and distortions in China’s agriculture: Evidence from producer level data / J. Huang, X. Wang, H. Zhi, Z. Huang, S. Rozelle // Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics. №55. P.53-71.
  15. Huang J., Wang X., Rozelle S. The subsidization of farming households in China’s agriculture. Food Policy. 2013. № P. 124-132.
  16. Jiao X. The transformation of agriculture in China: Looking back and looking forward / Xiao qiang JIAO, Mongol Nyamdavaa, Fu-suo ZHANG. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 2018. №17(4). P.755-764.
  17. MLR. Ministry of Land and Resources. National Land Use Masterplan (2006–2020). Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing, 2008 [国土资源部, 2008年.全国土地 利用总体规划纲要(2006–2020年]: Офіційний сайт уряду Китаю. Retrieved from: http://www.gov.cn/zxft/ft149/content_1144625.htm.
  18. МA (Ministry of Agriculture). Opinion of the Ministry of Agriculture on Greatly Developing Conservation Agriculture. Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 2007 [农业部, 2007年. 农业部关于大力发展保护性耕作的意见]: Офіційний сайт уряду Китаю. Retrieved from: http://big5.www.gov.cn/gate/big5/www.gov.cn/fwxx/sh/2007-04/13/content_581333.htm.
  19. Improving China’s food and Environmental security with conservation agriculture / H. Li, J. He, Bharucha, R. Lal & J. Pretty. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. 2016. №14. P.337-391.
  20. Hu J. Report at the Eighteenth Congress of the Communist Party of China (8th November 2012). People.cn, 2012 [胡锦涛.2012年11月8日. 胡锦涛在中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会上的报告]: Офіційний сайт КПК Китаю. Retrieved from: http://cpc.people.com.cn/n/2012/1118/c64094-19612151.html.
  21. CCP and SC [Chinese Communist Party and State Council]. Opinions on Hastening Construction of Ecological Civilization. Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, 2015 [中共中央、国务院, 2015 年.]: Офіційний сайт Верховної ради Китаю. Retrieved from: http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2015-05/05/content_2857363.htm.
  22. MA (Ministry of Agriculture). National Plan for Sustainable Development of Agriculture (2015–2030). Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 2015 [农业部,2015年。全国农业可持续发展规划(2015–2030年).北京]. Офіційний сайт уряду Китаю.   http://www.gov.cn/xinwen/2015-05/28/content_2869902.htm.
  23. MEP (Ministry of Environmental Protection). China Environment Report 2014. Ministry of Environmental Protection, Beijing, 2015 [环境保护部, 2015年.中国环境状况 公报2014年]: Офіційний сайт Міністерства екології та довкілля Китаю. Retrieved from: http://www.mee.gov.cn/hjzl/zghjzkgb/lnzghjzkgb/201605/P020160526564730573906.pdf.
  24. МАa (Ministry of Agriculture). National Ecological Agriculture Demonstration County Management Method. Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 2000 [农业部, 2000年. 全国生态农业示范县建设管理办法].
  25. MAb (Ministry of Agriculture). Report on the National Arable Land Quality Grade Situation. Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, 2014 [农业部, 2014年.全国耕地质量等级 情况公报]: Офіційний сайт Міністерства сільського господарства Китаю. Retrieved from: http://jiuban.moa.gov.cn/zwllm/zwdt/201412/t20141217_4298677.htm.
  26. MWR (Ministry of Water Resources, People’s Republic of China). Soil and Water Conservation in China. China Water Resources & Hydropower Press. Beijing, 2016.12 pp. Retrieved from:  http://www.tnmc-is.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/6.SOIL%20AND%20WATER%20CONSERVATION%20IN%20CHINA.pdf
  27. Lal R. A system approach to conservation agriculture. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. № 70(4). P.82A-88A.
  28. Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China / F. Zhang, Z. Cui, M. Fan, W. Zhang, X. Chen, R. Jiang. Journal of Environmental Quality. 2011. № P.1051-1057.
  29. Shen C., Ren J. Basin tillage research. Scientific and Technical Information of Soil and Water Conservation. № 2. P. 62-64 (in Chinese).
  30. Yang A.M., Shen С., Liu Soil and water conservation benefit of basin tillage in sloping farmland. Science of Soil and Water Conservation. 1994. № 8 (3). P. 52-58 (in Chinese).
  31. Soil erosion control practices in Northeast China: A mini-review / Xiaobing Liu, Shaoliang Zhang, Xingyi Zhang, Guangwei Ding, R.M. Cruse. Soil & Tillage Research. № 117. P. 44-48.
  32. Soil loss, crop growth, and economic margins under different management systems on a sloping field in the Black soil area of Northeast China / S.L. Zhang, X.Y. Zhang, T. Huffman, X.B. Liu, J.Y. Yang. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. № 35(3). P.293-311.
  33. The drainage of rat tunnel tillage / F. Liu, D. Zhao, F. Hong, H. Jia. Soils. 1989. №21(1). P. 35-37 (in Chinese).
  34. Xu Y. and Wang X. Application of rat tunnel tillage on the control of lower wet land. Journal of Agricultural Mechanization Research. 1996. № 2. P. 63-65 (in Chinese).
  35. Soil loss, crop growth, and economic margins under different management systems on a sloping field in the Black soil area of Northeast China / S.L. Zhang, X.Y. Zhang, T. Huffman, X. Liu, J. Yang. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 2011. № 5(3). P.293-
  36. Zhang S.L. Processes of runoff/soil loss and efficacy evaluation as affected by water and soil conservation in Chinese Mollisols. PhD Dissertation, Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. 165 pp. (in Chinese).
  37. Black soil degradation by rainfall erosion in Jilin China / Yang, X. Zhang, W. Deng, H. Fang. Land Degradation & Development. 2003. №14. P.409-420.
  38. Liu J., Zhang C.S. Study on the measures to increase crop yield under terrace. Heilongjiang Science and Technology of Water Conservation. №35(5). P.16 (in Chinese).
  39. Liu X., Yan B. Soil erosion and food security in Northeast China. Chinese Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 2009. № P.17-19 (in Chinese).
  40. A review of soil and water conservation in China / X. Zhang, M. Shao, S. Li, K. Peng. Journal of Geographical Science. 2004. №14(3). P.259-
  41. The rediscovery of intercropping in China: a traditional cropping system for future Chinese agriculture – a review / Heike Knörzer, Simone Graeff-Hönninger, Buqing Guo, Pu Wang, Wilhelm Claupein; In: Lichtfouse E (ed) Climate change, intercropping, pest control and beneficial microorganisms. Springer, Netherlands, 2009. P.13-
