The article shows results of the research carried out on the southern chernozem in the experimental field of the Mykolayiv national agrarian university in 2011-2016. It gives a detailed analysis of the air temperature change, precipitation, relative humidity and their mixed effect on winter wheat productivity for each phase of field crop development, as well as changes in climate fertility and crop efficiency in the modern climate period (2012-2016). The main sample characteristics of the interaction results of wheat varieties are found and the multifactor regression of yield dependence on hydrometeorological factors is formed.
It is determined that favorable weather conditions in 2015 and 2016 during the growing season of winter wheat plants ensured the highest crop yield, regardless of the studied factors. In average for both varieties and feeding options, in 2015 formed 5.53 t/ ha of grain, and in 2016 – 5.59 t / ha, which exceeded their level in 2012, which was the least favorable for the weather. climatic conditions at 2.63 – 2.69 t / ha or 90.7 -92.8%.It is noted that much higher crop yield of winter wheat and less variability depending on weather and climatic conditions provides cultivation of variety Zamozhnist’with the background of mineral fertilizers applying with dosing N 30 P 30 and carrying out extra-root topdressing of crops with Escort-bio fertilizer. Over the research years in this option of experiment the overage crop yield was 4.99 t / ha.
The main sample characteristics of the interaction results of wheat varieties were found to determine the variety esstability of winter wheat in different ways of feeding. The multifactor linear regression was constructed and its correlation analysis was performed to establish the dependence of winter wheat yield on agroclimatic factors.
In all interphase periods of growth and development of plants of the studied varieties of winter wheat, a close connection between grain yield and weather and climatic conditions was revealed. It should be noted that the closest connection was observed in the interphase period “exit of plants into the tube – earing”, and the weakest connection – in the period of “earing – full maturity of the grain”. The coefficient of determination for the studied varieties of winter wheat in the interphase period “plant yield in the tube – earing” varies in the range of 0.997 -0.999 depending on the feeding variant. This indicates that the variation in the yield of winter wheat grain by 99.97 – 99.99% is determined by the variation of weather and climatic conditions.
Keywords: yield, agroclimatic conditions; winter wheat; regression; correlation.
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In the conditions of a high drought of climate of the Nikolaev area and fluctuations of temperature on years the important direction of increase of productivity of arable land is cultivation of drought-resistant cultures and improvement of the technological receptions directed on creation of highly productive agrocenoses.
Industrial-scale cultivation of non-food energy crops for biofuels production is generally recognized as a positive step toward ensive enpreventing energy shortages and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. As part comprehergy plan, its bioenergy industry is vigorously accelerating cellulosic ethanol fuel production and diversifying feedstock supplies to include new crops such as cassava and sweet sorghum. In 2020, ethanol yield reached 4.0 million tons, a 90% increase from 2.1 million tons in 2015, according to the 13th 5-Year Plan for bioenergy
Sorghum is a crop that can withstand high temperatures and prolonged droughts: to consume a one kg of dry matter, it consumes almost 1.5 times less water than corn and 2 times less than cereals. Its value is also due to the versatility of use, the ability to give stable yields, the possibility of growing on unproductive soils.
Energy sorghum, including biomass and sweet type varieties, has recently gained favor as bioethanol feedstock amongst numerous candidate crops. Low input requirements, wide adaptability, and remarkable biological productivity confer better energy balance to sorghum as compared to other competing crops. Using current renewable energy technologies, soluble sugars and structural carbon compounds (cellulose and hemicellulose) in energy sorghum stems and leaves could be the most promising approach for the first and second generation ethanol production.
This article evaluates the energy efficiency of growing sugar and grain sorghum in the context of climate change.
Keywords: energy equivalent, energy efficiency coefficient, energy costs, grain sorghum, sweet sorghum, biofuel, energy efficiency.
