Issue 1 (105), 2020
Issue 4 (104), 2019
Baczurovskaya I. Technology of application of mass open online courses in preparation of masters of agricultural engineering
The article presents the analysis of technological features of the use of mass open online courses in educational and scientific training of masters of agricultural engineering. The principles of educational and scientific training of masters of agricultural engineering in the system of mass open online education are given. The features of the use of mass open online courses in educational and scientific training of masters of agricultural engineering are determined. Optimal use of mass open distance courses in educational and scientific training of masters requires as many active participants as possible. The roles of the teacher and the undergraduate in these courses are almost erased. The teacher should rather act as a supervisor or facilitator. Working in a mass open distance course requires motivation and self-control by undergraduates. There is an abundance of educational and scientific information in 44mass open online courses. In the educational and scientific training of masters, mass open online courses should be used within the curriculum, and their use during university studies increases the likelihood of its completion. Deadline mass open online courses must be completed no later than the relevant semester. They provide an opportunity for educational and scientific testing of the theoretical knowledge obtained. For each report or article prepared on the basis of the results of the mass open online courses, the undergraduate may take a review from the university professors who are researching the relevant scientific field. Discussing one’s own research at conferences and seminars shapes the future master’s personal views, corrects erroneous assumptions, and directs additional research.
Keywords: masters of agricultural engineering, mass open online courses.
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Aliev E., Dudin V., Gavrilchenko A., Ivlev V. Modeling of the separation process for bulk material according to its physical and mechanical properties
Purpose. Conduct numerical modeling of the process of bulk material separation under the action of air flow, vibrating sieve and solid vibrating surface in order to develop appropriate physical and mathematical models and to develop the proposed research methods.
Methods. The bulk material separation process was investigated in three stages of modeling in the STAR-CCM + software package by finite element method based on k-ɛ split-flow turbulence model, Van der Waals real-gas model, discrete element model and multiphase interaction model. The first step was to simulate the process of bulk material moving under the action of airflow. Separation of bulk material on a small-sized cyclone-type aerodynamic separator was investigated. Also, for the implementation of the first stage of numerical modeling, a computational diagram of the process of the falling particles moving under the action of air flow was compiled. The second stage was aimed at modeling the process of moving the bulk material under the action of a vibrating sieve. The task of the third stage of modeling was to determine the particle distribution function of the bulk material by fractions under the action of a vibrating surface.
Results. The numerical simulation of the bulk material separation process on a cyclone-type small-scale aerodynamic separator resulted in the mass distribution of components by volume mass at the outputs of heavy and light components on the effective particle diameter and air velocity. As a result of numerical simulation of the mechanical and technological process of the bulk material moving under the action of air flow, the dependences of the distribution of each fraction of particles of the bulk material along the length of the region (fill factor, distribution coefficient) on the effective particle diameter, air flow rate and flow of bulk material were obtained. As a result of numerical simulation of the process of the bulk material moving under the action of the vibrating sieve, the dependence of the change of the total concentration and productivity on the bulk material flow, the angle of the sieve, the frequency of oscillations of the sieve and the amplitude of oscillations of the sieve are obtained. As a result of numerical simulation of the process of the bulk material moving under the action of the vibrating surface, the dependences of the change of the filling factor, the distribution coefficient and the productivity on the bulk material flow, the angles of inclination of the vibrating surface, the oscillation frequency, the amplitude of oscillations and the airflow velocity are obtained.
Scientific novelty. The general coefficients of technological process quality in separation of bulk material (coefficients of filling and distribution and total concentration of seeds) are offered. The article obtains the mathematical models of the technological process of precision separation of the bulk material by its aerodynamic properties, geometric dimensions, bulk mass, which describe the change of the proposed quality coefficients depending on the regime parameters.
Practical importance. The obtained dependencies can be used in the designing of automated control systems of the constructive and mode parameters of bulk materials separators.
Keywords: bulk material, separation, modeling, aerodynamic properties, geometric dimensions, bulk weight.
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Dvoryk V., Borak K., Dobranskiy S., Gerasumchyk D. Effect of preliminary corrosion on the steel fretting intensity
UDC 620.178.16: 620.193
Corrosion destroys and qualitatively changes the surface of machine parts, leading to a decrease in the wear resistance and durability of machines. That is why the search for modern methods and techniques, allowing to minimize atmospheric corrosion of the working attachments and parts of soil-cultivating machines, is an undeniably urgent task.