  42. Li A discussion on terrace construction in hilly area of Heilongjiang Province. Mountain Research.1983. №1(4). P.86-91 (in Chinese).
  43. Wheat/maize or wheat/soybean strip intercropping I. Yield advantage and interspecific interactions on nutrients / L. Li, J. Sun, F. Zhang, X. Li, S. Yang, Z. Rengel. Field Crops Res. 2001. № P.123-137.
  44. Soil nematode communities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) rhizosphere soil under monoculture and jujube/wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) intercropping systems a case study in Xinjiang arid region, northwest of China / Y. Liu, X. Li, Q. Liu. European Journal Soil Biology. №74. P.52-59.
  45. Xu B., Li , Shan L. Switchgrass and milkvetch intercropping under 2:1 row-replacement in semiarid region, northwest China: Aboveground biomass and water use efficiency. European Journal  Agronomy. 2008. №28. P.485-492.
  46. Sustainable and productive agricultural development in China / D. Wen, Y. Tang, X. Zheng, Y. He. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 1992. №39. 55-70.
  47. How to overcome the slow death of intercropping in the North China Plain / T. Feike, R. Doluschitz, Q. Chen, S. Graeff-Honninger, W. Claupein. Sustainability. №4. P.2550-2565.
  48. Relay strip intercropping of oat with maize, sunflower and mung bean in semi-arid regions of Northeast China: Yield advantages and economic benefits / Xin Qian, Huadong Zang, Heshui Xu, Yuegao Hu, Changzhong Ren, Laichun Guo,Chunlong Wang, Zhaohai Zeng. Field Crops Research. 2018. № P.33-40.
  49. Liu W., He X. Current Situation and Countermeasure of Modern Agriculture Development in Northeast China. Open Access Library Journal. №5(e4922). P.1-12. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104922.
  50. Climate effects on crop yields in the Northeast Farming Region of China during 1961 – 2010 / X.G. Yin, J. E. Olesen, M. Wang, I. Öztürk, F. Chen. Journal of Agricultural Science. 2016. № P.1190-1208.
  51. Wheat and maize relay-planting with straw covering increases water use efficiency up to 46% / W. Yin, A. Yu, Q. Chai, F. Hu, F. Feng, Gan. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 2015. № 35. P.815-825.
  52. Dynamics of soil organic carbon under different agricultural management system in the black soil of China / X. Liu, X. Han, S. Herbert, B. Xing. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2003. № P.973-984.
  53. Using 137 Cs tracer technique to evaluate soil erosion and deposition of a black soil in northeast China / H. Fang, X. Yang, X. Zhang, A. Liang. Journal of Applied Ecology. № 16. P.464-468 (In Chinese).
  54. Long-term continuous cropping of soybean is comparable to crop rotation in mediating microbial abundance, diversity and community composition / Zhuxiu Liu, Junjie Liu, Zhenhua Yu [et al.]. Soil and Tillage Research. 2020. V.197. (in press).
  55. Effects of plastic-film mulching on forage maize in an agro-pastoral ecotone in North China / X. Du, Y. Hu, W. Zhang [et al.]. Proceedings paper. Principles and Practices of Desertification Control. 2007. V.1. P.297-305.
  56. Carbon dioxide fluxes and concentrations in a cotton field in Northwestern China: Effects of plastic mulching and drip irrigation / Z. Li, R. Zhang, X. Wang, J. Wang, C. Zhang & C. Tian. Pedosphere. 2011. №21(2). P. 178-185.
  57. Komarek A., Li L., Bellotti W. Whole-farm economic and risk effects of conservation agriculture in a crop-livestock system in western China. Agri-Cultural Systems. 2015. № P.220-226.
  58. Effects of no-till straw mulch on wheat yields and soil environment in semi-humid dry area / F. Xu, Y. Liang, S. Kang, B. Davies, L. Shan & H. Cai. Water-Saving Agriculture and Sustainable Use of Water and Land Resources, Proceedings. V.1,2. P.282-287.
  59. Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies and losses in the food chain in China at regional scales in 1980 and 2005 / Ma, G. Velthof, F. Wang [et al.]. Science Total Environmental. 2012. №434. P.51-61.
  60. 2010. FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx (accessed 1 June 2011).
  61. 2019. FAOSTAT. http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#data/RFN/visualize (accessed 24 November 2019).
  62. Zhu Z., Chen D. Nitrogen fertilizer use in China: Contributions to food production, impacts on the environment and best management strategies. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosystem. 2002. № 63. P.117-127.
  63. Integrated nutrient management for improving crop yields and nutrient utilization efficiencies in China / M. Fan, Z. Cui, X. Chen, R. Jiang, F. Zhang. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. № 63. P.126A-128A.
  64. Optimizing soil nitrogen supply in the root zone to improve maize management / X. Chen, F. Zhang, Z. Cui, F. Li, J. Soil Science Societyof America Journal. 2010. №74.  P.1367-1373.
  65. Evaluation on the reform effectiveness of fertilizer industry policy in China / W.F. Zhang, L. Gao, J. Ma, W.Q. Ma, X.C. Xu, F.S. Zhang. Phosphate & Compound Fertilizer. 2007. № 22(1). P.5-9 (in Chinese).
  66. Integrated soil-crop system management: Reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China / F. Zhang, Z. Cui, M. Fan, W. Zhang, X. Chen, R. Jiang. Journal of EnvironmentalQuality. № 40. P.1051-1057.
  67. Wang Y. The implementation effect and the optimization strategy of soil testing programs and fertilizer recommendations in the main crops of China / College of Resources and Environmental Sciences; China Agricultural University. 2011.
  68. China’s response to a national land-system sustainability emergency / B. Bryan, L. Gao, Y. Ye [et al.]. 2018. № 559. P.193-204.
  69. NBSa (National Bureau of Statistics of China). Resident Population and Output of Grain Crops. 2019. Retrieved from: http://data.stats.gov.cn/english/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103.
  70. NBSb (National Bureau of Statistics of China). Volume of Effective Component of Nitrogenous, Phosphate and Potash Fertilizers. 2019. Retrieved from: http://data.stats.gov.cn/english/easyquery.htm?cn=E0103.