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UDC 631.4: 633
The effect of No-till technology on soil density, soil moisture reserves, soil microbiological activity, and crop yields was studied. It was found that the soil density under winter wheat according to No-till technology did not exceed the optimal index of 1.30 g/cm3 and it was 1.14-1.25 g/cm3 for the sowing period and it was 1.18-1.29 g/cm3 for the harvesting period. The moisture content in the soil was significantly higher according to No-till technology and it was amounted to up to 21.3-27.6 mm during the winter wheat sowing period and it was 22.4-27.4 mm during the harvest period, where as with traditional technology this indicator was 16.8-20.2 mm and 17.3-23.9 mm, respectively. The use of No-till technology in the cultivation of winter wheat contributed to an increase in the overall microbiological activity of the soil, the highest rate of decomposition of flax tissue in the soil was observed during the harvest period of 35.1up to 40.7 %, which was by 14.4-16.7% more than in the control period. The average yield of winter wheat using No-till technology for two years was 4.54 t / ha, yield of soybean was 2.24 t / ha, yield of sunflower was 2.71 t / ha. The increase in crop yield up to 14.3-22.9 % by No-till technology allowed us to draw a conclusion about optimizing soil fertility indicators in the climatic conditions of the southern Steppe zone of Ukraine in comparison with traditional intensive technologies. It was shown that the introduction of No-till technology would improve environmental processes in the soil, reduce the anthropogenic load on agroecosystems and the manifestation of erosion processes, increase crop yields and reduce energy costs for their cultivation.
Keywords: soil, No-till technology, soil density, soil moisture, fertility, yield.
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UDC 635.657: 631.6
The aim of this work was to study the duration of growing season, as well as to study the features of formation of productivity of chickpea varieties depending on the seeding method and weather conditions of southern Steppe of Ukraine. The experimental part of the study was conducted in 2008-2010 yrs and in 2017-2019 yrs in the fields of the Mykolaiv region, which were located in the southern Steppe of Ukraine. Soil cover of experimental plot is represented by chernozem southern. Object of research were varieties of chickpeas: Rosanna, Pam’yat`, Triumph, Budzhak. The scheme of the experiment also included methods of seeding such as ordinary (15 cm) and wide-row (45 cm). Seeding rate: for solid crops – 0.6 million for wide-row – 0.4 million pieces of germinating seeds per 1 ha. The chickpea growing technology, with the exception of the elements that were studied, corresponded to the recommended one for the research area. The sown area of the plot of the first order is 75 m2, the accounting area is 50 m2. The frequency is three times, and the placement of sections is randomized. The research used generally accepted methods in crop production.
As a result of experimental studies and production testing of medium-ripened chickpea varieties, it was found that the duration of the growing season of plants and their productivity depended on the seeding methods. The longest growing season – 108–113 days was observed with a wide-row sowing method, and the shortest – with solid sowing crops (101–108 days). Correlation analysis showed a strong positive relationship between the duration of the growing season and the average daily air temperature during the growing season of chickpea (r = 0.89). The highest yield of chickpea varieties was formed in wide-row crops, while the increase in grain yield was 0.11 t/ha or 7.8% compared to solid crops. Precipitation and Sielianinov’s hydrothermal index (r = 0.73 and r = 0.75) had a great influence on the formation of the grain yield of chickpea, and the average daily air temperature (r = 0.80) had an effect on the accumulation of protein in the grain.
Keywords: chickpeas, meteorological conditions, growing season, productivity, variety, seeding method.
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The article considers the peculiarities of the formation of productivity of sunflower of Euralis selection under the conditions of the southern Steppe of Ukraine.
The experiment was based on the southern black soil with the sowing of the following hybrids: Savannah, Niagara, Andromeda and Arcadia.
In eight days after the beginning of mass flowering, the morphological signs of the researched sunflower hybrids were established. It has been determined that stronger stems and larger diameters of the baskets were formed by the hybrid of the Savannah sunflower. The Niagara hybrid in terms of the stem diameter and basket diameter has been 1.12 times and 1.14 times, respectively, smaller than the Savannah hybrid. Hybrids of Andromeda and Arcadia occupied an intermediate value.
It should be noted that in terms of the plant height, the Niagara hybrid also has had the lowest values from all investigated sunflower hybrids by 25 – 36%.