In the result of the preliminary atmospheric corrosion, the fretting intensity of steels significantly increases, e.g. for steels without a protective anticorrosion coating it increases by a factor of 2.88 … 4.15, after applying a protective anticorrosion coating it increases by a factor of 1.59 … 2.73. It is necessary to particularly single out the sample after abrasive fretting, where the fretting intensity has increased by a factor of 4 … 5.26. As a result of studies, it was found that the fretting intensity is directly dependent on the intensity of the corrosion processes. In turn, the corrosion rate depends on the storage method, soil and climatic zone of the storage, the presence of anti-corrosion coating and the material which was subject to atmospheric corrosion.
Corrosion processes occur most intensively when stored in the Polissia soil and climatic zone, and least intensively upon storage in the Steppe zone. The wear intensity increases most while storing in the open site with a soil floor and grass floor, the least when stored in the closed heated premise with a concrete floor and in the closed unheated premise with a concrete floor.
The height at which samples were stored also significantly affects the magnitude of the fretting intensity growth. Thus, the fretting intensity increases the most while storing on the surface, and the least while storing at a height of 500 mm from the storage surface.
A significant change in the fretting intensity after atmospheric corrosion is observed only until the corrosion products are removed from the steel surface, during further wear the fretting intensity decreases and equals to the fretting intensity before the storage started.
To increase the wear resistance of the working attachments of soil-cultivating and sowing machines (taking into account the economic feasibility) during the off-season period, machines should be stored on special supports (with the height not less than 500 mm) in closed unheated premises and under outdoor shed with a concrete floor with a protective anticorrosive coating applied to the working attachments. Shell Ensis Oil N has proved to be the best among protective coatings, but given its market value, it is not economically feasible and can be replaced with cheaper materials.
Keywords: fretting intensity, storage, atmospheric corrosion, steel.
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Linnik M., Volsky V., Kotsiubynsky R. System approach to the substantiation of the technological scheme and structure of a combined machine for cultivating corn stubble
The study is aimed at improving the quality and reducing energy costs in the technological operations of grinding and planting plant residues based on the rational technological scheme of a combined machine for processing corn stubble. It is noted that climate change is an urgent issue of the maximum accumulation of precipitation during the year and the rational use of moisture in the warm period. This can be achieved by the wide spread introduction of basic tillage systems that every year do not overturn the arable layer (flat, chisel, surface, zero, dashed) and make it possible to partially preserve and accumulate much on the soil surface, reduce the speed of the surface air layer and contribute to better conservation moisture accumulated during the autumn-winter period. It is noted that the disclosure of the essence of the technological process of grinding and making cornstubble is associated with the specification of the parameters of the conditions of the initial state of the soil with plant residues (corn stubble) by determining the technological structure of the machine, the relationships and interactions of the working bodies; the establishment of technological modes of operation of the machine; a study of the influence of all these factors on the result of her work. The technological process is schematically presented on the basis of the “input-output”. The role of input variables is played by external factors of circumstances (working conditions) and control (regulations of technological modes), some of which change over time. The technological structure of the combined machine for processing corn stubble is reflected in many separate working bodies, combined in a module with a specific sequence of their layout. The simulation of a combined machine for processing corn stubble, performing a technological process, grinding and earning is presented as a function. The task of the analysis – predicting the output of qualitatively energy indicators for certain working conditions and certain parameters of a combined machine for processing corn stubble, solves the problems of using specific machines in real conditions. It is noted that the task of synthesizing a combined machine for processing corn stubble in full is theoretically difficult to solve due to the uncertainty of the relationships between different types of working bodies, modes and conditions of their operation. Factors of the technological process of grinding and earning plant materials and their mutual influence are characterized by the established mathematical dependence, which allows the use of modeling to analyze the structure of a combined machine for processing corn stubble at the design stage. Based on a systematic approach, the technological scheme and structure of a combined machine for processing corn stubble are substantiated.
Keywords: combined machine, technological scheme of the machine, structure of the machine, technological process, tillage, grinding and incorporation of plant residues.
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Kaletnyk G. M. Prospects for increasing energy autonomy of the agriculture in accordance with the energy strategy of Ukraine
Global energy price trends require commodity producers, including agribusinesses, to change their approach to energy policy making, which is to move from an outdated model of dominant use of traditional fuel resources and power sources to a new model of electricity supply, which provides electricity thus increasing their level of energy autonomy. In addition, within the framework approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine “Energy Strategy of Ukraine for the Period up to 2035”, it is envisaged a steady expansion of the use of all types of renewable energy with a forecast growth of its share in 2025 to 12% of the total primary energy supply and at least 25% – the signing of the Association Agreement with the EU requires the fulfillment of the requirements of Directive 2001/80 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control and Directive 2010/75 / EC of the European Parliament and the Industrial Emissions Council (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control). According to these regulations, the share of energy produced from renewable sources in the overall structure of the country’s energy consumption should reach 11% by 2020, with wind and solar energy accounting for at least 32% in gross electricity from renewable sources.