 

Ю. Кравченко. Внедрение научных основ почвозащитного земледелия и аграрной политики в воспроизводство плодородия черноземов Северо-Восточного Китая

Рассмотрена история становления почвозащитного земледелия в Китае. Освещена аграрная политика правительства Китая по сохранению плодородия черноземов. Исследованы изменения свойств черноземов Китая при: почвозащитной и контурной обработке, щелевании и бороздовании, террасировании, полосном размещении культур, смешанных и промежуточных посевах, севооборотах, мульчировании, удобрении и т.д. Установлена ​​определяющая роль черноземов при производстве сои, риса японского и кукурузы на зерно в Китае.

Ключевые слова: чернозем, почвозащитные технологии, плодородие, аграрная политика.

 

Y. Kravchenko. Implementation of scientific approaches in a soil conservation agriculture and an agrarian policy for north-eastern Chinese chernozems fertility reproduction

The history of a Chinese conservation agriculture formationwas observed. There also was highlighted an agrarian policy of the Chinese government to conserve the chernozem’s fertility. Chinese chernozems properties changes under: conservation and contour tillage, slitting and furrowing, terracing, interrow/mixed and after harvesting cropping, crop rotations, mulching, fertilizing have been studied. The crucial role of Chinese chernozems in the production of soybean, Japanese rice and corn for grain in China has been established in the article.

Keywords: chernozem, soilconservationtechnologies, fertility, agrarian policy.

 

Матеріал розповсюджується за ліцензією Creative Commons Attribution International CC-BY

 

<< повернутися до змісту

kravchenko.pdf