The power of the assimilation apparatus is the main factor in the productivity of photosynthesis, which leads to an increase in quantitative and qualitative harvest indexes. So, in our research, the Savanna and Andromeda sunflower hybrids had the largest photosynthetic surface and by the area of the leaf surface significantly exceeded the Niagara hybrid by 36%.
One of the main structural units of the sunflower yield is the mass of seeds from one basket. On a background subzero intensity of phytomass forming by the Niagara sunflower hybrid, the index of the seed mass from one basket had a tendency to increase compared to the Arcadia and Savannah hybrids. But on quality indexes (weight of 1000 seeds and the grain-unit) the yield of this hybrid was formed less weighty. So, the index of mass of 1000 seeds of the Niagara hybrid was significantly lower than other hybrids by 28 – 61%. The Andromeda sunflower hybrid had the best values of the mass index of 1000 seeds from all the investigated hybrids. The mass of 1000 seeds of this hybrid was 68.3 g. The best value by the index of grain-unit was the Arcadia hybrid is 420.2 g / l.
At the density of standing of 48,000 plants / ha, the Andromeda sunflower hybrid had the highest yield (up to 0.27 t / ha).
For sunflower seeds of all investigated hybrids during realization of comparative estimation of research results, a ranked row has been established, which characterizes their best suitability for cultivation in the zone of the southern steppe of Ukraine. The Andromeda sunflower hybrid of the first rank =3.08 became optimal for growing in the zone of the southern steppe of Ukraine. The second rank is the Arcadia hybrid, which has been confirmed by the value of the objective function =3.83. The Savannah hybrid has had the third rank =3.99. The Niagara sunflower hybrid has shown the worst indexes over the years of research – fourth place with the value of =6.56.
Thus, taking into account the agrometeorological conditions of sunflower cultivation in the zone of the southern steppe of Ukraine, the genetic potential of hybrids and stability to adverse environmental factors, the Andromeda sunflower has become most adapted to the conditions of insufficient moisture and has provided better productivity and has formed the high seed quality.
Keywords: sunflower, hybrid, biological yield, quality, ranked range.
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UDC 636.3.082 / 57.087.01
The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of some important factors affecting the birth and weaning weight variability in lambs. The study was carried out on the basis of the Institute of Animal Husbandry of Steppe Regions named by M. F. Ivanov “Askania-Nova” – the National Scientific Agricultural Center in Sheep Breeding of NAAS.
The object of the study was the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on the birth and weaning weight of lambs. Data from 2603 ewes was included in the analysis, where 3961 lambs were obtained during the five years of the research.
The reproductive qualities of the Ascanian fine-fleece ewes (AC) were evaluated by their matching with the sires of the following genotypes which are the Ascanian fine-fleece, the Australian merino (AM) and the half-bred rams (1/2AC + 1/2AM). The influence of the year of lambing, the age of ewes, the litter size, the sex of lambs on weight of lambs at birth and weaning was also studied. Data was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the GLM procedure of Minitab Release 13.1.
The significant effect on the weight of lambs at birth and weaning was established for all factors which were used in the analysis. The significant influence of the ram genotype on the birth weight of lambs was not established.
The population means (µ) were 4.047 ± 0.035 and 26.83 ± 0.38 kg for birth and weaning weight of lambs, respectively. In general, the periods of increase or decrease coincided for the birth/weaning weight of lambs. The birth weight of lambs did not depend on the genotype of the ram. According to the weaning weight of lambs the ewes, which were mated with the AM rams, gave birth to lambs, which were inferior to the population mean by 0.78 kg.
The birth weight of lambs was significantly higher than the population mean among eight years old ewes (101 g), while the youngest ewes, by the contrast, gave birth to lambs which were significantly lower than the population mean (by 155 g). As for the weaning weight of lambs, middle-aged ewes (5-6 years old) gave birth to lambs which significantly exceeded the population mean by 0.85-1.06 kg.
The weight of singles was significantly higher than the population mean at birth (561 g) and at weaning (1.89 kg). The weaning weight was significantly lower by 0.71 kg for ewes lambing twins. The ram lambs significantly exceeded the ewe lambs by 74 g at birth and by 0.66 kg at weaning.