The article considers the advantages, problems and prospects of using wind and solar energy technologies at the enterprises of the agro-industrial complex of Ukraine. Based on the experience of the highly developed countries of the world on the development of alternative energy sources, the ecological and economic feasibility of creating an autonomous system of electricity generation based on stochastic energy of the sun and wind has been proved. It also substantiates the technical and technological possibilities of creating such a “flexible” autonomous power supply network.
Keywords: wind energy, solar energy, energy storage system, autonomous system, electricity consumption schedule.
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Mykhalko О., Povod M. Annual dynamics of dependence of sows productivity on design features of farrowing equipment in an industrial complex during the year
The article examined the productive qualities of sows and the growth rate of suckling piglets in farrowing machines with different design features.The design features of the sows’ maternity farrowing equipment did not affect the number and weight of piglets during birth and the individual weight of piglets during weaning parturition. They tended to improve the conservation of piglets before weaning and they tended to raise increasing the weight of the piglets’ nests during this period.The growth rate of piglets was higher in farrowing equipment of both constructions in winter and transition periods and it decreased significantly in summer.This tendency is more pronounced in «La-TEK» farrowing equipment compared to Terra Exim-Agroimpex analogues. The index of complex evaluation of reproductive qualities of sows kept during farrowing and lactation in farrowing equipment with limiting arcs and adjustable length was 6,77% higher than the index of complex evaluation of analogues found at the time in farrowing equipment without limiting arcs and with fixed length.The multiplicity of sows in both types of farrowing equipment was higher in winter and spring compared to summer and autumn. The design of the farrowing equipment had a greater influence on the tendency of the piglets to change when they were weaned. A similar dependence was in the safety of piglets. The weight of the piglets’ nests when they were weaned in farrowing equipment with adjustable length and bounding arcs was consistently higher compared with farrowing equipment without limiting arcs and unregulated length throughout the all study period. The mass of piglets’ nests has become the minimum in summer and the maximum in spring. The average weight of one weaner during weaning decreased in both types of farrowing equipment in the summer and increased at other times of the year. Fluctuations in the average mass of one pig during weaning were significantly smaller in the «La-TEK» farrowing equipment compared to the counterparts held in the Terra Exim-Agroimpex farrowing equipment. These fluctuations were much smaller in the «La-TEK» farrowing equipment compared to the Terra Exim-Agroimpex counterparts. The number of weaned piglets depended more on the seasons compared to the design features of the farrowing equipment. The safety of piglets before weaning, the weight of one head during weaning and the weight of the piglets’ nest during weaning, depended both on the time of year and on the design features of the farrowing equipment for farrowing and lactation of the sow.
Keywords: sow, piglet, farrowing machine, multiple pregnancy, weight of the nest of piglets, safety, growth.
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Gritsienko Yu., Gill M., Kosenko M. Polymorphism of the genetic-biochemical systems of moder nukrainian breedsof milke dlivestock productivity
In the same natural and economic conditions of the southern region, each of the relatively young breeds of domestic breeding: Ukrainian red dairy, Ukrainian black -motley diary , Ukrainian red-motley diary implements and exhibits its productive characteristics in different ways. One of the main economically useful features of dairy cattle is their milk productivity, the formation of which is caused by a large number of genetic loci.Protein polymorphism is very useful for studying and controlling the genetic differentiation of groups of animals in relation to their reproduction in different ecological and geographical conditions.The high productivity of dairy cows is conditioned and inextricably linked to the intense flow ofmetabolism in organs and systems and the functional activity of these organs.Therefore, it became necessary to study the genetic and biochemical features that, in the aggregate, determine the productive characteristics of the breeds with a view to further improve theimplementation of the results obtained in breeding. The group of genetic-biochemicalsystems under study included transport proteins: hemoglobin (HB), ceruloplasmin (CP), transferrin(Tf), posttransferrin (pTf), amylase (Am-1), and vitamin D (calcitriol) receptor(GС).The experiments were performed on red blood cells and blood plasma. The polymorphism of proteins and enzymes was evaluated using the method of electrophoretic separation of proteins in13% starch gel in horizontal chambers with subsequent histochemicalstaining.
Keywords: allele, genetic structure, genetic markers, genetically determined trait, amylase,hemoglobin, transferrin, posttransferrin, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D. receptor.
Ключевое название (Key title):
Vìsnik agrarnoï nauki Pričornomor'â (Online)
Сокращенное ключевое название (Abbreviated key title):
Vìsn. agrar. nauki Pričornomor'â (Online)
Параллельное название (Parallel title):
Ukrainian Black Sea region agrarian science