Only for a ram № 519 it is possible to state high prepotency according to the potential of increasing the weight of lambs both at birth and at weaning. In total, for 20 sires, a significantly relationship between their LS-estimates of birth and weaning weight of lambs was not established (r = 0.293; n = 20; p = 0.209).
Keywords: birth and weaning weight of lambs; ram genotype; year of lambing; age of ewes; litter size (type of birth); sex of a lamb; the Ascanian fine-fleece breed.
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Productive and breeding qualities of animals are determined by their exterior-constitutional type. Only well-developed, healthy animals are capable of high performance and long-term use. In the breeding practice of dairy cattle breeding, considerable attention is paid to the assessment and selection of animals according to the external forms and proportions of the physique. After all, the structure of the animal’s body first of all makes it possible to have an idea of the expression of pedigree traits and the level of milk productivity, the state of health of the animal.
It has been established that crossbreeding of domestic breeds with bulls of Holstein, Red Danish and other breeds and an increase in conditional blood level for these breeds improves the exterior of cows towards a greater expression of the milky type of body structure, increases individual height and latitude measurements, body indices, total animal size, development, proportionality, strength.
In order to objectively characterize the constitution of animals in cattle, it is necessary, first of all, to have quantitative indicators of its assessment, what are the measurements of the exterior, the type of structure of the animal’s body. Therefore, most research scientists note that the exterior of cows is largely determined by genetic factors: belonging to the breed, type, line, family, origin with the father and is formed in the process of ontogenetic development under the influence of environmental factors. And the exterior parameters of cows should be taken into account, first of all, in the formation of the pedigree core, the group of cows for the reproduction of bulls, the selection of cows for milking.
A number of foreign scientists have proved that the dairy industry is faced with the unique task of constantly improving the functionality of dairy cows to meet the needs of future production and reproduction. The basis of the heritage is the selection of the best animals according to the indicators of the exterior and structure of the animal’s body. As a rule, constitutional features are important in improving dairy cattle. Functional signs that influence or contribute to longevity and high productivity of dairy cows are the good development of the udder, the degree of development and the correct setting of the limbs, measurements of the chest and abdominal parts of the body, croup and lower back. The relationship between these breeding traits with indicators of milk production and reproduction may be different for different breeds. And it may matter for the use of these traits in various dairy cattle breeding programs.
Taking into account the above results of research by various authors, the aim of our research was to study the influence of individual genetic factors, namely, conditional blood count according to Angler and Red Danish breeds, on the exterior of red steppe calf heifers at different age periods.
Given the importance of the type of body structure of animals, both from the side of selection and technological purpose, we carried out a comparative analysis of the main linear measurements of the physique of cattle of the red steppe breed and their crosses with 1/4 of the blood level according to Angler and red Danish cattle. Thus, studies of the exterior of heifers of different pedigree combinations confirm that an increase in conditional blood count by the Red Danish and Angler breeds helps to improve the indicators of the exterior of the heifers towards a greater expression of the milky type of body structure, increase individual height and latitude measurements, the overall size and proportionality of the body structure of animals. And the obtained results give grounds to assert that local heifers with 1/4 blood level in red Danish cattle significantly differ in the degree of development of linear measurements of the body structure from peers of the purebred and local group 3 / 4ES × 1/4 Ang.
Key words: exterior, body measurements, productive longevity, Angler breed, Danish red breed, conditional blood.
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UDC 539. 3
Modern problems of dynamic fracture mechanics, improvement of means of non-destructive testing and flaw detection require further development and improvement of methods for solving problems of dynamic interaction of thin-walled inclusions with the environment. An important case of inclusions is a circular (disc-shaped) inclusion. This is primarily due to the fact that thin disc-shaped reinforcements are quite common in machine parts and building structures. Thin inclusions are not only stress concentrators, but are also used as fillers in composites. When creating composite materials, the matrix is often filled with coin-like reinforcing elements of high rigidity. Therefore, it is inclusions of this shape that have always been given a lot of attention, which requires the solution of problems on the stress-strain state of bodies with inhomogeneities such as thin inclusions.
Methodology. The solution method is based on the representation of displacements in the matrix through discontinuous solutions of the Lamé equations for harmonic vibrations. This made it possible to reduce the problem to Fredholm integral equations of the second kind with respect to functions associated with jumps of normal stress and radial displacement to included ones. After the realization of the boundary conditions on the sides of the inclusion, a system of singular integral equations is obtained to determine these jumps.
Results. In the case of real materials, taking into account the elasticity of the inclusions significantly affects the value of the stress intensity factors. The values of the stress intensity factors obtained taking into account the elasticity for some materials may exceed, and for some be much smaller than those corresponding to the absolutely rigid inclusion. Taking into account the stiffness of the inclusion also significantly changes the dependence of the voltage intensity coefficients on the wave number. It becomes more complex with many highs and lows. Moreover, the maximum values of voltage intensity factors can be several times higher than the corresponding values for absolutely rigid inclusions.
Originality. Determination of problems about harmonious communication of non-interconnected body with disk-like inclusions in the minds of smooth contact. Previously, such a task was tied for an absolutely hard inclusionю.
Practical value. The data obtained can be used in the calculations of machine parts and structures in which it is necessary to take into account elastic inclusions.
Key words: elastic inclusions, cylindrical waves, matrix, stress intensity factor
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The aim of the study – determining the influence of weather conditions on the formation of the harvest of alfalfa varieties on hay under conditions of natural moisture in the southern steppe of Ukraine to identify the most drought-adapted varieties valuable high-protein grass.
Research results. It is established that alfalfa plants of the second year of life (and use) provide higher productivity compared to the first and third and fourth years of life. On average for four years of use (2015-2018), the highest yield of hay in arid conditions on the southern chernozems is provided by varieties of alfalfa Vavilovka 2 (increase of 0.33 t / ha or 11.7% to the standard variety Nadezhda, accepted for control , the yield of which was 2.83 t / ha). Also noteworthy are the varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba (yield increase of 10.2, 9.3 and 8.6%, respectively, compared to the control). These varieties use the resource potential of moisture more efficiently compared to the control variety.Slightly higher against control plants is the productivity of alfalfa varieties Regina, Unitro, Laska, for the cultivation of which the increase in hay yield was 6.3, 5.7, 5.5% to control. In the first year of life (and use) at 1ºC effective air temperatures above + 5ºC formed leaf-stem mass for hay, on average by varieties, 1.76 kg, and in the second, third, fourth years of life-3.96, 3.52, 3.46 kg, respectively. On average, over four years of use, at 1ºC of effective air temperatures, the most hay of the Vavilovka 2 variety was harvested – 3.32 kg, which is 0.37 kg, or 12.5% more than in the control (2.95 kg). In the varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba this indicator increased by 10.8, 10.0 and 9.1%, respectively. In the first year of life (and use) on 1 mm of precipitation and productive moisture of 0-100 cm of a layer of soil the leaf-stem weight for preparation of 7,41 kg of hay on the average on grades is formed, and in the second, third, fourth years-18.64, 14.59, 13.99 kg / 1 mm of water, respectively. 1 mm of available precipitation moisture was collected and most of the hay of the Vavilovka 2 variety was collected from the soil – 14.29 kg, which is 1.58 kg or 12.4% more than in the control (12.71 kg / 1 mm of moisture). In the varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba, this figure increased by 10.6, 9.7 and 8.8%, respectively.
Conclusions. Productivity of alfalfa plants significantly depends on weather conditions of a year, a grade, life expectancy. On average for four years of life and use, the highest yield of hay was provided by the alfalfa variety Vavilovka 2 (increase of 0.33 t / ha or 11.7% to the standard variety Nadezhda, the yield of which was 2.83 t / ha). Higher productivity against control is formed by varieties Nasoloda, Veselka and Lyuba (yield increase by 10.2, 9.3 and 8.6%, respectively).
Keywords: alfalfa, variety, weather conditions, hay, productivity.
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